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Open access

Muhammet Murat Celik and Nizami Duran

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro efficacy of Glycyrrhetinic acid against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains, as compared with conventional antibacterial agents.

Methods: A total of 41 H. pylori isolates were used, 6 of which were of standard strains (NCTC 1637), 8 of which were drug-sensitive, and 27 were resistant to drugs isolates. Clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance in all strains of H. pylori were determined by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method. MIC study was performed by using microdilution broth method.

Results: Glycyrrhetinic acid was found to be effective against H. pylori NCTC 1637 in doses of 12.0±4.38 µg/mL, while the MIC value of clinical H. pylori isolates susceptible to antimicrobials was 20.8±10.11 µg/ml. It was found that the MIC values for antimicrobial-sensitive clinical H. pylori isolates was higher when compared with H. pylori NCTC 1637 strains. The MIC values of the standard antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant H. pylori strains were higher than H. pylori NCTC 1637 strains and drug-sensitive H. pylori strains. The MIC value was found to be 14.22±7.77 µg/ml for metronidazole, 3.89±1.90 µg/ml for clarithromycin, 2.33±1.0 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 2.44±0.88 µg/ml for levofloxacin and 4.89±2.47 µg/ml for tetracycline, whereas the MIC value of Glycyrrhetinic acid was 26.67±8.0 µg/ml in metronidazole-resistant H. pylori isolates. Besides, MIC values of the antimicrobials and 18ß-Glycyrrhetinic acid among the strains resistant to clarithromycin were as follows: 3.25±2.12 µg/ml for metronidazole, 9.71±4.54 µg/ml for clarithromycin, 2.06±1.32 µg/ml for amoxicillin, 3.88±4.22 µg/ml for levofloaxacin and 3.25±1.04 µg/mL for tetracycline and 22.0±11.11 µg/ml for Glycyrrhetinic acid.

Conclusion: Glycyrrhetinic acid had significant antimicrobial activity against H. pylori strains. Although further in-vivo studies are needed on antimicrobial activity of Glycyrrhetinic acid, increased resistance to drugs currently used in treatment suggests that Glycyrrhetinic acid may be a potential agent for the treatment of H. pylori.

Open access

Valentin Ionut Stroe, Paul Adrian Calburean, Gratiana Andreea Lates, Cristina Flavia Al-Akel, Claudiu Ghiragosian, Anisoara Pop, Horatiu Suciu and Emoke Horvath

Open access

Sedat Abusoglu, Duygu Eryavuz, Ceylan Bal, Cemil Nural, Erel Ozcan, Mehmet Yildirimel, Saadet Celik and Ali Unlu

Abstract

Background: Oxidative damage is of great importance for patients with breast cancer. Thus, studies were performed to identify the relationship between breast cancer and oxidative stress biomarkers.

Objectives: In this study, our aim was to find out the oxidative and antioxidant status, serum thiol-disulphide levels in subjects with breast cancer.

Methods: This study was conducted between March and June 2018 with 82 control subjects (aged between 32-67 years) and 127 breast cancer patients (aged between 27-66 years) (p=0.058) in Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. Serum myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase, prolidase were analyzed with kinetic spectrophotometric and thiol-disulphide, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), ceruloplasmin were detected by colorimetric methods.

Results: Serum levels of catalase [199.3 (16.4-489.9) vs 81.6 (18.2-322.9) (kU/L)], MPO [124±28 vs 101±31 U/L], disulphide [25 (11-61) vs 18 (2-41) µmol/L], IMA [0.66 (0.31-3.30) vs 0.62 (0.19-1.31) absorbance unit (ABSU)] and prolidase levels [2217±538 vs 1456±401 U/L] were higher in patients than control subjects (For all p<0.001 except for IMA p=0.031). Native thiol [342±60 vs 391±52 µmol/L] and total thiol levels [396±56 vs 430±52 µmol/L] were lower in patients compared with the control group (For all p<0.001).

Conclusions: Levels of serum thiol/disulphide and prolidase might be reliable indicators for determining oxidative status in certain patient populations.

Open access

M. Kožár, H. Hamilton and J. Koščová

Abstract

Skin wounds are a common presentation in small animal practice. The successful management of wound healing in dogs and cats requires knowledge of the physiology of the wound healing process and the application of an appropriate therapeutic intervention. Many wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. Infections can delay wound healing, impair cosmetic outcome and increase healthcare costs. Because of a lack of papers giving an overall prevalence of bacteria in different types of wounds, 45 samples were taken from patients treated at the Small Animals Clinic, Section of Surgery, Orthopaedics, Roentgenology and Reproduction of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice during the years 2017 — 2018 to determine the types of wounds and the prevalence of bacterial contamination of the wounds. Samples were obtained by using cotton-tipped swabs and then cultivated on Sabouraud’s plates in the Institute of Microbiology and Gnotobiology of the University. All 45 animals used in this research were first subjected to an anatomical and clinical exam to determine the patient’s health condition and the status of the wounds. Of these 45 samples, 9 were negative. Of the remaining 36 samples, 12 were cultivated and tested to give only the genera of the bacteria present, whilst 24 were tested more extensively for a specific diagnosis of the species. The most common wound was due to a bite from another animal; these made up 12 out of the 45 cases (26.67 %). There were 10 cases of dehiscence of old wounds (22.22 %), whereas there were only 2 cases of surgical wound complications (4.44 %). There were 5 puncture wounds or fistulas (11.11 %), 4 lacerations (8.88 %), 1 degloving injury (2.22 %), 1 seroma (2.22 %), 1 foreign body (2.22 %), 1 crushing injury (2.22 %), 1 case of contusion and necrosis (2.22 %), 1 cases of dermatitis with resulting pruritic lesions (2.22 %), and 1 cutting injury from a tight wire collar (2.22 %). Five cases (11.11 %) were wounds of unknown aetiology. The most commonly found bacteria was Staphylococcus intermedius, which was found in 14 out of the 45 wounds (31.11 %). From this study it appears that the first consideration for treatment of infected wounds should be a treatment plan which will have a high efficacy against Staphylococcus spp. However, despite the high prevalence of Staphylococcus spp., our results revealed that they are not present all of the time.

