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Enhancement of Faraday rotation in defect modes of one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals

Abstract

In this paper, employing of one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals in infrared wavelengths range is considered. For this purpose, magnetophotonic multilayer structures, composed of magnetic defect layer surrounded by dielectric and MO Bragg mirrors, have been proposed. Ce:YIG with an optical thickness in the range of 0 to λs was used as a magnetic material. By using four by four transfer matrix method, the transmittance values and Faraday rotation (FR) angles of these structures were computed. The electric field distribution was obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM). By investigation of transmittance and FR angle of magnetophotonic crystals, it was possible to design the optimized structures with a rotation larger than 30 degrees and high transmittance. Such structures with a few micrometer thickness and fast magneto-optical (MO) responses have the potential to be used in MO devices like integrated photonic elements and sensors.

Open access
Green synthesis and spectral analysis of surface encapsulated copper (II) oxide nanostructures

Abstract

Nanostructures of copper (II) oxide were synthesized through chemical reduction of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate using phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Leucas aspera. The crystalline phases and size were assessed by X-ray diffraction data analysis. From the Bragg reflection peaks, existence of monoclinic end-centered phase of copper (II) oxide along with presence of cubic primitive phase of copper (I) oxide and traces of cubic face centered lattices of zero valent copper was revealed. The three Raman active modes corresponding to CuO phase were identified in the sample with permissible merging of characteristic bands due to nanostructuring and organic capping. The surface topography measurement using field emission scanning electron microscope evidenced the occurrence of cylindrical rod shaped morphological structures along with a number of unshaped aggregates in the sample. The effective crystallite size and lattice strain were estimated from Williamson-Hall analysis of Bragg reflection data. Tauc plot analysis of UV-Vis-NIR absorption data in direct transition mode provided an estimation of band gap, viz. 1.83 eV and 2.06 eV respectively, for copper (II) oxide and copper (I) oxide. Thermal degradation study using thermogravimetric curve analysis could reveal the amount of moisture content, volatile components as well as the polymer capping over nanorods present in the sample. It could be seen that upon heating, inorganic core crystals undergo oxidation process and at temperature above 464 °C, the sample was found to be composed solely of inorganic crystallite phase of copper (II) oxide.

Open access
Growth, characterization and optical properties of potassium iodide (KI) doped potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) single crystals for optoelectronic applications

Abstract

Potassium iodide (KI) doped potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique using millipore water as a solvent. The grown single crystals were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and the analysis confirmed that KI-doped KHP crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group Pca21. The functional groups were identified by FT-IR technique which showed slight shift in vibrational frequencies, indicating inclusion of dopant into the crystal lattice. The UV-Vis spectral studies revealed the optical transparency of the doped crystals in the entire visible region. The optical band gap values were estimated from Tauc plots. Kurtz-Perry powder test was employed for second harmonic generation efficiency studies of the grown crystals.

Open access
Growth, electrical, thermal, mechanical and etching studies on 4-chloroanilinium hydrogen (2R, 3R)-tartrate monohydrate-an organic NLO single crystal

Abstract

An organic single crystal of 4-chloroanilinium hydrogen (2R,3R)-tartrate monohydrate (4CAHT) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Single crystal XRD study confirmed that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with the space group P21. Powder XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the compound. The presence of various functional groups in the compound was revealed by FT-IR analysis. UV studies showed the absence of absorption in the entire visible region. To determine the thermal stability of the grown crystals it was subjected to thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Microhardness and etching studies were also carried out for the crystal. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency of 4CAHT was tested by Kurtz and Perry powder technique and the relative SHG efficiency of 4CAHT was found to be 1.44 times greater than that of standard KDP.

Open access
Impact Tests of UHSS Steel Welded Joints Using the Drop - Tower Impact Drop Method

Abstract

The article characterizes the impact test method using Drop-Tower Impact Test with the registration of the value of force and energy of breaking. Based on sources, the possibilities and scope of the current application of this method were determined and the current state of knowledge on the results of these tests was reviewed. In order to determine the possibility of using the method in impact tests of high strength steel joints, investigations of hybrid PTA - GMA welding conditions on impact strength of joints of MART S1300QL steel were carried out. In particular, the influence of t8/5 cooling time on the impact strength of welded joints by the Drop - Tower Impact Test method was determined. It has been shown that the use of dropping machine with computer-based registration of breaking force and energy values was possible in the case of impact strength testing of UHSS welded joints and enabled precise analysis of the energy distribution dynamics absorbed by the tested.

