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Asghar Roozpeykar, Iraj Maghfouri-Moghaddam, Mehdi Yazdi and Bizhan Yousefi-Yegane

Abstract

Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Burdigalian to Langhian Asmari Formation, outcropping in the Khorram Abad Anticline, in the north-west of the Zagros Basin allow us to interpret the carbonate ramp history during the Early–Middle Miocene time span. The biota producing sediments in this system are dominated by the rhodalgal and echinofor skeletal-grain associations. Based on the facies distribution and paleoecology of the biotic content, the ramp is divided into three parts: inner, middle and outer ramp. The inner ramp is further subdivided into an inner zone where the main components include imperforate benthic foraminifera and molluscs associated with subordinate coral patch reefs, and an outer shallow-water zone dominated by wackestones–packstones with benthic foraminifera and coralline red algae facies. A shoal belt dominated by coralline red algae, benthic foraminifera, and coral fragments occurs in a distal inner ramp position. The middle ramp is characterized by rhodoliths, crustose red algal wackestone and thinly branching corals associated with encrusting foraminifera in proximal parts, and coralline red algal with larger benthic foraminifera and bryozoan colonies in the deeper oligophotic zone. The outer ramp includes proximal parts dominated by bryozoans, echinoids and molluscs with subordinate planktonic foraminifera and the distal part characterized by planktonic foraminifera and deep epifauna and infauna benthic foraminifera. Changes in trophic conditions and sea-level fluctuations, which are related to tectonic activities, seem to be the important factors in skeletal production and the spatial distribution of carbonate factories.

Open access

Alfred Uchman, Hans Egger and Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar

Abstract

The Untersberg section (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria) provides an expanded and biostratigraphically well constrained deep-sea record of the Paleocene–Eocene transition in the north-western Tethyan realm. At the base of the Eocene, massive carbonate dissolution and a shoaling of the calcite compensation depth (CCD) by at least 1 km is recorded by 5.5 m-thick red claystone, which is intercalated into a grey marlstone succession. Previous studies documented the benthic foraminifera extinction event (BEE) in this claystone. Now biodeformational structures and trace fossils were investigated in this interval to evaluate the impact of the extinction event on the macrobenthic tracemaker fauna. Using the stratigraphic distribution pattern of trace fossils, the lowermost Eocene claystone can be subdivided into three parts: (1) the lower part shows a trace fossil assemblage consisting of Chondrites isp., Planolites isp., Thalassinoides isp., and Zoophycos isp., (2) the middle part is characterized by primary sedimentary lamination and exceedingly rare ichnofossils, and (3) the upper part shows a less abundant and less diverse trace fossil assemblage than the lower part, indicating a slow recovery of the macrobenthic tracemaker community. This pattern demonstrates that macrobenthic communities were severely affected by the ecological perturbations in the earliest Eocene. The change in sediment colouration towards red colour in the middle part of the Paleocene–Eocene transition at the Untersberg section, together with decrease in bioturbation degree indicate that oxygen consumption was rather reduced during the PETM, and the loss in bioturbation is thus unrelated to oxygen limitation. Trace fossils can be used to improve the resolution of the benthic extinction interval and provide an excellent proxy for the precise determination of timing of the climax of this global event.

Open access

Kamaleldin M. Hassan

Abstract

Seboah Hill - a small body of peralkaline granite (< 0.1 km2) in south-western Egypt containing aegirine minerals ± magnesiohornblende ± riebeckite, cut by dikes of riebeckite-aegirine rhyolite, and exhibiting high radioactivity in veins of K-feldspar-aegirine-chalcedony-quartz ± trace hematite ± trace goethite was sampled and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma methods. Whole-rock chemical compositions of 5 granite, 3-rhyolitedike and 10 radioactive vein samples are presented. Of special significance is the enrichment of trace elements and rare earth elements (REE) in the radioactive veins. These include up to 6081 ppm Zr, 4252 ppm Ce, 1514 ppm Nd, 1433 ppm La, 1233 ppm Nb, 875 ppm Y, 388 ppm Pr, 350 ppm Th, 222 ppm Sm, 189 ppm Gd, 159 ppm Dy, 153 ppm Hf, 83 ppm Er, 76 ppm Yb and 58 ppm U. The chondrite-normalized patterns of REE in all samples show only limited variation and have negative europium (Eu) anomalies. These findings suggest that the sources of the REE are genetically related. Values of the Eu anomalies vary from 0.38-0.41 for the radioactive veins, 0.39-0.53 for the granite and 0.31-0.44 for the rhyolite dikes. Eu variations are consistent for different paragentic stages.

