Sintija Locāne, Elīna Pūcīte, Evija Miglāne, Andrejs Millers, Arina Novasa, Renija Ieviņa and Tatjana Muravska
Variable platelet response to aspirin and clopidogrel is a well-known phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease and ischemic cerebral stroke. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and possible risk factors of antiplatelet resistance in patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The VerifyNow system was used to evaluate adenosine-5-diphosphate and platelet P2YI2 receptor function in patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, who received dual antiplatelet therapy. Aspirin resistance was defined as aspirin reaction units (ARU) ≥ 550. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as Platelet Reaction Units (PRU) > 230. In the group of cerebrovascular diseases there were 13.2% (n = 27) patients with aspirin and 24.5% (n = 50) with clopidogrel resistance. However, in the cardiovascular group there were 20% (n = 9) aspirin and 11.1% (n = 5) clopidogrel resistant patients. In the cerebrovascular group, aspirin resistant patients had a lower triglyceride level (p = 0.001, r = 0.26) than aspirin sensitive patients. Clopidogrel resistant patients had a significantly higher level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) (p = 0.016, r = 023), triglycerides (p = 0.033, r = 0.16) and lower level of high-density lipoproteins (p = 0.027, r = 0.16) than clopidogrel sensitive patients. In the cardiovascular group, patients who were resistant to aspirin had a significantly higher high-density lipoprotein level (p = 0.038, r = 0.31). No other factors differed significantly between the aspirin or clopidogrel resistant and sensitive patients in the cardiovascular group. Aspirin resistance was more common in patients with cardiovascular disease, and clopidogrel resistance in patients with cerebrovascular disease, although the difference was not significant. Our findings indicate that diabetes mellitus and an elevated level of lipoproteins could be risk factors for aspirin or clopidogrel resistance in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Further studies should be conducted using larger patient cohorts with balanced groups of patients to investigate clinical aspects of antiplatelet resistance.
Oksana Koļesova, Jeļena Eglīte, Aleksandrs Koļesovs, Angelika Krūmiņa, Ilze Ekšteina, Monta Madelāne and Ludmila Vīksna
The aim of this study was to assess the main effects and interaction between viral hepatitis C (HCV) coinfection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) by using a nonparametric ANOVA on direct and indirect markers of liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients. The sample included 178 HIV patients aged from 23 to 65 (36% females). The following parameters were determined in blood of patients: hyaluronic acid, pro-matrix metalloproteinase-1, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and platelet count. The FIB-4 index was also calculated. The nonparametric ANOVA revealed no significant interaction between HCV coinfection and ART. This provides evidence for an independent contribution of each factor on promotion of the pathology. The results also demonstrated that the direct and indirect indicators of liver fibrosis are associated differently with the studied factors. Therefore, a combination of markers should be used for monitoring of liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients.
Silvestris Zēbolds, Aigars Pētersons and Andris Jumtiņš
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with hip dysplasia is a challenging surgical operation. Many orthopedic surgeons concur that the anatomical placement of the acetabular components of endoprostheses (AC-EPs) during THA yields the best result. However, there are advocates of the high rotation center of the hip joint after replacement surgery. In our study, we compared the outcomes of THA based on the placement of acetabular cups to identify the most favorable site for AC-EPs in patients with varying grades of dysplastic osteoarthritis. Our study included 88 patients with dysplastic hip osteoarthritis who underwent 106 THAs during a three-year period using cementless fixation endoprostheses. Functional results were assessed by Merle d’Aubigne and Postel’s method and by instrumental gait analysis (IGA). Gait deviation index was calculated based on IGA to compare results in different acetabular component placement groups. Functional assessment of patients by Merle d’Aubigne and Postel’s grading method and IGA showed no significant difference in results due to the placement of the acetabular component. Most complications were found in the severe dysplasia patients group with the anatomical placement of the AC-EP. The appropriate location of cementless acetabular cups during THA in dysplastic hips depends on the grade of dysplasia, expected elongation of the leg, and the potential for adequate bone coverage for the AC-EP. In cases of severe dysplasia, the placement of the AC-EP in the secondary socket can provide a good functional outcome and reduce the risk of complications.
