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Open access

Ade Kartikasari Sebba, Baning Rahayujati and Isa Dharmawidjaja

Abstract

Pneumonia is one of the deadliest diseases for children under five years-old throughout the world. In Indonesia, pneumonia is the second deadliest disease after diarrhea. In 2015-2016, the Coverage of pneumonia case detection on children under five years-old increased from 22.33% to 36.06% but it had not achieved the detection target (>85%). A program evaluation needs to conduct, consequently. The evaluation aims to observe the implementation of pneumonia investigation program on children under five years-old in Sleman in 2016. The evaluation used a descriptive design performed in June-July 2017. The research subject was the program of Upper Respiratory Infection (ISPA, Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut) implemented in community health centers (puskesmas, pusat kesehatan masyarakat). Twenty respondents as the sample were chosen by using the purposive sampling technique. The surveillance evaluation employed the input, activities, and output. The instruments were structural questionnaires and checklist sheets. The analysis result was presented in forms of tabulation and narration. From the input facet, 100% respondents have not had any special trainings related to pneumonia. 55% respondents have interlocking jobs with the longest service time of three years or more (75%). 70% respondents are able to show ARI Soundtimer. There are only 10% respondents holding the media of communication, information, and education (KIE, Komunikasi, Informasi, dan Edukasi) in forms of flipchart and leaflet; while 100% respondents admit that they have no stamp seal of URI. The proses facet displays that 100% respondents do not arrange any plan. The case investigation is only passive (100%). 80% respondents do socialization of case management and only 15% respondents perform a home visit. 100% respondents have not held trainings for responsible people, alert villages, and private midwives. From the output facet, the scope of case investigation is still low (36.06%).The implementation of pneumonia case investigation program on children under five years-old has been well executed but there are still weaknesses. Hence, public health offices (dinas kesehatan) should improve their human resources by arranging a training program, equalize the use of breath counting tool and make MoU with all health services to report pneumonia cases. Community health centers are recommended to arrange plans, actively attempt to discover pneumonia cases, and train the responsible people, centers for pre-and postnatal health care (posyandu, pos pelayanan terpadu), or midwives related to the subject of pneumonia.

Open access

Edyta Chwiejczak and Urszula Kosikowska

Abstract

A most common infection is that the upper respiratory tract. The human body is inhabited by millions of microorganisms, most of which enable the proper functioning of some systems and constitute a barrier protecting against harmful external factors. Due to the continuous contact of the upper airway microbiota with the external environment, it may seem to be extremely unstable and very diverse. A number of studies have been conducted that have assessed the effect of various factors on the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiota. This paper presents a literature analysis which showed that the anatomical area is rich in terms of the microbiota that forms it, and despite the constant changes in many parameters, including physical – very stable.

Open access

Shuaishuai Huang, Pinger Cui, Shuangxia Lin, Xuping Yao, Xue Wang, Yu Ren and Guobin Weng

Abstract

Our previous reports showed that the cyclic-AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) served as a proto-oncogene in the process of tumorigenesis and mediated the growth and metastatic activity of renal cancer cells. Our study, therefore, explored the role of CREB in sorafenib- -inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Renal cancer cells were cultured in medium containing sorafenib for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The MTT assay was used to study the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib. Cell invasion and migration were assayed in wound healing and transwell experiments, respectively. Protein expression levels were evaluated by western blotting. The results show that sorafenib treatment decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sorafenib inhibited cell migration and invasion and decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, addition of the recombinant plasmid pCI-neo/ CREB (PN) reversed the sorafenib-induced inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These results show that CREB is associated with the sorafenib-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion.