Open access

Alexandra Herg and Kurt Stüwe

Abstract

In order to constrain tectonic models for the nature of the Eoalpine high pressure belt at the eastern end of the Alps, we investigate the formation pressure of metamorphic rocks along a profile between the Koralpe and the well-known UHP rocks of the southern Pohorje mountains. Rocks from three different regions are considered: (i) the rocks of the southernmost Koralpe to the north, (ii) the rocks of the Plankogel Unit between the Plankogel detachment and the Drava valley and (iii) the rocks between the Possruck range and the southern Pohorje mountains. In the Koralpe, pelitic rocks record a formation pressure around 15 – 18 kbar, as reported in the literature. For the Plankogel Unit, we derive pressures between 7.1 ± 1.95 kbar and 11.5 ± 3.42 kbar at 650 °C and recognize only a single Eoalpine metamorphic event. For the high grade rocks of the Pohorje mountains, we derive peak metamorphic pressures (explored with the garnet-muscovite-kyanite-quartz assemblage) that rise from 16.2 ± 3.45 kbar (at 700°C) in the north, to 23.9 ± 2.49 kbar (at 700 °C) in the south. There, we also recognize a later lower pressure event that is derived from pressure calculations with the full equilibrium assemblage. This lower pressure event yields similar conditions around 10 ± 2 kbar at 650 °C for the entire north-south transect within the Pohorje mountains. Peak metamorphic conditions in the Koralpe and Pohorje regions are matched by a continuous field gradient of about 1.3 kbar per 10 kilometers distance corresponding to a depth increase of about 0.5 km per kilometers distance assuming lithostatic conditions. We suggest that this supports that the two units may be interpreted together in terms of a 45° dipping subducting plate. Above this subducting plate, it is inferred that a slab was extracted that was located between the Plankogel Unit and the high pressure rocks, causing a first exhumation stage that is associated with buoyant upwards tilting of the subducted slab to mid crustal levels. Within this model, the Plankogel Unit was located in the hanging wall of the extracted slab and the Plankogel detachment forms the suture of the extracted slab. Exhumation from mid crustal levels to the surface during a 2nd stage occurred due to erosion and normal faulting. This normal faulting is responsible for some 10 km of upward displacement of the Pohorje mountains relative to the Koralpe and ultimately for the current distribution of lithologies on a map scale.

Open access

Bibhuti Gogoi and Ashima Saikia

Abstract

The Ghansura Felsic Dome (GFD) occurring in the Bathani volcano-sedimentary sequence was intruded by mafic magma during its evolution leading to magma mixing. In addition to the mafic and felsic rocks, a porphyritic intermediate rock occurs in the GFD. The study of this rock may significantly contribute toward understanding the magmatic evolution of the Ghansura dome. The porphyritic rock preserves several textures indicating its hybrid nature, i.e. that it is a product of mafic-felsic magma mixing. Here, we aim to explain the origin of the intermediate rock with the help of textural features and mineral compositions. Monomineralic aggregates or glomerocrysts of plagioclase give the rock its characteristic porphyritic appearance. The fact that the plagioclase crystals constituting the glomerocrysts are joined along prominent euhedral crystal faces suggests the role of synneusis in the formation of the glomerocrysts. The compositions of the glomerocryst plagioclases are similar to those of plagioclases in the mafic rocks. The results from this study indicate that the porphyritic intermediate rock formed by the mixing of a crystal-rich mafic magma and a crystal-poor felsic melt.

