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Open access

David Berat

Abstract

This article is about the rights of the Roma in Sweden and the level of discrimination that Roma are facing. The aims and objectives of the article is theoretical and practical understanding of the situation of the Roma and their human rights through our research and analysis of reports from international organizations, civil society organizations, deep interviews and data from the collected 57 questionnaires. The data is collected during the two study visits in November 2016 and February 2017. The article sumarises the actual situation of the Roma in Sweden and shows new data I have collected while visiting Göteborg, Stockholm, Vänersborg and Trollhättan. I did 4 deep interviews with representatives from Civil Right Defenders, Kronan School and members from UNHCR Sweden. The interviews were composed out of 22 questions about the current condition of Roma in Sweden, implemented projects for improving the Roma human rights, discrimination, police harasment, Roma register, legal remedies against discrimination, financial benefits if persuing education, non-governmental organization working for and with Roma, equitable representation of Roma in the state bodies, affirmative actions (positive discrimination), Romani political parties, allocated funds for projects improving the Romani situation, system of minority right protection, equality of Roma among the Swedish citizens. The questionnaire about discrimination is composed out of 15 questions about the forms of discrimination, feeling or witnesing discrimination, discrimination in delivering services, discrimination in employment, and reporting discrimination.

Open access

Viona Rashica

Abstract

The date 23 June 2016 brought in front of the United Kingdom and the European Union a very serious challenge named Brexit. In the June 23, 2016 referendum, the British voted to leave one of the most unique international organizations in the world, thus putting the EU in front of the UK’s request for the activation of Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, which the EU is facing for the first time. Brexit is opening new chapters in the history of the UK, while the EU is engaging with the procedures of the voluntary withdrawal of an important member state, which is known about its high political and military role in the world. Some experts of international relations and European studies say that Brexit will have much more consequences for the UK, some for the EU, but truth is that Brexit will be accompanied with many consequences for both of its protagonists. Its risks are very serious so they may result with the dissolution of the UK. Meanwhile, the increase of euroscepticism within the EU’s member states, with particular emphasis the presence of Eurosceptic voices in its most important members is at a very worrying level. Based on these facts, the knowledge about the real meaning of Brexit is necessary. Therefore, the main focus of this research lies in the classification of the main political consequences of Brexit for the UK and the EU.

Open access

Agim Poshka

Abstract

The issue of hate speech is widely present in the Balkan Peninsula and although it has a serious impact in inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations, it has never been addressed properly by the academia or the judicial systems. This paper aims to outline the main principles that define hate speech from the linguistic and legal perspective. Throughout the paper several international cases of hate speech are cited along with the measures that western European countries take in order to minimize the level of stereotypes and public discrimination. In the second part, the paper brings examples from degrading hate speech cases coming from public figures in Macedonia. In addition, a few comparative cases from the international practice have been cited in order to perceive if an egalitarian society is possible in Macedonia from the aspect of language usage without the hatred constituents by aiming to develop an acceptable public discourse for all.

Open access

Georgijs Moisejevs, Linda Gailīte, Sergejs Isajevs, Liene Ņikitina-Zaķe, Inga Kempa, Dainius Jančiauskas, Ilze Ķikuste, Armands Sīviņš, Guntis Ancāns and Mārcis Leja

Abstract

Histamine has an important role in the process of the gastric mucosa inflammation acting via histamine receptor H2 (encoded by the gene HRH2). Single nucleotide polymorphism of the enhancer element of HRH2 gene promoter rs2067474 (1018G>A)may be associated with changes of expression of the receptor. We attempted to clarify the association of this polymorphism with gastric cancer and/or atrophic gastritis in the Latvian (Caucasian) population. The study group consisted of 121 gastric cancer patients and 650 patients with no evidence of gastric neoplasia on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Genotyping for rs2067474 was performed with the TaqMan probe-based system using a commercially available probe for RT-PCR. The frequency of the A allele in the gastric cancer group was 0.41% and in the control group — 1.54% (p = 0.231). No significant differences were found comparing genotypes between gastric cancer versus control patients (OR = 0.236, CI95% = 0.030–1.896), patients with (n = 165) versus without (n = 485) gastric metaplastic lesions (OR = 0.854, CI95% = 0.288–2.540) and patients with (n = 297) and without (n = 353) gastric atrophic lesions (OR = 1.145, CI95% = 0.451–2.906). Our findings suggest that the HRH2 -1018G>A polymorphism (rs2067474) is neither associated with gastric cancer nor the grade of atrophic gastritis in the Latvian (Caucasian) population.

