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Pitsanupong Kanjanapayont, Peekamon Ponmanee, Bernhard Grasemann, Urs Klötzli and Prayath Nantasin

Abstract

The NW–trending Three Pagodas shear zone exposes a high–grade metamorphic complex named Thabsila gneiss in the Kanchanaburi region, western Thailand. The quartz mylonites within this strike–slip zone were selected for strain analysis. 2–dimensional strain analysis indicates that the averaged strain ratio (Rs) for the lower greenschist facies increment of XZ– plane is Rs = 1.60–1.97 by using the Fry’s method. Kinematic vorticity analysis of the quartz mylonites in the shear zone showed that the mean kinematic vorticity number of this increment is Wk = 0.75–0.99 with an average at 0.90 ±0.07. The results implied that the quartz mylonites within the Three Pagodas shear zone have a dominant simple shear component of about 72% with a small pure shear component. A sinistral shear sense is indicated by kinematic indicators from macro– to micro–scale. We conclude that the Three Pagodas shear zone deformed in the process of sinstral shear–dominated transpression, which is similar to the Mae Ping shear zone in the north.

Open access

Jarosław Majka, Mateusz P. Sęk, Stanisław Mazur, Bożena Gołębiowska and Adam Pieczka

Abstract

Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).

Open access

Giovanni Coletti, Giulia Bosio, Alberto Collareta, John Buckeridge, Sirio Consani and Akram El Kateb

Abstract

Acorn barnacles are sessile crustaceans common in shallow-water settings, both in modern oceans and in the Miocene geological record. Barnacle-rich facies occur from polar to equatorial latitudes, generally associated with shallow-water, high-energy, hard substrates. The aim of this work is to investigate this type of facies by analysing, from the palaeontological, sedimentological and petrographical points of view, early Miocene examples from Northern Italy, Southern France and South-western Peru. Our results are then compared with the existing information on both modern and fossil barnacle-rich deposits. The studied facies can be divided into two groups. The first one consists of very shallow, nearshore assemblages where barnacles are associated with an abundant hard-substrate biota (e.g., barnamol). The second one includes a barnacle-coralline algae association, here named “barnalgal” (= barnacle / red algal dominated), related to a deeper setting. The same pattern occurs in the distribution of both fossil and recent barnacle facies. The majority of them are related to very shallow, high-energy, hard-substrate, a setting that represents the environmental optimum for the development of barnacle facies, but exceptions do occur. These atypical facies can be identified through a complete analysis of both the skeletal assemblage and the barnacle association, showing that barnacle palaeontology can be a powerful tool for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

Open access

Emese Szőcs and Kinga Hips

Abstract

The paper focuses on the reservoir heterogeneity of a sandstone formation in which the main issue is the evaluation of diagenetic features. Integrated data from field observations as well as petrographic and geochemical analyses from surface and core sections from different structural settings were applied. In the shallow marine Pétervására Sandstone, eogenetic minerals are comprised of calcite, pyrite and siderite; mesogenetic minerals are albite, ankerite, calcite, quartz, mixed layer clays and kaolinite. Dissolution occurred during mesogenetic and telogenetic phases. Ankerite is only present in the core setting, where the sandstone is at ca. 900 m depth and diagenetic calcite predates quartz cementation. Based on stable isotopic values (δ13 CV-PDB −18.3 to −11.4 ‰ and δ18 OV-PDB −9.5 to −7.2 ‰), diagenetic calcite is of mesogenetic origin and was precipitated from fluids migrated along fault zones from the underlying, organic matter-rich formation. In outcrop setting, on the other hand, calcite is present in a larger quantity and postdates quartz cementation. Carbon isotope data (δ13 CV-PDB = −9.9 to −5.1 ‰) indicate less contribution of light isotope, whereas more negative oxygen isotopic values (OV-PDB = −13.1 to −9.9 ‰) likely imply higher temperature of mesogenetic fluids.However, carbon–oxygen isotope covariation can indicate precipitation from meteoric fluid. In this case, further analyses are required to delineate the final model.

Open access

Anna Sieczka, Filip Bujakowski and Eugeniusz Koda

Abstract

The present paper discusses studies related to the preparation of a hydrogeological model of groundwater flow and nitrate transport in an area where a precision farming system is applied. Components of water balance were determined using the UnSat Suite Plus software (HELP model), while the average infiltration rate calculated for the study area equalled 20 per cent. The Visual MODFLOW software was used for the purpose of modelling in the saturated zone. Hydrogeological parameters of the model layers, inclusive of hydraulic conductivity, were defined on the basis of results of column tests that were carried out under laboratory conditions (column experiment). Related to the dose of mineral nitrogen used in precision fertilisation (80 kg N/ha), scenarios of the spread of nitrates in the soil-water environment were worked out. The absolute residual mean error calculated for nitrate concentrations obtained from laboratory and modelling studies equalled 0.188 mg/L, the standard error of the estimate equalling 0.116 mg/L. Results obtained were shown graphically in the form of hydroisohypse maps and nitrate isolines. Conclusions were drawn regarding the possibility of using numerical modelling techniques in predicting transport and fate of nitrates from fertilisers applied in precision agriculture systems.