Open access

Pitsanupong Kanjanapayont, Peekamon Ponmanee, Bernhard Grasemann, Urs Klötzli and Prayath Nantasin

Abstract

The NW–trending Three Pagodas shear zone exposes a high–grade metamorphic complex named Thabsila gneiss in the Kanchanaburi region, western Thailand. The quartz mylonites within this strike–slip zone were selected for strain analysis. 2–dimensional strain analysis indicates that the averaged strain ratio (Rs) for the lower greenschist facies increment of XZ– plane is Rs = 1.60–1.97 by using the Fry’s method. Kinematic vorticity analysis of the quartz mylonites in the shear zone showed that the mean kinematic vorticity number of this increment is Wk = 0.75–0.99 with an average at 0.90 ±0.07. The results implied that the quartz mylonites within the Three Pagodas shear zone have a dominant simple shear component of about 72% with a small pure shear component. A sinistral shear sense is indicated by kinematic indicators from macro– to micro–scale. We conclude that the Three Pagodas shear zone deformed in the process of sinstral shear–dominated transpression, which is similar to the Mae Ping shear zone in the north.

Open access

Jarosław Majka, Mateusz P. Sęk, Stanisław Mazur, Bożena Gołębiowska and Adam Pieczka

Abstract

Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).

Open access

Giovanni Coletti, Giulia Bosio, Alberto Collareta, John Buckeridge, Sirio Consani and Akram El Kateb

Abstract

Acorn barnacles are sessile crustaceans common in shallow-water settings, both in modern oceans and in the Miocene geological record. Barnacle-rich facies occur from polar to equatorial latitudes, generally associated with shallow-water, high-energy, hard substrates. The aim of this work is to investigate this type of facies by analysing, from the palaeontological, sedimentological and petrographical points of view, early Miocene examples from Northern Italy, Southern France and South-western Peru. Our results are then compared with the existing information on both modern and fossil barnacle-rich deposits. The studied facies can be divided into two groups. The first one consists of very shallow, nearshore assemblages where barnacles are associated with an abundant hard-substrate biota (e.g., barnamol). The second one includes a barnacle-coralline algae association, here named “barnalgal” (= barnacle / red algal dominated), related to a deeper setting. The same pattern occurs in the distribution of both fossil and recent barnacle facies. The majority of them are related to very shallow, high-energy, hard-substrate, a setting that represents the environmental optimum for the development of barnacle facies, but exceptions do occur. These atypical facies can be identified through a complete analysis of both the skeletal assemblage and the barnacle association, showing that barnacle palaeontology can be a powerful tool for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

Open access

Emese Szőcs and Kinga Hips

Abstract

The paper focuses on the reservoir heterogeneity of a sandstone formation in which the main issue is the evaluation of diagenetic features. Integrated data from field observations as well as petrographic and geochemical analyses from surface and core sections from different structural settings were applied. In the shallow marine Pétervására Sandstone, eogenetic minerals are comprised of calcite, pyrite and siderite; mesogenetic minerals are albite, ankerite, calcite, quartz, mixed layer clays and kaolinite. Dissolution occurred during mesogenetic and telogenetic phases. Ankerite is only present in the core setting, where the sandstone is at ca. 900 m depth and diagenetic calcite predates quartz cementation. Based on stable isotopic values (δ13 CV-PDB −18.3 to −11.4 ‰ and δ18 OV-PDB −9.5 to −7.2 ‰), diagenetic calcite is of mesogenetic origin and was precipitated from fluids migrated along fault zones from the underlying, organic matter-rich formation. In outcrop setting, on the other hand, calcite is present in a larger quantity and postdates quartz cementation. Carbon isotope data (δ13 CV-PDB = −9.9 to −5.1 ‰) indicate less contribution of light isotope, whereas more negative oxygen isotopic values (OV-PDB = −13.1 to −9.9 ‰) likely imply higher temperature of mesogenetic fluids.However, carbon–oxygen isotope covariation can indicate precipitation from meteoric fluid. In this case, further analyses are required to delineate the final model.