The first psychosis is a crucial point for further development of mental disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with a large number of years living with the disability. It is a global aim to improve prognosis of psychotic disorders, especially in rural regions, where mental health care possibly is not so easily accessible for patients. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and sociodemographic determinants in association with patient and illness related factors to improve knowledge and understanding of first time psychosis patients in a rural region. This is a descriptive, cohort-based study of all consecutive first episode psychosis (F20, F23, ICD 10) patients admitted in the Daugavpils Psychoneurological Hospital (DPNH) between January 2016 and December 2017. Of the 94 first-time patients hospitalised in DPNH with symptoms of psychosis, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Our results showed that median age of patients was 33 years (IQR 27.5–42.0), median duration of untreated illness (DUI) was 30 months (IQR 11.0–60.0), and median duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was 8 weeks (IQR 4.0–48.0). The results showed that 55.1% of first psychosis patients had not seen any health care specialist before being admitted to the psychiatric hospital. We found statistically significant differences between some sociodemographic aspects in DUI/DUP. Patients who lived with relatives had the longest DUI — 36 months, compared with 12 months for those who had established their own family. Unemployed patients had longer DUI — 36 months, compared with 12 months for employed patients. Similar findings were shown for associations with DUP. To our knowledge this study adds several important findings that help to better understand first psychosis patients.
Gunta Laizāne, Anda Ķīvīte, Ilze Grope, Liene Smane, Edvīns Miklaševics, Laura Ozoliņa and Dace Gardovska
In developed and developing countries, most cases of acute gastroenteritis in children are caused by viruses, and rotaviruses are known as the leading cause. The aim of our study was to estimate the main circulating serotypes of rotavirus before the introduction of routine immunisation in Latvia, and to search for their possible correlation with clinical symptoms and circulating genotypes. A cross-sectional study was carried out among children who had been hospitalised in the Children’s Clinical University Hospital from April 2013 to December 2015. Genotyping was done for 462 stool samples. Among G/P combinations, the most predominant genotypes were G4P (61.3%), G9P (12.4%) and G2P (10.0%) in children of age < 5 years, G4P (45.5%), G2P (18.2%), G9P, G3P, and G1P (9.1%) in children of age > 5 years. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between clinical signs (vomiting, dehydration, chronic diseases) and G1P and G8P genotypes. Infants infected with genotype G4P had a statistically significant negative correlation with severity of acute gastroenteritis episodes (p < 0.05). We detected nine different rotavirus G genotypes, and two different P genotypes. G4P, G9P, and G2P were predominant. We observed correlation between the dominant genotypes and clinical manifestations of rotavirus infection.
The objective of this work was to compare the nicotine content and yield of new very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLN™) to the top 100 cigarette brand styles in the United States. Nicotine in tobacco filler and nicotine in smoke were measured. On a dry weight basis, VLN™ cigarettes averaged 0.5 mg of nicotine/g tobacco as compared to 19.4 for the top 100 brand styles in the United States. On a cigarette basis, VLN™ cigarettes contained 0.27 mg of nicotine compared to 12 mg for the top brands. On an ISO smoke yield basis, VLN™ produced 0.03 mg nicotine/cig compared to 0.903 mg nicotine/cig for the leading brands. VLN™ cigarettes contained > 95% less nicotine on a per gram basis of tobacco or per cigarette basis than the top 100 brand styles in the U.S. VLN™ cigarettes yielded > 95% less nicotine in smoke than the top brand styles in the United States.
Laura Neimane, Liene Zamure, Vadims Klimecs, Aleksandrs Grišuļonoks, Andrejs Skaģers and Andrejs Ivanovs
Sinus lift surgery elevation is a procedure that requires radiological maxillary sinus evaluation and procedure planning. The condition of the maxillary sinus before and after sinus lift surgery was assessed. Sixty-five sinuses of 49 patients were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed. The sinuses were analysed radiologically for pathological changes: mucosal thickening, ostia obstruction and accessory opening. The presence of concha bullosa in nasal cavity and septa in the maxillary sinus were recorded. The sinus volume also was measured before and after surgery. Thickened mucosa was found more often in postoperative scans than in preoperative scans (63.1% and 67.7%, respectively). Concha bullosa was found in 30 preoperative scans and in 33 postoperative scans. A correlation between mucosal thickening and ostia obstruction was found. The mean sinus volume decreased after surgery and the changes were statistically significant. In conclusion, changes of the maxillarysinus and nasal cavity can be detected with CBCT. Sinus lift surgery does not excacerebate the existing conditions of the maxillary sinus; however, there is a tendency for pathological features to increase after surgery. Sinus lift surgery is a safe surgery with regard to the maxillary sinus if performed with care.
