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Adewale A. Adekiya

Abstract

The high rate of job loss in most crude oil dependent countries, which may be attributed to the recent drop in the price of this commodity in international markets, has intensified the perception of threats associated with potential job loss among the employees who are still employed. Hence, perceived job insecurity, its associated outcome, coupled with how it can be mitigated has become a global phenomenon, which requires the attention of managers and practitioners alike. In this work, we built upon Hobfall’s conservation of resource theory (CRT) to present a research model that links employee’s self-efficacy and gender to the strength or weakness of the relationship between self-esteem and self-perceived job insecurity. Research data were collected from 153 randomly selected Nigerian Bank employees out of 217 drawn from a total population of 509. Based on the results from relevant statistical analysis, it is discovered that, while increase in self-esteem would lead to a significant decrease in job insecurity perception, such significant decrease is, however, not associated with self-efficacy and gender meaning that these variables are not moderators in the self-esteem/perceived job insecurity relationship. In line with these outcomes, we conclude by recommending that managers should focus on developing intervention strategies aimed at improving employee self-esteem with a view of reducing perceived job insecurity. In addition, important areas in need of future research were also identified.

Open access

Tanja Zdolšek Draksler and Karin Širec

Abstract

The literature review shows a lack of research on the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial competencies in relation to entrepreneurial intentions. Further development of the field is needed, but, because of the shortage of suitable research models or because they only partially cover the complex area of entrepreneurial competencies, the purpose of this article is the formulation of a new, updated research model (based on the existing models). Thus, theoretical research of entrepreneurial competencies based on the competence study has been performed. Through in-depth analysis of existing entrepreneurial competencies research models, a congregated hybrid research model is proposed. A new conceptual research model for studying the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial competencies in relation to entrepreneurial intentions has been developed. The model will serve for empirical testing of investigated phenomena. The original contribution is in the formulation of a unique research model and the construction of a customized measuring instrument for studying the phenomena of entrepreneurship education impact on entrepreneurial competencies and entrepreneurial intentions.

Open access

Agnieszka Lipieta

Abstract

In the light of Schumpeter’s pioneering vision of economic evolution the innovations and innovative entrepreneurs play a fundamental role in the economic development. However, imitations and producers-imitators are essential in diffusing and adapting innovations into the economic exchange processes. In this context the aim of the paper is to model and analyse some properties of imitative mechanisms appearing within the economic evolution. Innovative and imitative mechanisms defined in Hurwicz’s conceptual apparatus are analysed in the economy determined by the use of topological tools usually applied in the general equilibrium theory. As a result it is shown that, in the economy under study, imitative mechanisms are the reasons for and the consequences of innovative mechanisms as well as that the innovative and imitative processes can coexist in the framework of the same innovative mechanism. Moreover it is proven that under some assumptions equilibrium in the economic system analysed can be obtained as a consequence of either of an innovative or an imitative mechanism.

Open access

Anna Matysek-Jędrych

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to identify and assess, on a comparative, intra-country basis, the existing practices and developments in central bank accountability for financial stability, from a new-macroprudential policy-perspective. The paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on institutional arrangements for macroprudential policy. The debate as to whether the combination of monetary policy and financial supervision within one institution is not new. Nevertheless it is far from being resolved. The paper points to the need to establish clear, formal and robust mechanisms of central bank involvement in the process of executing macroprudential policy, at least as a data collection and analyzing institution.

