Konrad Ćwirko, Elwira Tomczak, Daniela Szaniawska and Ryszard Buczkowski
This paper evaluates ceramic membrane performance and fouling mechanisms in the ultrafiltration of model oil-in-water solutions with addition of NaCl. First, the work estimated the effect of main process parameters, i.e. transmembrane pressure, cross-flow velocity and NaCl content in the feed on oil rejection and permeate flux using 23 experimental design. The ultrafiltration experiments were carried out using pilot installation with commercial tubular ceramic 300 kDa membrane. Ultrafiltration data obtained using experimental design technique was used to determine the regression coefficients of polynomial equations. These equations give information on non-conjugated as well as conjugated effects of two operating parameters and one feed parameter on ceramic membrane performance in ultrafiltration process of model oil-in-water-NaCl solutions. Moreover, these equations can help to determine optimal conditions for ultrafiltration process from the point of view of membrane permeability and selectivity. Next, ultrafiltration results were analyzed using resistance-in-series model. It was found that the process is membrane resistance limited. It was also stated that, resistance caused by reversible fouling is greater than irreversible fouling resistance. Finally, pore blocking models based on modified Hermia’s equation were used to determine membrane fouling mechanism responsible for permeate flux decline with ultrafiltration time. In investigated system ceramic membrane fouling was caused by complete and intermediate pore blocking mechanisms.
Zbigniew Suchorab, Danuta Barnat-Hunek, Małgorzata Franus, Grzegorz Łagód and Zbyšek Pavlík
The article presents the laboratory investigations of the basic thermal and hygric parameters of standard lightweight aggregate-concrete and lightweight aggregate-concrete supplemented with municipal sewage sludge. Both types of concrete are based on light aggregates, commonly used in the Polish building market. In order to improve the hygric parameters of the material, such as water absorptivity, the admixture of water emulsion of reactive polisiloxanes was applied. Within the presented research, together with basic moisture parameters estimation, capillary rise process was monitored using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) modified sensors. Hygric parameters were supplemented with the estimation of thermal conductivity coefficient λ determined using stationary method. The analysis of thermal and hygric properties of concrete confirmed the applicability of lightweight aggregate-concrete with sewage sludge supplementation for further production.
The main source of usable water supply in Poland is surface water. The most frequently used methods of surface water treatment are coagulation and filtration processes. During these processes post-coagulation sludge is generated, which is the main waste produced in water treatment plants. This sludge is characterized by an amorphous structure with a strongly developed specific surface, similar to sewage sludge. Dried and crushed post-coagulation sludge was used in the studies as an adsorbent of two acid dyes: Acid Red 18 (AR 18) and Acid Green 16 (AG 16). The most favourable pH of process and contact time as well as sorption isotherm were established. For both dyes the most favourable pH value was equal 2. The tests showed that in the case of AR 18 (180 min) a longer contact time was necessary to reach the equilibrium than for AG 16 (120 min). Moreover, based on the different isotherm two-parameter models, the sorption capacity, type of sorption and energy of sorption were calculated based on linear and non-linear regression. The tests showed that in the case of dye AG 16 monolayer sorption occurred - the analysis showed better fitting the results to Langmuir model. Moreover, for both dyes, physical adsorption took place - it was indicated by the values of parameter 1/n (computed from the Freundlich model).
For the third time since 2005 atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Belarus was monitored by the moss technique widely used in Europe for air pollution studies. Samples of moss species of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were collected at 86 sites over the Gomel, Vitebsk and Minsk Regions in the summer of 2015. A total of 30 elements were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. Studying of the temporal trends in Belarus was undertaken with the results obtained in previous moss surveys in 2005/2006 and 2010/2011. Comparison with the analogous data from the neighbouring countries showed relatively low contamination levels in Belarus for the most heavy and toxic elements. The results of survey 2010/2011 showed that, except Cr, other element concentrations reduce or are at the same levels.
Abbas Rahdar, Somayeh Rahdar, Shahin Ahmadi and Jie Fu
Antibiotics are widely detected emerging contaminants in water environments and possess high potential risks to human health and aquatic life. However, conventional water treatment processes cannot remove them sufficiently. To develop innovative nanoadsorbents for effectively remove antibiotic contaminants from water environment, nanoceria were prepared via in situ precipitation method, and evaluated their adsorption capacity for a model antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP). The properties of the prepared nanoceria were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibration sample magnetization (VSM). The effect of various operating parameters such as pH, initial CIP concentration, contact time, and adsorbent dosage on adsorptions of CIP were studied in batch experiments. Maximum adsorption capacity of the nanoceria was 49.38 mg/g at the conditions of pH 5, initial CIP concentration of 200 mg/dm3 and adsorbent dosage of 0.2 g/dm3, when 95.43 % of the CIP was removed. For adsorption kinetics, both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models can well describe the experimental data, indicating that the adsorption process was controlled by both physical diffusion and chemical interaction. For adsorption isotherms, the Freundlich model could fit the experimental data better than the Langmuir and Temkin models, suggesting a multilayer adsorption process. The thermal dynamics study showed the absorption process was spontaneity, exothermic, and irreversible. Finally it was concluded that the nanoceria can be used effectively for CIP removal.