Open access

Naureen Shehzadi, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Islam, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Muhammad Salman, Sabahat Zahra Siddiqui, Aziz-Ur Rehman and Muhammad Athar Abbasi

Abstract

The study describes the development and preliminary validation of a simple reverse-phase chromatographic method for determination of a novel drug candidate, 5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (OXCPM), in bulk and stressed solution, in order to find out the intrinsic stability behavior of the compound. Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 through a Promosil C18 column maintained at 25 °C, using the mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and aqueous o-H3PO4 (pH 2.67) (1:1, V/V). Detection was performed at 258 nm. The response of the detector was linear in a concentration range of 1.25-50.00 μg mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9996 ± 0.0001. Cumulative intra-day, inter-day and inter-instrument accuracy (99.5 ± 1.0, 100.2 ± 1.0 and 100.3 ± 0.4 %, resp.) with RSD less than 5 % indicated that the method was accurate and precise. The resolution and selectivity factor (>2 and >1, resp.), particularly in copper metal- and dry-heat-stress solutions, depicted the selectivity of the method. OXCPM remained stable under hydrolytic (acidic and neutral pH, ≤ 37 °C), photolytic and moist heat stress conditions. Under alkaline conditions (hydrolytic and photolytic), polar products were formed that eluted very fast through the column (tR < 3.75 min). At room temperature, the compound was susceptible to oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and transition metals. The ionogram of most of the stress solutions indicated the presence of a product having m/z 256, which might be a result of N- or Smethylation or -SH oxidation. The results of the study indicate that the method is selective, sensitive and suitable to be used for determination of OXCPM in bulk and under stress conditions.

Open access

Min Han, Qin Yu, Xuerong Liu, Fuqiang Hu and Hong Yuan

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to investigate a novel aqueous dispersion (Eudragit® L100-55) f or e nteric c oating o f drugs. Three different casting solutions, Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersion, Eudragit® L 100-55 o rganic s olution, and Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion, were used to prepare free films by the casting method. Drug-loaded pellets, prepared by the extrusion-spheronization method, were coated with one of these three coating solutions using the fluidized-bed spray coating technology. Properties of the free films were thoroughly investigated. Films formed by Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersions showed similar properties to those formed by Eudragit® L100-55 organic solution regarding thermodynamic properties, moisture permeability, solubility and acid tolerance ability. Furthermore, the performance of the novel film was better than that formed by Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion. Among the three enteric coating solutions, Eudragit® L100- 55 aqueous dispersion will be a promising aqueous dispersion for enteric coating and can be used in the development of enteric-coated preparations.

Open access

Mariia Shanaida, Olena Golembiovska, Nataliia Hudz and Piotr P. Wieczorek

Abstract

The present investigation was to estimate the total phenolic content and composition of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in herbal infusions obtained from aerial parts of three Lamiaceae species (Dracocephalum moldavica, Ocimum americanum and Satureja hortensis). The total phenolic content of herbal infusions was determined using a spectrophotometric method, whereas the individual phenolics were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was developed and validated. The total phenolic content was measured by applying the Folin-Ciocalteu method with reference to gallic acid. Results were in the range from 29.39 to 65.38 mg estimated as gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry herb. The phenolic profile was, in turn, analysed by HPLC and consisted of gallic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, and rosmarinic) and flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin, apigenin, apigenin-7-glucoside and catechin) in different concentrations. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant component among the hydroxycinnamic acids in herbal infusions of all three plants. This was found to be in the range of 3.64 to 5.28 mg per gram of dry herb. Apigenin-7-glucoside, quercitrin and hyperoside were the prevailing flavonoid components of the infusions.

Open access

Eva Kralova, Eva Racanska, Anna Vicenova, Iveta Boselova, Ivan Malik and Tatiana Stankovicova

Abstract

Four phenylcarbamic acid derivatives, (1-(4-fluorophenyl)- 4-[3-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride (1), (1-(2-methylphenyl)-4-[3-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)- 2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride) (2), (1-(2-methylphenyl)-4-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)- 2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride) (3) and (1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-[3-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)- 2-hydroxypropyl]piperazinium chloride) (4) were investigated for their ability to affect various cardiovascular functions and to establish their chemical structure-biological activity relationship. The compounds were evaluated for their antiarrhythmic efficacy using ouabain-induced rhythm disturbances and the ability to inhibit the positive chronotropic effect of isoproterenol in isolated atria of Wistar rats. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in isolated hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) perfused according to the Langendorff method and ability to decrease phenylephrine- -induced contraction of the aortic strips after repeated administration of the compounds were also analyzed. Only compound 3 delayed significantly the evaluated parameter of arrhythmogenicity and was able to antagonize the isoproterenol- induced positive chronotropic effect in normotensive rats’ atria. Similarly, in SHR rats, only compound 3 was able to decrease heart frequency significantly without influencing the duration of QT (time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave) and QTc (frequency corrected QT) intervals. The evaluated endothelial function was improved after administration of compound 2. Fluorine-containing structures (1 and 4) were less effective compared to 2´-methylphenylpiperazine derivatives (2 and 3). The latter two compounds showed suitable efficacy, which supported their use for futher pharmacological research.

