The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Hg in the muscle, hepatopankreas, kidney and gonads of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the middle course of the Nitra River, during spring and autumn seasons by AAS method. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 wet weight) in the muscle ranged as follows: Ni 0.15-1.18, Co 0.09-0.58, Pb 0.39-1.66, Cd 0.04-0.29, Hg 0.85-2.71. Statistically significant differences among individual tissues, as well as between seasons have been recorded. Higher metals concentrations were detected in inner organs than in muscle. Permissible limits for safe consumption in the case of Pb, Cd and Hg have been exceeded in 100%, 95% and 100%, respectively. Currently, for the Co and Ni are not set any permissible limits.
A total of 46 Swiss alpine does were examined. We analysed the composition of the milk and evaluated the body condition of the animals (BCS: 0.5 to 4.5 scale) on the same day in the last third of lactation. Goats were grouped according to their body condition for statistical calculations. We found that there was a statistically detectable relationship between body condition and milk composition of the goats. Together with the increase of BCS, the fat, protein and mineral contents in the milk increased as well. Significantly more fat, protein and mineral contents were found in the milk (6.01%;3.55%; 0,98%) in case of the well-conditioned (BCS 3.5) animals than in the thin ones (BCS 1.5-2) (4.56%, 3.11%, 0.77%) (P<5%). The concentration of milk sugar was similar between thin and better conditioned groups of animals, so the body condition did not affect these values. The importance of our study is that, the high fat and protein content of milk increases the yield of dairy products. If the animals can produce milk that has higher fat and protein content, than we can produce more dairy products that will bring more economic benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of body condition on milk yield and quality (milk composition) in dairy goats.
The rural development grants - among others - help to promote the competitiveness of the agricultural activities. Plantations take great interest in the southeastern part of Hungary. Farmers need to make soil tests before plantation of fruit and grape. We investigated the distribution of the main physical characteristics in this area. For the establishment of vineyards, the areas were adequate according to the pH, and salt content. The results of the soil tests show some strong relationships between the determined physical parameters.
Global warming and soil salinity are major constraints threat speared of Mediterranean endogenous flora, however little is known about the effect of these phenomena on seed germination patterns, particularly in Algeria. Germination test under laboratory controlled conditions had been carried out using seeds of Marrubium vulgare, Sideritis incana and Stachys ocymastrum. Seeds were submitted at temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C, after that and within optimum temperatures, various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations of 0, 34, 68, 102 and 136 mM were set to evaluated salinity effect. Germination was more satisfactory on temperatures ranged between 15 and 25 °C. Whereas, increased or decreased temperatures from the optimum bring to germination fall. High seed germination capacity had been showed on non-saline solution. While, germination had depressed by enhanced NaCl solution up to 136 Mm in which Final Germination Percentage are either significantly decreased (for S. ocymastrum seeds 18% germination) or absolutely inhibited (for M. vulgare and S. incana seeds), as well Initial Germination Day are delayed. Overall, data showed that germination patterns response varies among species, given that seed germination is remarkably limited by extremes temperatures and salinity.
The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of bees gastrointestinal Lactobacillus spp. of against Paenibacillus larvae. Content of the intestinal tract was cultured for isolation of Lactobacillus spp. Gut homogenates were plated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS, Oxoid) plates and incubated for 48-72h at 30°C anaerobically. Then, the identification of isolates with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was done. The bacterial strains Lactobacillus gasseri, L. amylovorus, L. kunkeei, L. fructivorans, Paenibacillus larvae were isolated from gut content of bees. The disc diffusion method was used for the determination of antimicrobial activities of the Lactobacillus supernatant against two strains of Paenibacillus larvae. The best antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against Paenibacillus larvae from gut was found in L. gasseri supernatant. Lesser degree of antimicrobial activity against P. larvae was found in L. kunkeei supernatant. The strongest antibacterial activity against P. larvae CCM 4438 was found in L. gasseri and L. amylovorus and the least antibacterial activity was found in L. fructivorans.
The study investigated the bioactive constituents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Platycerium bifucartum leaves. Chloroform fraction of P. bifurcatum was prepared by partitioning the ethanol extract with chloroform and water. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Fourier transformer-infrared (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) were used in the characterization of the bioactive compounds. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the chloroform fraction were evaluated using standard protocols. The fourier transformer-infrared analysis showed the presence of C=O, OH, CHO, C-F and -NH functional groups. GC/MS characterization gave benzeneethaneamine (33.3%), 2-amino-1-(4-methylphenyl) propane (17.04%), hydroxyurea (30.26%) and epinephrine (13.26). The extract inhibited the growth of the bacterial isolates. The fraction exhibited antioxidant properties that were comparable with ascorbic acid. The presence of these compounds showed that the leaves of Platycerium bifurcatum can be used for the treatment of some bacterial diseases.