Open access
Investigation, analysis and comparison of current-voltage characteristics for Au/Ni/GaN Schottky structure using I-V-T simulation

Abstract

In this work, we have presented a theoretical study of Au/Ni/GaN Schottky diode based on current-voltage (I-V) measurement for temperature range of 120 K to 400 K. The electrical parameters of Au/Ni/GaN, such as barrier height (Φb), ideality factor and series resistance have been calculated employing the conventional current-voltage (I-V), Cheung and Chattopadhyay method. Also, the variation of Gaussian distribution (P (Φb)) as a function of barrier height (Φb) has been studied. Therefore, the modified ((ln(I0T2)(q2σs022kT2)=ln(AA*)qB0kT)vs.(1kT)) relation has been extracted from (I-V) characteristics, where the values of ΦB0 and ASimul* have been found in different temperature ranges. The obtained results have been compared to the existing experimental data and a good agreement was found.

Open access
Investigation of the structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of electrosynthesized hexagonal nanocrystalline Cd0.3Zn0.7S thin film

Abstract

In this paper, Cd0.3Zn0.7S thin film has been electrodeposited from aqueous bath containing CdSO4, ZnSO4, Na2S2O3 and EDTA, having pH ~ 14. The structural, optical, morphological, surface wettability and photoluminescence properties of the film were investigated. The XRD pattern showed that the film consisted of mixed phases of CdS and ZnS with polycrystalline structure. The bandgap of the film was evaluated as 2.69 eV. The AFM study revealed that the Cd0.3Zn0.7S thin film contained spherical grains with root mean square roughness of 6.09 nm. The water contact angle measurement showed that the thin film was hydrophilic in nature. Moreover, the PL study revealed that the excitation wavelength was 460 nm.

Open access
Optimization and characterization of NiO thin films prepared via NSP technique and its P-N junction diode application

Abstract

The present work reports on the optimization of substrate temperature, molar concentration and volume of the solution of nickel oxide (NiO) thin films prepared by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) technique. NiO films were optimized and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and I-V measurements. Based on XRD analysis, the molar concentration, volume of solution and substrate temperature of the prepared NiO films were optimized as 0.20 M, 5 mL and 450 °C for P-N diode applications. The XRD pattern of the optimized NiO film revealed cubic structure. The surface morphological variations and elemental composition were confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis. The optical properties were studied with UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the minimum band gap value was 3.67 eV for 450 °C substrate temperature. Using J-V characteristics, the diode parameters: ideality factor n and barrier height Φb values of p-NiO/N-Si diode prepared at optimum conditions, i.e. 450 °C, 0.2 M, 5 mL, were evaluated in dark and under illumination.

Open access
Orbital TIG Welding of Titanium Tubes with Perforated Bottom Made of Titanium-Clad Steel

Abstract

The article presents problems accompanying the industrial TIG welding (142) of a heat exchanger perforated bottom made of steel clad with titanium B265 grade 1 with tubes made of titanium B338 grade 2. Research-related tests involved the making of test plates containing simulated imperfections formed during orbital welding. The above-named imperfections resulted from insufficient gas shielding during the welding process, the improper positioning of the tungsten electrode (excessively large or overly small circumference, around which the orbital welding process was performed), an excessive electrode travel rate being the consequence of an improperly set welding programme as well as excessively high welding current. Initial tests enabled the development of the orbital TIG welding of titanium tubes with the perforated bottom made of titanium-clad steel, satisfying acceptance criteria applied during commissioning.

Open access
Preparation and characterization of cobalt and copper oxide nanocrystals

Abstract

Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, CuO) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared using microwave irradiation. The obtained powders of the nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results confirm the presence of both nanooxides which have been produced during chemical precipitation using microwave irradiation. TEM micrographs have shown that the obtained nanocrystals are characterized by high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The results of X-ray diffraction confirmed those obtained from the transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of the nanocrystals.

Open access