An Environmental Risk Assessment is an efficient technical and analytical method for analyzing environmental impacts and it supports the decision-making process connected with projects variants by using historical data collection, identification of regional risk sources, probability and impact estimation of signal risk type. In this article, an Environmental Risk Assessment was performed for groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfills in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland) to assess the impact of various factors on the quality of groundwater in the region. The assessment used qualitative and quantitative risk analysis methods, including cause and consequence analysis, completion of an effect/probability matrix and utilization of the SWOT analysis method. The results of the assessment indicate that use of the SWOT analysis was the best method for groundwater risk assessment in the examined area. The analysis included an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of leachate and groundwater quality (using data from a groundwater monitoring system), simulation of the longevity of both the top and bottom security system, spatial planning and an assessment of the impact of other parameters on groundwater, terrain and climatic conditions. The overall result for this analysis for the likely potential groundwater hazard was a score of -4. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is possible to consider additional factors that are likely to affect the water quality of the area under investigation or to use other methods that will be based on a time series analysis.
Energy needs are determined by three main factors: population growth, the economic development of society, and the scientific and technical level of production processes. These needs are increasing year by year in the world and in 2018 they exceeded 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. More and more countries are developing and implementing plans and strategies for significant coverage, within 50-100%, of their energy needs through renewable energy sources. The findings of this study revealed that Ukraine’s energy demand per year is 200 million tons of oil equivalent of energy resources. Currently, the share of renewable energy in the structure of energy consumption in Ukraine is 4.4%. The authors also acknowledged that at the same time, 115 million tons of agricultural plant waste and about 97 million tons of animal waste are generated annually in Ukraine, which makes it possible to produce 7.21 million tons of oil equivalent and 2.2 million tons of oil equivalent, respectively from these. The study found that the production of biofuels from agricultural waste will have social, economic and environmental effects. An efficiency matrix was constructed by the authors to determine these effects. Using the SWOT method of analysis, factors that will affect the development of biofuel production from agricultural waste were determined.
Mining is essentially an important income generating activity in the developing countries of the world. This is beneficial for their social and economic development and thus developing countries place a great dependence on their exploitation of mineral resources. The focal points for discussion in this article are the process of limestone mining, growth trends in limestone production, allocation of royalties, benefit sharing between limestone miners and local communities. The article undertakes an income-expenditure analysis of limestone contractors and transporters and considers local environmental issues including land degradation, rehabilitation, and compensation problems connected with the mining process. This study has been carried out in the Banor-Shiva limestone mining region which is located in the Sirmaur District of Himachal Pradesh State in India. The study calculated compound annual growth rates and benefit sharing between the miners and local people, and made a calculation of transport costs based on the mining rules in force and the actual practice prevailing in the region. The overall compound annual growth rates for limestone production are 16.2%, 1.6 % and 3.9% and for royalties are 14.1%, 8.5%, and 7.8 5 respectively for the State, District, and Banor-Shiva mining region over the study period. However, these growth rates have continuously decelerated and even found to be negative between the periods following the National Mineral Policies Act of 1993 and 2008. There is a sizeable divergence between the benefits from limestone mining shared between the indigenous communities and limestone miners highlighting the poor land acquisition practices in the study area. The financial benefits awarded by the miners in 2016-17 to the local communities are 1.22% whereas miners have appropriated the lion’s share with 81.37% of total limestone value. The revenue to the Government is 4.30% of market value of limestone. The transportation of limestone from quarry sites to the point of final sale is the largest cost factor in limestone miners’ expenditure which is 10% of the total market value of limestone. Adverse impacts of limestone mining operations in the vicinity such as public health problems, change in land use and cropping patterns, water pollution, lack of rehabilitation of the abandoned mines and unjust division of limestone receipts are the main contentious issues in the study area which are affecting the production and process of limestone mining. These have been reflected in the declining growth rates in production and royalties accrued from limestone produce.
Over decades human well-being has recognized from ecosystems, not only through material goods but also through nonmaterial assets namely cultural ecosystem services (CES). Regardless of increasing Ecosystem Services (ES) research over the last decade, cultural services assessment still remains neglected and is mainly limited to marketable services such as recreation and ecotourism. Obvious challenges in standardizing definitions and measurement units have brought about numerous difficulties in accounting cultural services and specific related indicators in decision-making processes. In that regard, the current review intends to create a reference list of CES categories and related measurement units with commonly used indicators. To put it another way, we analysis 80 publications to identify the most common CES indicators using in mapping various categories of CES approaches. Results prove that there are various methods can be used in assessing CES categories, whereas we found 57 indicators can be used for that and most of these indicators can be utilized in urban planning context as spatial indicators. Moreover, it is obvious that almost the same indicators can be used in evaluating most CES categories. For instance, in case of recreation and tourism indicators almost 50 % of all collected indicators can be used for mapping it, on the contrary, in case of spiritual and religious values. In conclusion, while there are various mapping methods of CES and different indicators, most of CES categories have relatively ignored by the planner and decision-makers such as education and inspirational values. Therefore, we recommend the use of the collected indicators and relevant measurement units in assessing neglected values in future research.