Open access

Kristina Ivančič, Mirka Trajanova, Stjepan Ćorić, Boštjan Rožič and Andrej Šmuc

Abstract

The Miocene evolution of the area transitional from the Eastern Alps to the Pannonian Basin System was studied through the paleogeographic evolution of the Slovenj Gradec Basin in northern Slovenia. It is based on mapping, section logging, nannoplankton biostratigraphy, and petrography. The results are correlated with the lithological column of the borehole MD-1/05. The evolution of the basin is connected with the development of the Pannonian Basin System, and the global 3rd order cycles, which influenced the connection with the Mediterranean Sea. Sedimentation started in the Karpatian in a fluvial to lacustrine environment and terminated at the end of the Early Badenian. During this period, three transgression–regression cycles were recorded. The first transgression occurred in the Karpatian and corresponds to the TB 2.2. cycle. The sediments reflect proximity of the hinterland. After a short break in sedimentation, the Early Badenian deposition followed. It marks the second transgression into the SGB, the first Badenian, correlated with the TB 2.3 cycle. There are signs of a transitional environment, which evolved to marine in advanced stages. At the high-stand system tract, the sea flooded the entire Slovenj Gradec Basin. Subsequent reduced quantity and diversity of the microfossils marks the onset of the second regression stage. It is followed by the third transgression, the second in the Badenian, correlated with the TB 2.4 cycle. The late Early Badenian deposition continued in the lower-energy, though occasionally still turbulent environment. Silty sediments with upward increasing content of organic matter indicate shallowing of the basin, until its final diminishing. Layers of fresh-water coal already bear witness to the existence of restricted swamps. After the Early Badenian, the area of the Slovenj Gradec Basin became dry land, exposed to erosion.

Open access

Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Renata Gasek, Marek Michalik, Janusz Dańko and Tadeusz Plaskota

Abstract

Ash samples from biomass combustion or co-combustion with coal were analysed. The aim of this study of ash was to determine its mineral and chemical composition, and the chemical composition of solutions obtained during one-step water extraction. Besides the chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were applied.

The mineral and chemical composition of ash samples differ strongly. The content of heavy metals in the ash is generally low, but in some samples the limits of the content of some elements determined for fertilizers or soil amendments are exceeded. The relatively poor correlation between the concentration in leachate and bulk content in ash indicates that numerous elements are present in different forms in the studied samples. The results indicate that the potential use of biomass ash, or ash from biomass–coal co-combustion, requires complex studies that explore ash and leachates.

Open access

Andrzej Ślączka, Marta Bąk, Clemens Pfersmann, Veronika Koukal, Michael Wagreich, Szymon Kowalik and Martin Maslo

Abstract

Two sections of the klippen zones in the Wienerwald area have been investigated for their stratigraphy: (1) The Gern section of the Main Klippen Zone, a part of the Gresten Klippen Zone, and (2) the St. Veit Klippen Zone in the Lainz Tunnel and the neighboring outcrops in western Vienna. New biostratigraphic data are based on radiolaria from siliceous intervals and a few findings of calcareous nannofossils from marlstones. In the Gresten Klippen Zone, radiolarian assemblages from limestones of the Gern locality indicate a middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian age of the Scheibbsbach Formation.

Radiolarian and nannofossil data from the St. Veit Klippen Zone in the Lainz railway tunnel locality, as well as correlated outcrops from the Lainzer Tiergarten and the Gemeindeberg in the southwest of Vienna, indicate the presence of mainly Bajocian to lower Oxfordian red radiolarites and cherts (Rotenberg Formation). Siliceous, grey limestones and cherts of the Fasselgraben Formation range from the upper Oxfordian–Kimmeridgian to the Valanginian–Barremian.

The Main Klippen Zone was derived from the European margin to the north, and this zone is regarded as a Helvetic paleogeographic unit. The St. Veit Klippen Zone in the Lainz Tunnel section contains no ophiolitic material and shows a tectonic contact with the surrounding Rhenodanubian nappe system, which indicates no primary sedimentary contact of the St. Veit Klippen Zone with the Flysch units, as well as demonstrating the presence of two structurally separated Alpine tectonic units. Thus, a direct correlation with the Ybbsitz Zone is not supported, and an original paleogeographic position in the transition from the Penninic Ocean to the Austroalpine continental fragment is proposed.

Open access

Piotr Wyszomirski

Open access

Kinga Borek

Abstract

Any definable relation between falling temperature and the compressive strength of shale rocks should provide a useful predictive tool aiding optimization of the results of hydraulic fracturing. In this research, an automeasuring hydraulic press, a thermo-camera and the Fluent ANSYS software were used. The results of laboratory simulations, and the effects of experiments conducted on shale rocks to determine permanent changes in compressive strength, are presented. As both frozen rocks and rocks returned to room temperature show diminished compressive strength. It is suggested that prior freezing of rocks can increase the efficiency of fracturing.