Social responsibility is seen as an institutional innovation, which leads to a chance of social rules. Social responsibility also stimulates other types of innovation, which could work as feedback to keep or as a strategic change of social responsibility. The strategy for improvement of quality creates opportunities to identify and to learn from those who are farther along the road to exceptionality and have improved quality or their products and services by improving their organization. The initiative to improve quality of products and services by improving the organization has to be based on clearly defined principles that help define key functions that support organization’s activities, required resources and serve as supporting tools to improve quality. For an organization to have long term and continuous success it needs to fulfill expectations of all stakeholders and as part of this we can discuss Corporate Social Responsibility – CSR. This includes behaviour of organizations that goes beyond the prescribed legislative requirements, but includes activities that benefit not only the organization itself, but also its employees and the public.
One of the rationalization areas is the material supply process. New tasks of material supply are: integration of supply with the operation of the entire system, especially at the product design stage, effective use of material resources, reduction of the level of supply costs from the point of view of production costs. In the conditions of unit and small batch production the materials requirement needs to be carefully planned and optimized due to the use of many different kinds, types and sizes of materials and dynamic changes of demand over time. In this situation there are needed tools enabling the measurement of production costs for particular tasks on the basis of currently realized processes. One of these tools is activity based costing which is a groundwork for decision making process in the material supply area. Basing on activity based costing, a model of materials requirements planning was developed, which considers minimizing the number of different kinds and sizes of materials by using alternative materials and, consequently, lowering production costs.
The publication analyses the way of managing and improving the quality of the production process of aluminum pistons for internal combustion engines. The aim of the article is to propose a method of analysis of the effectiveness of individual control methods used in the process of controlling the aluminium piston. Thanks to the location of a control point with the highest share of product non-compliance detection in the production process, it is possible to reduce quality control points by less effective points, which will contribute to lower costs or shorten the time of production processes. In view of the increasing demands on the efficiency of the checkpoints for components in internal combustion engines, the issue is important and topical.
It is a well-known fact that research and development (R&D) activities are an important factor in maintaining a business on the market. Nowadays, not only is conducting R&D crucial for entities from new technology sector, but also for companies from each sector, including service entities. The aim of the study was to investigate R&D activities among the biggest publicly traded entities in Poland and to examine the way economists and engineers understand the notion of R&D. We hypothesize and find that R&D expenditure is underestimated or unrecognized in financial reports disclosed by service sector enterprises. Further, we surveyed professional economists and engineers to investigate their knowledge about R&D notion and ability to distinguish operational (day-to-day) actions from R&D activities. The study results indicated difference between the opinions expressed by economists and engineers. Our findings are important for regulators and practitioners as they pinpoint that a substantial change in the definition of R&D is required in order to facilitate a wider adoption of R&D by companies rendering services.
This article deals with the adjustment of a 3D printer for laser engraving and material cutting. The print head can be fitted with a solid laser diode module, which achieves a compact size while retaining its useful power. Two paths lead to the use of such a concept. It is possible to equip the existing print head with a module, which also brings a number of disadvantages such as, for example, the reduction of the printing space or the need for a suitable mounting design. A more elegant solution is to consider this in the design of a 3D printer and design a system to exchange the print heads for 3D printing and laser engraving. Such a solution allows full utilization of the workspace and simple installation of the effector for the required type of work. According to the installed power of the laser diode, it is possible not only to engrave but also cut material such as thin wood, veneer or acrylic glass. The use of such a machine is not only for graphic elements but for the creation of various stencils, boxes or simple models, which can be made up of plastic-burning pieces. The laser module is controlled by a driver, which is designed for the device. This is connected to a 3D printer control board. It is, therefore, necessary for the control board to have at least two pins, which can be controlled after adjusting the control firmware. Most laser modules are normally equipped with an adjustable lens, which is used to concentrate the focus of a laser for the given distance against the worktop. Thus, the modified 3D printer can perform its function as a multi-purpose CNC machine, while a basic platform similar for both devices is used.