Private green spaces are considered an important part of urban greenery. However, the extent of private green spaces in an informal city like Kabul is unknown. To this end, this study has mapped out the private green spaces in the informal settlements of Kabul city. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-supervised image classification technique was used to identify these private green spaces in three of the 22 police districts (PDs) in the city. Briefly, the classification consisted of defining training samples, extraction of signature and classification of the imagery. As a result, 330.3 hectares were identified as private green spaces, which made up 12.3 % of the total area of informal settlements in these three districts. With 217.1 hectares, PD7 had the largest area of private green spaces among the three police districts, contributing to 65.7 % of the overall area of private green spaces, followed by PD8 (21.3 %) and PD16 (13 %). In future, the map generated in this study could be used to monitor, manage and conserve the existing urban greenery in the face of private green spaces. The results could also be utilised by the Kabul Municipality and other relevant departments to implement an upgrading programme in the informal settlements of Kabul city, which would lead to fulfilling the environmental needs of the residents.
The present study shows the regulatory proposal related to plastic by the Peruvian government and also, the previous initiatives are described so that it can be taken as a reference for the successful implementation in other countries, taking into account the regulatory and business aspects at the same time.
The endeavors to preserve the forest in Bali cannot be isolated from the existence of local wisdom. Customary law, as a decision of Hindu religious leaders in Bali, is one of the local wisdoms which has been maintained by the society. This study examined the values of local wisdom held by indigenous people and reviewed the preservation of forests from a Hindu perspective. This research was conducted in three villages in Bali, namely Tenganan Village, Manggis Sari Village, and Sangeh Village. The residents of these villages believed that forest is a sacred area which must be maintained and preserved properly.
The aim of this study is to differentiate old-field plant communities along the abandonment time and/or environmental gradient in the landscape surrounded villages with established Czech settlers in Romanian Banat area conserving traditional agriculture, and to identify site factors which cause plant diversity of particular vegetation types. Study area: Wider territory centered by the village Sfânta Elena, southern Romania ((44°40’ N; 21°43’ E). Methods: We collected 97 phytosociological relevés covered the same number of old-fields in the area and the following habitat parameters were measured: soil pH, available phosphorus, total carbon and nitrogen, Heat Load Index. Software TURBOVEG / JUICE was used to collect and elaborate the data set of relevés. Old-field vegetation was classified into five basic plant communities using TWINSPAN (all the botanical material includes 291 plant species). For each community, we detected diagnostic species according to their fidelity index. The presence of mowing, grazing or burning was registered for recorded stands. Ecological preferences of each community were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Vegetation-environment relationships were analysed using ordination method – Cannonical correspondence analysis (CCA) in CANOCO for Windows (version 4.5) to find the main variability gradients within the dataset. Scatter plot relationships between variables were constructed. Main results and conclusions: Dependence of number of species (alpha diversity) on the abandoned field’s age exhibits an unimodal shape of this relationship with the maximum peak of species diversity in plant stands aged approximately 13 years. The most importnat ecological factors and/or type of management in the relationship to the old-field plant composition show the following significance order: available phosphorus content in the soil (P), total nitrogen content in the soil (N), presence of burning, length of abandonment (old-field age), carbon/nitrogen ratio in the soil (C/N). Other parameters (grazing, mowing, zero management) do not demonstrate effective impact according to our dataset and seem to be equal to the absence of burning.
Knowledge and study of breeding birds’ biology is essential to understand the dynamic, assess productivity and identify threats. The population of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) was studied during three consecutive breeding seasons (2013−2015) in the Chettabah forest. Each year, arrivals of Booted eagles are recorded during March (15 individuals in 2013, 12 in 2014 and 11 in 2015). For the three years of study, the mean breeding pair’s density was 1.23 ± 0.153/km2, incubation period ranged from 33 to 38 days, whilst the frequency distribution of clutch size was 67.6% for 2 eggs, 27% for 1 and 5.4% for 3. Amongst the 63 eggs monitored, 55 hatched. No significant variation in hatching rate was observed during the 3 years (90% in 2013, 76.19% in 2014 and 84% in 2015). The comparison of breeding parameters with those reported in Spain showed a noticeable similarity. Further investigations should be conducted to improve the provision of information to support sound management interventions of this North African population.
Snowbed vegetation is one of the most sensitive alpine vegetation type to the climate change, because shortened period of snow cover has essential impact on the snowbed environment. We focus on its changes in the Western Tatras, which is a part of the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). The assessment of changes in snowbed vegetation is based on the method of pair comparison. In 2016–2018, we resampled 21 historical phytocoenological relevés of Festucion picturatae and Salicion herbaceae alliances from 1974 and 1976. Historical data include 45 species, while recent data include 50 species. We observed a decrease in the frequency of species characteristic for snowbeds and, on the other hand, an increase in that for strong competitors, especially grasses and small shrubs from adjacent habitats. According to Ellenberg’s ecological indices, there is some increase in temperature and decrease in light ecological factors in snowbed habitats. In S. herbaceae data, a statistically significant increase in the average species number was observed with new species that penetrated from the adjacent habitats. Changes in species composition between historical and recent data are confirmed by Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination diagram. Linear mixed-effect models showed big variability in factors that have impact on phytodiversity; nevertheless, temperature is the most significant factor.