The cavitation erosion is the phenomena that causes degradation of fluid flow machinery components due to repetitive implosion of cavitation bubbles adjacent to the solid surface. Cavitation erosion is a complex phenomenon, which includes not only hydrodynamic factors of liquid, but also properties of erodible material e.g. microstructure, hardness or Young modulus. In order to reduce the negative impact of erosion on machine components, there are many methods to increase cavitation erosion resistance. The paper discusses the correlations between structural and mechanical properties and the resistance to cavitation erosion (CER) of pure materials, their alloys and coatings. Methods to increase CER have also been described - using heat / thermo-chemical treatment and application of coatings by various methods.
The paper presents the results of a study investigating the effect of slide burnishing on the surface roughness, surface layer microhardness and fatigue life of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy parts. The burnishing process was performed with the use of a diamond tip tool. Different machining fluids were used as machining media. Prior to burnishing, the samples were subjected to turning. The burnishing process led to reduced surface roughness (average roughness Ra decreased by 3.5 times and roughness Rz decreased by 2.5 times) as well as increased surface layer microhardness (microhardness maximum increase by 12%) and fatigue life of the tested parts. A relationship between the machining medium and the burnishing effects was also observed. The addition of a surface-active polymethyl methacrylate solution to the machining medium led to an increase in the surface layer microhardness and fatigue life of the workpiece.
The influence of storage locations of two grades of rutile flux cored welding wires on their surface condition and the strength of the welds made with them were studied. Wires were stored in real urban conditions (Gdańsk and Katowice) for 1 month, simultaneously recording changes in conditions: temperature and relative humidity of the environment. Visual tests of wires in the delivered and stored condition as well as visual and tensile strength tests of welds made with them were carried out. It was found that the surface of the wires underwent more intense degradation (atmospheric corrosion) during storage in Katowice than in Gdańsk. Significant difference in tensile strength was observed only for padding welds made using Gdańsk stored wires. The lowest recorded tensile strength value was not lower than the standard requirements for the wires.
Pravin Kumar Singh, S.K. Tripathi and D.K. Dwivedi
Thin films of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) were developed by thermal evaporation technique. The annealing effect on the structural properties of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicate amorphous nature of the as-prepared films whereas crystalline phases in annealed films were identified. Structural parameters such as average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation were determined for different annealing temperatures. Effect of annealing on optical constants of prepared films has been explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. Various optical constants were determined depending on annealing temperature. It has been noticed that the film transparency and optical bandgap Eg have been reduced whereas the absorption coefficient α and extinction coefficient k increased with increasing annealing temperature. It was found that the prepared samples obey the allowed direct transition. The reduction in optical bandgap with annealing temperature has been described by Mott and Davis model. Due to annealing dependence of the optical parameters, the investigated material could be utilized for phase change memory devices.
To enhance interfacial bonding between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix, the carbon fibers have been modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using the dip- coating technique. FT-IR spectrum of the MWCNTs shows a peak at 1640 cm−1 corresponding to the stretching mode of the C=C double bond which forms the framework of the carbon nanotube sidewall. The broad peak at 3430 cm−1 is due to O–H stretching vibration of hydroxyl groups and the peak at 1712 cm−1 corresponds to the carboxylic (C=O) group attached to the carbon fiber. The peaks at 2927 cm−1 and 2862 cm−1 are assigned to C–H stretching vibration of epoxy produced at the defect sites of acid-oxidized carbon fiber surface. SEM image shows a better interface bonding between the fiber and the matrix of modified composites (MWCNTs-CF/Ep) than those of unmodified composite. The loss factor curve of CF-MWCNTs/Ep composites is the narrowest compared with neat epoxy and CF/Ep composites which evinces that the length distribution range of molecular chain segments in the matrix is the narrowest. From the dependence of the AC conductivity on temperature, we can see that σAC increases when temperature increases. The increase in electrical conductivity of the composites may be a result of the increased chain ordering due to annealing effect. The use of MWCNTs to modify the surface of carbon fiber resulted in a large amount of junctions among MWCNT causing an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity by forming conducting paths in the matrix. The MWCNTs-CF/Ep composite shows better thermal stability than unmodified composites. The strong interaction between CF and MWCNTs can retard diffusion of small molecules from the resin matrix at high temperature and hence, result in the improved thermal stability of the modified CF/Ep composite.