Determining the value of a half-effective or half-life concentration or dose of toxicant is the main purpose of acute toxicity studies, and this is also the most commonly used value in the toxicity characteristics of substances. By conducting tests that meet the criteria and requirements for the determination of acute toxicity, due to the use of appropriate mathematical tools and concentrations resulting in complete lethal effects in the studied groups, considerably more important values can be achieved, which give a possibility for the analysis of the entire process’s dynamics, as well as determining the threshold values of the effect time and toxicant concentration. This was the purpose of our research, in which the research species were Daphnia magna and Cypris pubera. The effect of the conducted research allowed to determine and compare the two toxicants: ammonium and copper(II) ions by it’s: concentration limit values (Cth), internal toxicity of the receptor-ligand complex (α), apparent, constant disintegration of this complex (Kapp) and different time values of the effect (Tt, Tin, MLT), which, along with concentration, is equally important determinant of the development of a toxic effect.
The paper presents the results of the spread of the tetrahydrothiophene (THT) - used as odourant - in the gas network. Such analyses allow quick detection of leaks in networks, systems and devices of gas supply directly to consumers. The main goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the use of portable chromatograph and comparing it with a stationary odourant concentration analyser. Based on these studies, an attempt to determine the odouration zone for the selected city have been also taken. For this purpose, three series of measurements were made - in each series 13 points were analysed. Obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the measurement a concentration of odourant in the gas network using a portable gas chromatograph - difference in relation to the stationary chromatograph ranged from 1.91 to 2.55 %.
The performance and economic simulation and modeling are crucial for accurate and rapid designing, construction, and forecasting future economic needs of municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs). In this study, combined nitrifying trickling filter/activated sludge (NTF/AS) process was suggested for the modernization of a MWWTP and the performance and economics of MWWTPs based on the combined TF/AS process and combined NTF/AS process were analyzed and compared. In real, the performance, total project construction, total operation labor, total maintenance labor, total material, total chemical, total energy, and total amortization costs of these proposed MWWTPs were calculated and compared. Under the used design criteria and operational conditions in this study, the project construction cost of the MWWTP based on TF/AS was 15.25 % higher than that of the MWWTP based on NTF/AS. Also, MWWTP based on NTF/AS was cost effective and the material and amortization costs for both plants were higher in comparison with the operation, maintenance, energy, and chemical costs. It is necessary to note that this study is a computer simulation for a case and drawing general conclusions only on the basis of this simulation may be insufficient.
In the world there are two main problems concerning energy and ecology. Despite the crude oil price fluctuation, it has tended to increase. Moreover fossil fuel burning emits hazard compounds, including greenhouse gas. To solve them alternative fuels for vehicle have to be used. In due to properties, their usage impacts on the engine efficiency. The alternative fuel usage needs additional investment costs on the vehicle engines adaptation and fuel supply infrastructure. So, decisions must be based on mathematical apparatus. Three submodels were used in the suggested mathematical model: energy and economic indicator for fuels; energy and economic indicator for vehicles; criteria for investment projects. As a criterion of investment projects the profitability index has been grounded. The mathematical model and the algorithm for determining the feasibility of the alternative fuel utilization have been developed. The proposed algorithm includes the following stages: calculation of the fuel energy cost; calculation of the criteria for vehicles; determining the maximum value of investments; making decisions. Biofuels and gaseous fuels for some countries have been studied. The economic attractiveness of the alternative transport fuels has been presented. According to mathematical modeling, gaseous fuels are more economically attractive compared with liquid biofuels. Among gaseous fuels, LPG has a higher economic efficiency. The economic margin of alternative fuel application feasibility has been determined.
Joanna Kapusta-Duch, Teresa Leszczyńska, Barbara Borczak, Adam Florkiewicz and Anna Ambroszczyk
Broccoli has a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Freezing is one of best methods for vegetable storage and broccoli belongs to the group of vegetables subjected to this process on an industrial scale. This work investigates the effect of type of container: low density polyethylene (PE-LD) bags and oriented polystyrene (OPS) boxes on selected quality parameters in frozen broccoli. The experimental material was the broccoli cultivar LordF1. The vegetable was subjected to blanching, freezing and 3-month storage. At the every stage of an experiment the material was examined in terms of: vitamin C content; β-carotene; total polyphenols; and antioxidant potential, which was determined basing on the ability to quench the ABTS˙+ free radical. It has been found that vegetables which were kept frozen for 3 months in two types of container had parallel levels of vitamin C, β-carotene; total polyphenols; and similar antioxidative potential.