On the basis of legal, environmental, social, and economic factors, reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain issues have attracted attention among both academia and practitioners. A growing number of publications is an expression of reverse logistics trend in the literature which has been lasted for around 40 years. Hence, a comprehensive literature review of recent and state-of-the-art papers is vessential to draw a framework of the past, and to support researchers in their works by indicating journals or adequate references. The aim of this paper was to prepare appropriate literature review procedure and following it to review all papers whose main topis was reverse logistics. The papers were analyzed and categorized to construct a useful foundation of past research with respect to the scale of number of research on reverse logistics, considering stages of reverse logistics development, targeted journals, main research centres and leading countries. Moreover there were reccommended the most valuable papers as references.
The purpose of the study is presentation of the method of increasing the competitiveness of the mining industry through the demonstration of the possibility and potential in closing the loop of supply chains through waste management. A critical analysis of the source literature and an arithmetic analysis of statistical data in static and dynamic perspectives were accepted to be the research method. It has been found that the structure of the level of mining wastes and the level of their recovery rates demonstrate a large potential of closing the loop of chains in this industry and, at the same time, a potential to extend the chains through directing the material from recovery to various sectors. This constitutes an example of the direction of activities that are in line with the EU strategies for the economies of other states which possess this type wastes.
Outbound logistics channels are of crucial importance for an efficient construction materials logistics management and impacts on customer satisfaction. However, there is limited knowledge of the outbound logistics channels for construction material in Nigeria. This study aims to identify and examine the current outbound logistics channels used by the Nigerian construction material manufacturing industries. A quantitative research method using a case study approach was adopted in this research. The purposive sampling technique was chosen, where six construction material manufactured and distributed within five states capital and Abuja in the North-central region of Nigeria were selected for this study. A research instrument was developed and used in conjunction with an observation protocol in the form of a template. The data were collected through observations, direct measurement onsite and archival records of transactions. A descriptive method of data analysis was employed to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that there exist six alternative outbound logistics channels that can be used separately or in combination with each other to deliver materials to end users. The study concludes that the research finding provides a potential knowledge and understanding of the manufacturers’ outbound logistics channels that can be used at the start of a project to accomplish effective planning and delivery of the whole project. The study also established the average transportation cost per average ton and average transportation cost per average distance driven for construction material delivery. This information can be used for construction material transportation management.
Innovation is at the core of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs)/construction micro, small, and medium enterprises (CMSMEs) world over. Be that as it may, the overwhelming sorts of innovation among enduring and effective CMSMEs, and the effects of such innovation(s) on the achievement of the CMSMEs is hazy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the transcendent sorts of innovation among the successful construction micro, small, and medium enterprises. The examination utilized subjective research technique to exploratively decide the sorts of innovations. Recorded interviews comprised the exploration of information from 43 CMSMEs through 14 states out of the 19 states constituting northern Nigeria. While a semi-structured interview with open-ended questions was utilized to gather information through judgmental and snowballing examining procedure at stage 1 and 2 individually. Information was transcribe interpreted, open and axial codes examined and interpreted. The outcome uncover product innovation as the main type of innovation among different types of innovation and generally in charge of the accomplishment of the CMSMEs considered. The investigation improves the collection of learning regarding basic types of innovations within CMSMEs and proposes that effective CMSMEs give more consideration to product innovation to trigger their prosperity and different types of innovation. Moreover, the aftereffect of the examination proposed failing CMSMEs can endure when they focus on product innovation.
Few empirical studies have previously reported on the implementation of takt planning and utilizing Deming cycles (PDCA) to control construction workflows continuously. This paper presents a case study from the offshore renewable industry, closely related to construction. The paper aims to develop and evaluate a conceptual model combining takt planning and the Deming cycle within the offshore wind construction environment. The conceptual model has through interactions with construction experts been modified for a visual board implementation, covering two alternative processes with a fixed number of technicians per performing team. The knowledge base for the conceptual model is based on Takt planning implementation from the lean construction community and PDCA implementation from the lean production community. The main contribution of this paper is the development and evaluation of the conceptual model combining takt planning and the Deming cycle in a construction environment. This conceptual model has potential implications in the construction and refurbishment industry.