Water quality of collapsible, concrete, earthen and natural ponds under different culture systems were assessed using of Photometer and tester. Temporal and spatial replications of samples were done in triplicates. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 4.6 to 6.8 mg/l, carbon dioxide 1.4 - 3.0 mg/l, nitrate 1.6 - 3.2 mg/l, phosphate 0.8 - 2.3 mg/l, calcium hardness 65- 100 mg/l, magnesium hardness 30 - 50 mg/l and total hardness 80 and 165 mg/l. Conductivity ranged between 346 - 472 μS/cm, total dissolved solids 232 - 316 mg/l, transparency 36 - 82 cm, alkalinity 105 - 245 mg/l, pH 6.35 - 8.03 and temperature 29.1 to 35.9 °C. Significant difference (P<0.05) was obtained among the parameters in the ponds showing the effects of the different culture systems on the water quality. Variations in the water quality was due to the presence of plankton and macrophytes found in earthen and natural ponds where semi-intensive and extensive culture were practiced, use of artificial feed in collapsible and concrete ponds where intensive culture was done, effects of respiration, photosynthesis and decomposition, source of water and materials used for the construction of the ponds. Water quality in the ponds under the different culture systems was good.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of different concentrations (500-7500 μg/mL) of gentamicin - GENT (aminoglycoside antibiotic) on the selected mammalian cell line (Vero - cell line from African green monkey kidney). Analysis of the cell morphological changes was microscopically evaluated (magnification × 400). Quantification of Ca, Mg and total proteins was performed using spectrophotometry on device Rx Monza (Randox). Quantification of Na, K and Cl was performed on the automatic analyzer EasyLyte. The cell viability was assessed using the metabolic mitochondrial MTT test. Vero cells were able to survive at concentrations of 500 (89.21 %), 1000 (79.54 %) and 2000 μg/mL (34.59 %). We observed statistically significant decrease of vital cell content at concentrations of 2000, 4500, 7500 μg/mL against control group. Vero cell line slightly reacted to the presence of GENT but total proteins and mineral parameters were not significantly affected. Vero cells were highly sensitive to GENT with a significant decrease of viability at concentrations of 2000 and 4500 μg/mL (P < 0.001). Our data reveal that GENT has a significant cytotoxic and adverse effect on the cell viability.
Among the ten species of the Nebria genus, present in the Romanian Carpathians, seven are the object of morphological, geographical distribution and molecular biological studies: Nebria (Eunebria) jockischi hoepfneri Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Boreonebria) heegeri Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Boreonebria) gyllenhali Schönherr, 1806, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reichei Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reitteri Rybinsky, 1902, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) bissenica Bielz, 1887, Nebria (Nebria) transsylvanica Germar, 1824, Nebria (Nebria) femoralis alpigrada Csiki 1905), collected from the Maramureș Mt., Rodnei Mt., Parâng Mt., Rarău Mt., Făgăraș Mt., Cozia Mt., Bucegi Mt., Retezat Mt., Muntele Mic and Semenic Mt. The morphological description exploits the body size, the elytral reflection, the colour of the appendages and the legs, the shape of the first antennary segment, its chaetotaxy and that of the submentum, the shape and size of the elytra and alae, the position of the bristles on the ventrites 4-5-6. The shape of the first antennary segment and its chaetotaxy appear as more discriminating criteria, but supposes the integrity of the bristles. The identification is sometimes malaise due to the fragility of the bristles (first antennomere, submentum). Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reichei Dejean, 1826 has a variable chaetotaxy of antenna, 1 to 3 bristles on the first antennomere. The individuals with yellow appendages and legs provided with 2 unequal length can be confused with transsylvanica. They are distinguished by the triangular shape of the aileron (S-shaped in transsylvanica). Molecular data are given for the first time on Carpathian Nebria. The mitochondrial markers (COI I, cyt b) clearly identify the species studied and confirm that alpigrada does not belong to transsylvanica. The results show an infraspecific variability of geographic and altitudinal origin in jockischi one of the most widespread species (gyllenhali, jockischi, reichei).
The most popular measure of the National Rural Development Programme in Romania for 2007-2013 was the measure 121 addressing the support for modernisation of agriculture While the success at the level of the Programme is measured by the achievement level of the assumed indicators the present analysis is focused on differences between the volumes of proposed, selected, contracted and concluded projects. These differences as observations and findings contribute as learning points to the further use of public support for investments in agriculture by three main categories of users: the administration with the procedural enhancement in programme implementation, the beneficiaries improving their approach and readiness for applications/projects and the consultants in perfecting their tools and work to support and smoothen the resources transfer in the process.