Open access

Daria Bednarek-Hatlinska, Anna Prymas, Marta Mrall-Wechta and Anna Surdacka

Abstract

Dentistry, is one of the intensively and rapidly growing branches of medicine. This prompts dentists to take an interdisciplinary approach to their patients. Thus, the dentist, being a general practitioner, can make significant contributions to the early diagnosis of systemic disease and the faster implementation of appropriate treatment. In view of the aforementioned, we undertook research on the relationship of pathological changes observed in the oral cavity with diseases of the connective tissue system. Collagenosis is a chronic autoimmune disease initiated by many factors, among which the genetic factor and viral infections are mentioned. The changes observed in the oral cavity may be a picture of the disease, a complication of the disease or a side effect of the treatment. The aim of the study is, thus, too present the pathological changes in the oral cavity which often accompany collagenosis, and to discuss the risk factors of connective tissue system diseases and methods of dental treatment.

Open access

Emin Cadar, Emilia Mihaela Cadar, Cristina-Luiza Erimia and Aneta Tomescu

Abstract

Seaweed is a natural treasure that can be intensely evaluated for therapeutic purposes. During the past years, it became obvious that the ecosystem presents a marine algae excedent, which should be utilized in one way or another. Marine algae have been intensely studied. The superior exploitation of the marine biomass represents a highly important resource for the pharmaceutical industry, supplying raw material for the extraction of bioactive substances (vitamins, sterols, and aminoacids) and various other substances, the purity of which is strongly connected to the state of the marine ecosystem. In present work the extracts from marine algae are incorporated in type I non-denatured fibrillar collagen matrixes for obtain new pharmaceutical product. In order to obtain therapeutic effects at nanostructure level, it is important to know the rheological characteristics of the relevant mixtures of collagen gels and extracts from marine algae selected for use. In this survey we have studied mixtures made of non-denatured fibrillar collagen hydro-gels where different concentrations of marine algae have been incorporated.

Open access

Amira Benahmed, Boualem Harfi, Ibtissem Benbelkacem, Abla Daas, Hocine Laouer and Abdelmalik Belkhiri

Abstract

Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds is an aromatic plant used for its medicinal values. This study aims to select appropriate conditions for in vitro propagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds and to evaluate yield and antioxidants activity of its essential oils (EOs).

The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Gibberellin (GA3).

Hydrodistillated EOs obtained from acclimatized and mother plant, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. Tests were performed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays.

Shoot induction and multiplication were successfully carried out on MS medium supplemented with the following hormones combinations: 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l GA3 and 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l GA3, respectively. Stem length, nodes and leaves number measured from development vitroplant were 6.89 cm, 5.22 nodes and 11.92 leaves per vitroplant, respectively.

In vitro rooted plants were successfully acclimatized at a temperature of 23 ± 2°C and a long day photoperiod with a total survival rate exceeding 95%.

EO yield of acclimated plant varied between (0.88-1.49 ml/100 g dry matter) compared to wild plant (0.73 ml/100 g dry matter). The antioxidant potential of EOs from acclimated plant showed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays values of (IC50: 4.18-24.93 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.51-1.56 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.34-2.71 mg/ml), respectively. In contrast, the wild plant exhibited on the same tests the values of (IC50: 10.35 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.12 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.99 mg/ml), respectively.

The results suggest that micropropagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds can be an interesting alternative for producing important plant material with the possibility to modulate EO yield and its antioxidant potential for future commercial purposes.