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MicroRNA regulated macrophage activation in obesity
Open access
NPS2390, a selective calcium-sensing receptor antagonist controls the phenotypic modulation of hypoxic human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by regulating autophagy

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is known to regulate hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and vascular remodeling via the phenotypic modulation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in small pulmonary arteries. Moreover, autophagy is an essential modulator of VSMC phenotype. But it is not clear whether CaSR can regulate autophagy involving the phenotypic modulation under hypoxia.

Methods

The viability of human PASMCs was detected by cell cycle and BrdU. The expressions of proliferation protein, phenotypic marker protein, and autophagy protein in human PASMCs were determined by western blot.

Results

Our results showed that hypoxia-induced autophagy was considerable at 24 h. The addition of NPS2390 decreased the expression of autophagy protein and synthetic phenotype marker protein osteopontin and increased the expression of contractile phenotype marker protein SMA-ɑ and calponin via suppressing downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways.

Conclusions

Our study demonstrates that treatment of NPS2390 was conducive to inhibit the proliferation and reverse phenotypic modulation of PASMCs by regulating autophagy levels.

Open access
Progress and current status of influenza researches in China

Abstract

Influenza pandemics with different extent occur every year in the world. It can cause high morbidity and mortality, arouse fear panic in public, and attract extensive attention worldwide. This paper reviews the research progress in epidemiological characteristics, detection methods, pathogenesis, treatment and prophylactic measures of influenza in China. It will be helpful for us to understand the current situation of influenza.

Open access
Unknown use of end-tidal CO2 in metabolic emergencies in pediatric patients

Abstract

The authors describe two cases of metabolic acidosis, caused by diabetic ketoacidosis in the first case and by dehydration following gastroenteritis in the second one. Both patients were followed with noninvasive end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) monitoring. A correlation between EtCO2 and PCO2 and HCO3− has been established in the literature. Noninvasive ETCO2 is used in only 5–6% of metabolic emergencies. In contrast, users described its use as easy and convenient.

Open access
Relationship between portal HTN and cirrhosis as a cause for diabetes

Abstract

Our aim was to explore the relationship between liver cirrhosis (LC), portal hypertension (PH), and diabetes mellitus (DM). LC displayed hemodynamic alterations reflected by signs and symptoms of hypertension and hyperdynamic circulation. Portal hypertension also caused splenomegaly because of the blood flow into the spleen from the portal vessels and portal flow. The alcoholic cirrhosis displayed abnormal values (AST, ALT, AST/ALT, albumin, ammonia, bilirubin, blood platelet, erythrocytes, glucose, Hb, international normalized ratio (INR), PT, prothrombin index (PI), thymol test, white blood cell (WBC) count), which demonstrated the presence of portal hypertension, ascites, DM, infection, and coagulopathy. The evaluation of liver enzymes and other laboratories data helped to determine the severity of the condition and prognosis. Diabetes appeared to be less affecting the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis than LC itself, showing that hepatocellular failure was largely responsible for patients’ mortality rather than diabetes and its complications. Patients displayed a BMI correlating obesity, although affected by concomitant diseases that commonly cause a severe weight loss. The elevated BMI in this case was accentuated by the presence of ascitic fluid, which is responsible for the increase in weight and the inaccurate BMI evaluation. Ascites affect patients’ recovery from liver diseases. Obese patients with cirrhosis can be related to have a large amount of ascites and that physicians should be expecting to notice changes in their BMI pre- and postoperatively, subsequently making a prior classification as obese inappropriate. Disease severity could be assessed through the evaluation of PH stage, which was characterized by a significant depletion of WBC and as well as platelet counts.

Open access
Clinical conundrums in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in the elderly

Abstract

One of the dreaded life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). American Diabetic Association (ADA) came out with 2018 guidelines on the management of DM and its complications, but these are woefully silent on the clinical conundrums that accompany DKA in elderly patients. In elderly patients, DKA is often complicated by sepsis, atrial fibrillation, polypharmacy, nonketotic hyperosmolar states, atypical clinical presentations, acute kidney injury (AKI), dementia, and noncompliance with medications. Here in we highlight these conundrums that need to be addressed to improve morbidity and mortality in elderly patients.

Open access
Diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome with the Berlin definition: Which technical investigations should be the best to confirm it?
Open access
Favorable outcome in a patient with systemic BCGitis after intra-bladder instillation of Calmette-Guerin Bacillus highlighting the importance of making the correct diagnosis in this rare form of sepsis

Abstract

We present the case of a patient with sepsis following a traumatic intra-bladder instillation of Calmette-Guerin Bacillus with pneumonia and possibly hepatitis. These complications are rare and could be induced by both immuno-allergic reaction and bacteremia. There is no specific guideline to treat this condition, but many clinicians depicting similar cases seem to agree on prolonged anti-tuberculous antibiotics with associated corticosteroid therapy. Following this therapy, the prognosis is generally favorable depending upon the fact that diagnosis has correctly been made. Our case highlights the fact that correct diagnosis has to be made especially in the presence of sepsis without a clear septic source.

Open access
Importance of studying the levels of hepcidin and vitamin D in Egyptian children with chronic hepatitis C

Abstract

Background and Objective

Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron metabolism and is a significant biomarker for systemic inflammatory states. Vitamin D is a powerful immunomodulator and plays a significant role in the inflammatory responses and fibrosis occurring due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study assessed the level of vitamin D and serum hepcidin and its expression in peripheral blood of children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and correlated them with other serum markers to reflect iron metabolism and liver disease severity.

Methods

A total of 100 children were included in this study: 50 with HCV infection and 50 healthy controls. Biochemical parameters together with vitamin D, hepcidin, and its expression were all measured.

Results

The level of hepcidin and its expression together with vitamin D and hepcidin-to-ferritin (H/F) ratios were significantly reduced in patients, but the iron and ferritin levels were higher (P<0.001). Serum hepcidin level showed significant positive correlation with hepcidin expression, HCV titer, iron, ferritin, and H/F ratio (r = 0.43, 0.31, 0.34, 0.28, and 0.91, respectively) but significant negative correlation with vitamin D (r = −0.37). Both hepcidin and ferritin were higher in patients with Child Pugh scores B and C than those with score A (P<0.001).

Conclusion

Measuring serum hepcidin and its expression together with vitamin D levels in patients may have a prognostic value and is promising in the follow-up of the severity of liver disease.

Open access