The article presents an economic potential of the trade exchange between China and European Union using the new type of transport – basing on vacuum trains. This technology bases on transporting goods in a capsule. The capsule is moving inside an airtight tube, where the air pressure is decreased to about 100Pa. Owing to the low pressure, an air friction value is very low too, what is enabling to move the capsule inside the tube without meaningful energy loss from the air friction. The transport will provide a very fast and economical shipping of goods between China and Europe. It is expected, that the capsules can reach the speed about 1000 km/h.
Taking all these factors into account, there are new opportunities for the trade exchange with China. It applies especially to the transshipment- industrial districts like Sichuan, Yunnan, Kweichow, and the Chongqing city. The potential of these provinces is a population about 200 millions people, a territory which is twice the size of France and quick economic growth – about 10%. In 2016, the train from Chengdu to Łódź have left 463 times, in 2017 there are 1000 trains planned. The economy of Sichuan is basing on: agriculture, hydropower, big resources of natural gas, heavy industry, and electronics. In Chongqing, there are mainly: automotive, heavy industry, electronics, and chemical industry. In Yunnan dominate agricultural processing, natural resources, and heavy industry. From the viewpoint of polish business, the Sichuan province and the Chongqing city are especially noteworthy. These two are firstly making use of developing Chinese economy. They are also contributing to the „New Silk Road” – OBOR project (One Belt and One Road Initiative) and aspiring to become the trade, financial, scientific-technological and telecommunication-transport center.
The article is a synthetic outlook at Konrad Adenauer’s life, activity and the legacy of that politician, described in a tendentious way in the past period, and nowadays – after a temporary increase in the interest during the first years of systemic transformation – deserving a closer examination. In the initial part of the article, some integration concepts of past centuries have been outlined. Then, in a biographical sketch, Adenauer’s private and public activities were characterized, falling into diverse political periods, ranging from imperial Germany, to the post-war formation of the foundations of a reborn democratic state. His participation in these events is outlined. The main achievements of Adenauer during almost 30 years of work in the Cologne municipality are pointed out and the repressions he suffered during the Nazi regime and his participation in the post-war reconstruction of Germany were discussed: long-term leadership in the CDU and the 14-year period of government as the first chancellor of democratic post-war Germany. It was pointed out that the political line he designated, the active presence of Germany in the uniting Europe, proved to be very stable and continued by his successive successors.
The aim of the presentation is to Define the scope of Chinese Culture 正確的說明中國文化 and to introduce Chinese civilization, history, Chinese religions, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism (in general but also specific meaning), the concept of Chinese archeology, Beijing man – 北京人, including discoveries like: china-ware, powder, silk 生絲, (Kung-fu, zhonguogongfu 中國功夫, Tai-chi-chuien, taijichuen 太極拳, and famous Chinese medicine, zhongyiao 中藥. Chinese Anthropological philosophy, Confucian ethic – 孔夫子的倫理. Silk road which linked Rome 羅馬 to Xian – 西安. The idea of harmony 和諧: joy of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism 佛家, 道家, 孔教 is included in Christianity. Taking into account Confucian humanism and traditional Chinese society 傳統的社會… Summing up everything is embraced by the definition of Chinese culture 中國文化.
The article talks about a common searching by the Western and Eastern countries the ways of solving environmental problems of humanity based on the improving the worldview reflections. The authors propose the dialogue of cultures as a methodological key solution to these problems. In the context of comparative analysis the authors characterize the ecologism of tao-Buddhistic traditions and values of the Oriental attitude, that have a great influence on Western civilization. The environmental philosophy of attitude towards nature is offered in the article as a common product of dialogue of cultures. The authors also present the experience of using the Eastern philosophical concepts of attitude towards nature in Ukraine.
The Chinese legal system has got many keystones. One of them is Roman law. It can be seen in obligations, in the very important part of private law. China has got a unique history and the Latin civilization has got the same characteristic too. Despite the fact of the independent development of the Roman Empire and the Chinese Empire those two legal systems were able to meet in the reception of Roman obligations in China in the twentieth century.
That process may create some disputes. Roman law is one of the features of Western civilization. In the Far East, the situation is different. It is not possible to understand the Chinese legal culture without Confucianism, other philosophies, the role of relationships and the heritage of communism.
The connection of two different legal systems in the sphere of obligation which was ended in 1999 when The Contract Law was promulgated may be evaluated in different ways. Maybe the most appropriate is the phrase that in current China everything is possible but nothing is easy.
Regional disparities are a research and political theme that has received considerable attention. This is also because regional disparities constitute a pull factor of migration, because high regional disparities may seriously threaten territorial integrity, and because socioeconomic development potential is not fully realized in lagging regions. Not surprisingly, regional disparities are an important research and political theme for New Silk Road countries and this is also reflected in the focus of this paper. The primary aim of this paper is to characterize regional disparities in selected New Silk Road countries, namely in China, in Russia and in Visegrad Four countries, and subsequently to discuss the relationship between regional disparities and the One Belt, One Road Initiative. The results point out the presence of a pattern of regional disparities in the countries. In this regard, the importance of the East-West gradient, of spatial hierarchy, and of inherited specialization is particularly emphasized. Reflecting the pattern of regional disparities, the potential of the One Belt, One Road Initiative to stimulate development of lagging regions is indicated.