Ieva Kalere, Ieva Strēle, Mārtiņš Miglinieks, Ilze Repša, Santa Pildava, Mihails Romanovs, Valdis Pīrāgs and Ilze Konrāde
The most common autoimmune disorders with clinically opposite manifestations are hypothyroidism in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and hyperthyroidism in Graves’ disease. The healthcare burden of thyroid disease is substantial, resulting in substantial health care costs. The aim of the present analysis is to assess the use of thyroid medications in Latvia from 2011 to 2014 by age and gender. Our study used reimbursed medication prescriptions data, collected by the National Health Service of Latvia. The main indicator was the number of prevalent users of thyroid medications each year from 2011 to 2014, stratified by age and gender. From 2011 to 2014, the number of thyroxine users per 100 000 revealed a statistically significant increase in all age and gender groups, except in 0- to 9-year-old girls. The number of Thiamazole users among men increased in the age group from 40 to 89 years and in women age groups above 49 years. Increasing sales of both thyroid hormones and antithyroid medications are also observed in Estonia and Lithuania, indicating that growing thyroid morbidity is an issue in the whole region. The substantial increase in number of patients highlights the necessity for national guidelines on the use of thyroid function tests and standards of medical care.
Anda Kadiša, Zaiga Nora-Krūkle, Simons Švirskis, Pēteris Studers, Irute Girkontaite, Aivars Lejnieks and Modra Murovska
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes erosive changes and ankylosis of joints and may cause internal injuries. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative process of the articular cartilage. However, inflammatory mediators may play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the OA process. It is necessary to continue to study possible factors that may promote the development of the disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency and activity stage of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and persistent human herpes virus (HHV)-6 and HHV-7 infection in RA and OA patients, and healthy persons, in relation to cytokine levels and presence or absence of viral infections. RA patients with active B19V infection had the highest levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which may contribute to the development of RA. In the case of OA, the TNF-α level was higher in patients with active persistent B19V infection, suggesting that B19V reactivation affects also OA. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels were higher in RA patients with latent HHV-6/-7 infection in comparison with active HHV-6/-7 infection, whereas in OA patients levels of all studied cytokines were very variable, ranging from low to high but without significant differences. This suggests that also latent HHV-6 and -7 viral infections can promote development of RA.
Monta Madelāne, Angelika Krūmiņa, Raimonds Sīmanis, Ģirts Šķenders, Andrejs Ivanovs, Gunta Stūre and Ludmila Vīksna
Immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is driven by microbial translocation and in HIV patients is one of the contributors to faster progression of liver disease along with increased cell apoptosis. The aim of the study was to compare microbial translocation and apoptosis markers in HIV monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, depending on HIV immune status and antiretroviral treatment (ART). We analysed data for 78 HIV monoinfected and 105 HIV/HCV coinfected patients from the Rīga East University Hospital. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), endotoxin core antibodies (EndoCAb), cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and cyto-chrome c (Cyt-c) levels were measured. No significant difference in LPS, EndoCAb, Cyt-c levels between HIV and HIV/HCV patients was found. The CK18 level was higher in the HIV/HCV group. Correlation between CD4+ cell count and EndoCAb antibodies was found in HCV positive patients. There was a significant effect of ART on markers for EndoCAb IgA and EndoCAb IgM antibodies in the HIV monoinfected group. Correlation between CD4+ cell count and EndoCAb antibodies and LPS was found in HIV/HCV patients on ART. Coinfection with HCV can lead to more pronounced response in EndoCAb antibody production and higher levels of cell apoptosis markers, despite similar LPS levels. ART has a positive effect on immune activation.