Open access

Mehdi Ashraf-Khorassani, William M. Coleman, Michael F. Dube and Larry T. Taylor

Summary

Free amino acids have been isolated via optimized enzymatic hydrolysis of F1 tobacco protein using two cationic resins (Amberlite IR120 and Dowex MAC-2). Optimized enzymatic conversions of the protein as a result of systematic variations in conditions (e.g., time, temperature, pH, enzyme type, enzyme concentration, anaerobic/aerobic environments, and protein concentration) employing commercially available enzymes, were consistently higher than 50% with qualitative amino acid arrays that were consistent with the known composition of tobacco F1 protein. Amberlite IR120 was shown to have a much higher efficiency and capacity for isolation of amino acids from standard solutions and from hydrolysate when compared with the results using Dowex MAC-2. Two columns packed with conditioned Amberlite IR120 (120 × 10 mm,12–15 g resin) and (200 × 25.4 mm, 60–65 g resin) were used to isolate two batches (2.5–3.0 mg and 13–15 mg) of free amino acids, respectively. A relatively inexpensive analytical methodology was developed for rapid analysis of the free amino acids contained within the enzyme hydrolysate. Commercially available enzymes, when employed in optimized reaction conditions, are very effective for enzymatic conversion of tobacco F1 protein to free amino acids.

Open access

Marina Tikhonova, Anne Ingver and Reine Koppel

Abstract

High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of wheat are important factors in the determination of bread-making quality. They are responsible for elasticity and polymer formation of wheat dough. In the present study, 43 winter and 40 spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars originated from Estonia, Belarus, Finland, Denmark, France, Germany, the Great Britain, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and New Zealand were characterised for Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 allelic composition using PCR method. Analyses were conducted with one DNA marker for identification of Glu-D1 allele encoding subunit Dx5, three DNA markers for Glu-A1 Ax1, Ax2* and AxNull subunits. It was determined that 32 (74.4%) winter and 35 (83.3%) spring cultivars had allele Glu-D1d, and 23 (53.5%) winter and 33 (78.6%) spring — Glu-A1a or Glu-A1b alleles, which have positive effect on dough properties. Polymorphism at Glu-A1 locus was detected in 15 cultivars, and 9 cultivars were polymorphic for locus Glu-D1. The obtained results were compared with published SDS-PAGE data. Complete or partial agreements were found for 78.1% of Glu-A1 and 70.6% of Glu-D1 alleles. Rapid and accurate identification of wheat Glu-1 alleles by molecular markers can be used for selection of wheat genotypes with good bread-making potential.

Open access

Clemens Ruthner

Abstract

It has always been a mantra of Habsburg history that Austria-Hungary never had colonies. This article investigates why Bosnia-Herzegovina can be regarded as such indeed, developing a check list of factors from critical colonial history, showing that it is a Eurocentric view actually that prevents us from recognizing colonialism on European soil.

Open access

Inta Belogrudova, Dace Grauda, Lita Lapiņa, Gunta Jakobsone, Daina Roze, Reinis Ornicāns, Oksana Fokina and Isaak Rashal

Abstract

According to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 75% of endangered species should be preserved in ex situ collections till 2020. The genus Liparis has a lot of recognised taxons, but only one species, Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich., grows in Europe. L. loeselii is a rare and endangered orchid species occurring in Europe. In Latvia L. loeselii is classified as the third category of endangered and protected species. To develop the best conservation strategy, the knowledge concerning the genetic differences of protected plants in a particular area is crucial. For this purpose, the genetic diversity of L. loeselii populations from different Latvian habitats was tested. The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism method (iPBS) was used for population genetic diversity evolution. In total, 54 accessions from nine habitats were collected and analysed. L. loeselii leaves have a high content of phenols that reduce the quality of extracted DNA. It was found that the percentage of polymorph loci varied among the populations of L. loeselii growing in different habitats; some of the populations were genetically homogeneous. The genetic diversity levels of L. loeselii populations are related with the population age and the growing conditions.

Open access

Agim Poshka

Abstract

This paper reflects on the interaction that language and economy have in society versus an ethnocentric approach that sees other languages as challenges instead of an opportunity. The paper analyses the role that bilingualism has in the economy and how economy can impact the promotion of flexible language policies in order to open new markets. Throughout the discourse a strong focus is placed on the dilemma: can language impact and make economy beneficial? The study aims to explore how multicultural societies which often have one dominant language can benefit by opening language diversity to the business habitat with a specific focus on particular linguistic and economic developments in the Balkans after the fall of Yugoslavia. In the second part this global issues are analyzed in the local context. The study brings examples from Macedonia on how the private sector is much more advanced and innovative compared to the state institution. During this discourse few corporations active in Macedonia are analyzed in order to size the positive impact that flexible usage of language has on the economy and how state institutions can replicate this positive model. Other factors such as culture and the neurolinguistics studies have been considered as well.

Open access

Seung Hyun Hyun and Hyeonseong Jin

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine how knee compression affected kinetic variables during vertical jumps. Ten healthy males, age 20s, performed a single maximum vertical jump and a ten-consecutive vertical jump trial without knee compression (control condition) and with knee compression. The collected data of ground reaction force were used to analyse the vertical jump height (VJH), peak active force (PAF), decay rate (DR), peak passive force (PPF), loading rate (LR), and the coefficient of variation (CV). During a maximum vertical jump, knee compression increased the magnitudes of DR, PAF, and VJH by 19.8%, 3.41%, and 4.87%, respectively, compared to those under a control condition. During ten consecutive vertical jumps, PAF and VJH showed statistically significant difference according to the repetition count. Also, the mean and CV of PAF, DR, LR, and VJH over consecutive jumps were higher in magnitude under knee compression condition than under the control condition.