Open access

Vytautas Paliukas and Asta Savanevičienė

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems are rapidly evolving and becoming more common in management. Managers in business institutions are faced with the decision taking challenges and large amounts of data to be processed combining and harmonizing rational data with creative human experience in decision making. The aim of the study is to reveal the main obstacles of the harmonization of creative and rational decisions making in quality management using AI technologies in the Quality Management System (QMS). The first section presents a literature review of approaches and trends related to AI technology usage in organisations for data processing and creative-rational decision making, rational and creative quality management decision making and paradigms in decision harmonization. The Main Results section presents practical analysis and testing experience of automated AI Quality Management System developed at a higher education institution. During the analysis, an interview method was applied to find out specific system implementation issues. In the last section, the main analysis results and further development possibilities are discussed. The main findings and conclusions disclose two main problematic areas which may be defined as obstacles for rational and creative management decisions in quality management, related with clear responsibility distribution and assignment between data inputters and experience interpreters and duplicated qualitative data which AI system is not capable of rationalizing at the present development stage, speech and language processing techniques used when data processing algorithms cannot cope with the dual data processing technique, because in practice the system interprets and rationalizes only one category of data either quantitative - based on rational defined indicators, or qualitative, based on language recognition and speech related data interpretation. Managers’ experience in harmonizing creative human experience in organisation’s quality management was evaluated as positive. Data processed by tested AI system allows for rationalization of creative experience with ready quantitative data output from QMS system and final harmonized strategic quality management decisions.

Open access

Maciej Cieślukowski and Mihai Mutascu

Abstract

From October 2017 the European Union envisages the abolition of the so-called sugar quotas and minimum prices for buying sugar beet. As a consequence of these changes the sugar levies paid by the sugar factories of the Member States will cease to apply. The article identifies the fiscal effects of the abolition of these levies. The European Union and the Member States will lose some of their budget revenues. The structure of Member States’ burdens for GNI payments will also change as well as their operating balance relative to the EU budget. Through the change Poland will gain, whereas some large net contributors will lose, i.e. the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Open access

Chinazor Lady-Franca Obunike

Abstract

The study aims at investigating the effect of voluntary career transition on women-owned micro business growth. The independent variable ‘voluntary career transition’ is used as a single construct while the dependent variable ‘business growth’ is decomposed as a multi-construct of sales, employees and assets growth. The population of the study comprises 384 persons, while the sample size used is 250 micro businesses owned by women, who are formal employees of organisations. Average distribution is used to select the number of questionnaires that were distributed by the ten lines of business selected for the study. The study employs self-constructed questionnaire items to measure the independent, while an adopted questionnaire is used for firm growth. Frequencies and descriptive statistics are used to analyse the data collected from 104 questionnaire respondents, while the regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that voluntary career transition has a very high positive effect on the employment creation, a high positive effect on the sales growth and a very low positive effect on the asset growth of the business under study. The study, therefore, concludes that although carrier transition from paid employment to micro-businesses might be a difficult carrier choice and unattractive decision, for most women, it has been proven to be a contributing factor that affects the growth of women micro business. The study, therefore, suggests that organisational management and policymakers should encourage intrapreneurs and micro businesses.

Open access

Richard J. Sweeney

Abstract

Court packing greatly threatens democracy. This paper examines, compares and draws conclusions from two attempts: The PiS government is near to packing Polish courts; President Roosevelt tried but failed to pack the U.S. Supreme Court in 1937. In most democracies a head of government with a legislative majority and strong party control can pack courts, giving complete control. The United States escaped; Roosevelt lacked complete party control. Poland is unlucky; PiS is strongly controlled. Peaceful domestic protest is necessary, but Poland’s hope is from EU-level institutional pressure, supported by major democracies, to reverse packing and prevent further seizure of power.

Open access

Michał Jurek

Abstract

The main objective of the paper is to verify the vanishing interim regime hypothesis (so-called bipolar view) and to analyse factors that may influence the probability of use of intermediate exchange rate regimes, especially in emerging and developing economies. In order to accomplish the research objectives the evolution of exchange rate regimes is presented with the special consideration of decisions of IMF member states in this respect. Next a logistic regression model that estimates the probability of use of an intermediate regime is applied. The results achieved allow a challenge to the vanishing interim regime hypothesis. Empirical observations support this hypothesis only in advanced countries and not in their emerging and developing peers.

Open access

Marin A. Marinov