Open access

Agnieszka Wojtkowiak-Giera, Elżbieta Wandurska-Nowak, Monika Derda, Wiesława Jankowska, Paweł P. Jagodziński and Edward Hadaś

Abstract

Introduction: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the rapid activation of the innate immune response to a variety of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the level of expression of the tlr4 gene in mouse intestines during the intestinal phase of experimental trichinellosis.

Material and Methods: The experimental material consisted of the small and large intestines of BALB/c mice infected with Trichinella spiralis sampled at 4, 8, and 16 days post infection (dpi).

Results: A statistically significant increase was demonstrated in the tlr4 mRNA level isolated from the infected mice jejunum at 4, 8, and 16 dpi over the uninfected control. Moreover, at 4, 8, and 16 dpi in the jejunum of infected mice, a strong positive reaction for the presence of TLR4 protein compared with that of uninfected mice was observed.

Conclusion: Infection with T. spiralis changes the expression of the tlr4 gene in the small intestine of the mouse host.

Open access

Ana Oliveira, Joana S.P. Devesa, Peter B. Hill, Vanessa Silva and Patrícia Poeta

Abstract

Introduction: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis often cause skin diseases in dogs.

Material and Methods: An online survey was e-mailed to veterinary practices nationwide covering demographics, diagnosis methods, and oral and topical treatment options. Of the 740 surveys sent, 100 complete replies were obtained.

Results: The majority of clinicians were unaware of the existence of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases guidelines or did not follow them (53%). Oral antibiotics were used universally for superficial bacterial folliculitis treatment, particularly amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalexin (94%), enrofloxacin (67%), or marbofloxacin (60%). For fold dermatitis (FD) and otitis externa (OE), oral antibiotics were also given as treatment in 88% and 82% of cases, respectively. Oral antifungals were often prescribed for generalised Malassezia dermatitis (85%), FD (70%), and OE (59%). S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were frequently treated topically, particularly with antibacterials or antifungals only, or a combination of antibacterials, antifungals, and glucocorticoids. Alternative options such as honey-based products were not frequently used.

Conclusion: Our survey suggests that oral antibiotics are overused by Portuguese clinicians despite the spread of antibiotic resistant S. pseudintermedius. Oral antibiotics and antifungals are commonly prescribed for skin conditions manageable with topical treatments.

Open access

Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Jacek Zwoliński, Anna Sawczyn-Domańska, Anna Kloc, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Robert Chmura and Jacek Dutkiewicz

Abstract

Introduction: Exposure to zoonotic factors in veterinary practice is closely related to the nature of the work. The main aim of the study was to determine the risk of selected zoonotic infections among the occupational group of veterinarians in Poland.

Material and Methods: Blood samples of 373 veterinarians (162 males and 211 females) from 12 provinces of Poland were collected by the venipuncture of a forearm for serological tests. Commercial immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) were used for detection of specific IgG antibodies to Echinococcus granulosus, IgM and IgG to Leptospira spp., and IgM, IgA, and I and II phase IgG to Coxiella burnetii. Enzyme-linked fluorescence assays (ELFA) were used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

Results: Positive results were found in 209 (56.0%) veterinarians for at least one of the examined diseases. The overall proportion of participants found to have specific Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the IgM and/or IgG assays amounted to 44.5%. The presence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies was found in 16 (4.3%) subjects, while Leptospira spp. antibodies were detected in 63 (16.9%) veterinarians. Among the 373 veterinarians examined, no Echinococcus granulosus antibodies were found.

Conclusion: Results of the study seem to indicate a slightly elevated risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection and a moderate risk of infection with Leptospira spp. and Coxiella burnetii in veterinarians.

Open access

Y. Nechiporuk, V. Novak and V. Dudka

Abstract

The comparative studies of the tarsal joint capsule of cattle (Bos taurus) and canines (Canis lupus) have clarified general patterns of the structural organization of a joint capsule and the species-specific features of its angioarchitectonics. The differences in the formation of the fibroelastic layer and the location of vascular fields in the cases of animals with different stances were established. The zones of intensive intraorganic vascularization of the joint capsule were revealed; that being—the plantar and dorsal surface in the case of cattle, the lateral and medial surfaces—in case of the canine.

Open access

K. Huňáková, M. Hluchý, M. Kuricová, K. Ševčík, J. Rosocha and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Exosomes are nanovesicles that are involved in inter-cellular communication and are secreted by many types of cells. Exosomes secreted by stem cells can effectively transport bioactive proteins, messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) organelles and play important roles in intercellular communication and the regulation of tissue regeneration. This transfer of bioactive molecules plays a main role in: tumor invasion and metastasis, immune and inflammation modulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neurobiology. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) exosomes provide new perspectives for the development of an off-the-shelf and cell-free MSC therapy for the treatment of cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis. This report describes the progress in exosome studies and potential clinical use for osteoarthritis treatment.