Nonlinear optical single crystals of L-histidine nitrate (LHN) as well as 0.05 mol % Y2+ doped LHN and 0.10 mol % Y2+ doped LHN were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The lower cutoff wavelength and transmittance were 339 nm, 343 nm, 347 nm and 84 %, 86 % and 87 % for LHN, 0.05 mol % and 0.10 mol % yttrium doped LHN, respectively. Powder XRD studies revealed that the grown materials belong to an orthorhombic system with the space group P212121. FT-IR peak at 534 cm−1 due to yttrium coordinated with oxygen was observed. The EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of such elements as C, N, O and Y in the grown materials. High intensity PL emission peak was obtained at 420 nm.
Sumra Idrees, Zahoor Ahmad, Tashfeen Akhtar, Muhammad Aziz Choudhary, Muhammad Aftab Rafiq and Arshad Mehmood
A facile chemical approach was developed to fabricate microarrays (MAs) of Ag@polypyrrole nanocables (NCs). The strategy involved crosslinking the NCs by tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) under continuous pulse sonication without using a substrate. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with EDX, which revealed the longitudinal interconnections within the nanocables and creating unidirectional alignment in the form of MAs. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize the encapsulating polymer as polypyrrole (ppy) around Ag nanowires (NWs). The microarrays produced red shift in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag NWs, and drastically improved the thermal stability and conductivity of encasing ppy. It has imparted anisotropic conductivity effect on ppy which resulted in sharp decrease in resistivity from 8.35 × 1010 Ω to 2.449 Ω, when NCs were isolated and crosslinked into MAs form, respectively. The drastic decrease in resistivity of ppy was due to the anisotropic effect produced by the MAs format of NWs.
Przemysław Ptak, Krzysztof Górecki and Barbara Dziurdzia
In this paper a problem of modelling thermal properties of large LED modules is considered. The compact thermal model of such modules is proposed. The form of this model is presented and a method of parameters estimation is described. The practical usefulness of this model is verified experimentally by comparing the results of calculations and measurements of internal temperature of selected LEDs included in LED modules. The modules were fabricated by Fideltronic, Poland and measurements of temperature distribution on the surface of the modules at selected variants of power dissipation were performed at the Gdynia Maritime University. Good agreement between the results of measurements and modelling was obtained.
C. Eevon, M.K. Halimah, M.N. Azlan, R. El-Mallawany and S.L. Hii
New glass samples with composition (1 – x)[(TeO2)70(B2O3)30] – x(Gd2O3) with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 in mol% have been synthesized by conventional melt-quenching techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were performed in order to confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The density of the samples has been found to vary with the Gd2O3 content, whereas an opposite trend has been observed in the molar volume. The analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy of the samples showed that the glass network is mainly built of TeO3, TeO4, BO3 and BO4 units. The addition of Gd2O3 changed the refractive index, optical band gap and Urbach energy of the glass samples. The thermal properties of the studied glasses were investigated by measuring the thermal diffusivity of the samples by using photoflash method at room temperature.
Nd3+ doped La2Ti2O7, Ce4+ doped Sm2Ti2O7 and Gd3+ doped Er2Ti2O7 have been synthesized at different reaction temperatures using solid state reaction method, and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Excitation spectra, emission spectra and decay time curves of the samples were investigated by photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL) and typical transitions of rare earth ions were observed. Dielectric properties, piezoelectric properties and Curie temperature of the obtained luminescent materials were measured for electrical characterization. The results showed that all materials have both photoluminescent and piezoelectric properties and show high Curie temperature.