Temperature is considered a complicated external factor of the susceptibility of stainless steels to the pitting. This paper deals with the corrosion behaviour of AISI 316Ti stainless steel in temperature range 22 - 80°C in aggressive chloride environments (3 and 5% FeCl3 solutions). The corrosion resistance of tested steel is evaluated on the base of results of exposure immersion tests and cyclic potentiodynamic tests. According to the obtained results the resistance of AISI 316Ti to the pitting is markedly affected by temperature changes in the range 22 – 80°C. Intensity of corrosion attack increases with the rise of Cl− concentration. Gentle changes of temperature and Cl− concentration cause significant differences in character of local damage. The appearance of pitted surfaces changes with the rise of the temperature (a density of pitting increases, a size of pits decreases). The strongest change in appearance is observed between 40 and 50ºC.
The paper presents a method and results of breaking of samples that undergo elongation, printed in the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology including various height of a layer. A method of description of the FDM print was described. A developed methodology of research was presented − it was analogous to the research on breaking steel samples. The aim of the research was investigation of the height of a single layer of print on the strength parameters of the produced object. The studies on samples printed with two types of filling were made. The obtained results were set and compared. Based on the research that was carried out, it may be concluded that the tensile strength of samples made in the FDM print technology is proportional to the thickness of a single layer of print.
The article deals with a reduction of friction coefficient of bearing steel 100Cr6. Reduction of friction was achieved by means of a CarbonX DLC coating. The coating exhibited excellent friction and mechanical properties. This coating was applied to samples made of 100Cr6 bearing steel. The friction results of the CarbonX coating were compared to the friction results of the 100Cr6 bearing steel. Reducing the friction of 100Cr6 bearing steel resulted in reduced wear and increase lifetime. The friction process of the samples will take place in an environment without lubrication. The aim of the article is to verify the behaviour of the DLC coating without the presence of lubricant in the friction node. The achieved results are to be interpreted in the conclusion of article.
The paper carries out a comparative analysis of the production technology of energy willow on plantations varied on account of the surface area in the aspect of the impact on the natural environment. The studies covered the cultivation of willow in the southern part of Poland. Technologies from soil preparation for cultivation to first harvesting and transport to a farm were analysed. A type of the applied technological treatments, used machines and transport means as well as the time of their operation, amount of the consumed fuel, pesticides, fertilizers, and water were taken into consideration. The research results were referred to the surface area of willow cultivation (1 ha). To determine the environmental impact SimaPro program version 188.8.131.52 was used. It was concluded, inter alia, that cultivation of willow on smaller plantations constitutes a bigger environmental footprint.
The lack of a common methodology on compaction theory stimulates developers of road construction equipment to create various approximate methods for their calculation, the number of which, at the present time, is comparable with the nomenclature of the proposed designs of rollers. The article presents the analysis of the deformable shell behavior of a road roller, and the compacted material under its compacting roller, in a situation when a rigid circular shell of the roller is replaced by a forcefully deformable elliptical shape, which, unlike the circular design, allows variation, adjustment and optimization of the road roller impact on the material to be compacted.
A method for testing sliding bearings with an elastic bearing liner was presented in the paper with a focus on the issue of selection of particular time intervals of the START-STOP test cycle. Then, results of the tests carried out according to the selected material combinations were presented. The working cycle of foil bearings tested on the test stand was performed in an automatic mode at the set number of sequences start-work-rundown-stop. Due to the highest use of sliding bearings during start and rundown of a machine, this type of tests is essential for selection of relevant sets of material for bearing elements. The article also presents the use of a thermo-visual camera for identification of additional thermal loads and manners of temperature stabilization in the test chamber.
V.V. Mikheev, M. Szymanek, W. Tanas, P.A. Eremin, V.A. Kolos and V.B. Lovkis
For seed production of sugar and fodder beet, the creation of machines and working bodies for planting root crops on testes and pollinators is of current importance. It was found out that the seed-and-water production was spreading with the use of “schteklings” [sugar beet roots]. In the countries with minus temperatures between the vegetation seasons it is necessary to dig out beets and plant them again at the beginning of the vegetation season. Advantages and disadvantages of machines and apparatus for disembarking the schteklings were determined. Under the conditions of applicability, we chose a design scheme and a type of landing gear. With the use of mathematical expressions and standards for the labor intensity of the operator of the above machine, the optimal parameters of its planting apparatus were determined. It was determined that the work of the operator of the schteklings planting machine’s stem will meet the safety standards for the intensity of labor if the planting unit of this machine is a rotor-type. It should be equipped with planting cones and a charging device, a conveyor type. The number of holders of landing cones should be 6-8 pieces, and the radius of the rotor is within the range of 0.344 ... 0.382 m. Such a scheme, type and parameters of the landing gear will allow operators to work at the speed of the planter of up to 1.2 m·s−1.
The paper contains an overview of the history of engineering education in the United States. It also explains the differences between engineering and engineering technology from an historical perspective. The similarities and differences between those two programs are also being addressed. The article also explains the concept of the project-driven approach in teaching engineering technology courses. The procedure to secure and administer funding for the projects is also addressed. The paper also includes some practical guidelines for implementing a project-based approach.
Michał Michałowski, Sylwia Mierzejewska, Krzysztof Kukiełka, Aldona Bać and Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk
The paper presents a study on the control of the canned fish seaming with the so-called double seam and statistical analysis of correctness of seaming. The use of standard control charts enabled observation and intervention in case irrelevant parameters occur to keep the stability of the process. Based on the analysis made in Statistica program, a moment could have been captured when a machine had to be regulated in case the value of parameters of the double seam decreased and it had to be concluded unanimously when the most important seaming tools (rolls) should be replaced. A problem that had been solved consists mainly in ensuring the stability of the process during constant monitoring of the seaming process of the canned food.
Radomila Konečná, Denisa Medvecká and Gianni Nicoletto
Additive manufacturing has recently expanded its potential with the development of selective laser melting (SLM) of metallic powders. This study investigates the relation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by SLM followed by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment. HIP treatment minimizes the detrimental influence of material defects. Tensile specimens produced with reference to specific building axes were prepared using a Renishaw A250 system. It has been found that the tensile strength and elongation depend on specimen building direction. Microstructural and textural characterizations were carried out to identify the source of differences.