The presented study considers the impact of public expenditure related to land development on the potential of an urban green infrastructure to provide ecosystem services (ES). The study site (Szachty) is located in Poznań, the fifth largest city in Poland. In the article, we recognised the type of expenditure (permanent infrastructure and ongoing maintenance), the costs and the influence on ES (stimulating, weakening or no relevant). The study shows that the financial policy concerning the study area is focused on creating an infrastructure that enhances cultural ecosystem services (CES). However, the creation of recreational facilities weakens the potential of the area for supplying regulating services concerning maintaining nursery populations and habitats. The results highlight the need for scientific support for policymakers in understanding the synergies and trade-offs between ES, resulting from financial decisions. This is particularly important in the decision-making process in the areas of high natural value, in which full, long-term effects of the decisions may be barely visible and incomprehensible for the society. Showing the impact of financial decisions on the structure and level of ES may provide arguments supporting a more complex and high-quality social dialogue, including balancing the interests of various stakeholders.
This study presents the information on the dynamics of changes in land use/land cover (LULC) spatially and temporally related to the causes of flooding in the study area. The dynamics of LULC changes have been derived based on the classification of Landsat imagery for the period between 1990 and 2016. Terrain surface classification (TSC) was proposed as a micro-landform classification approach in this study to create flood hazard assessment and mapping that was produced based on the integration of TSC with a probability map for flood inundation, and flood depth information derived from field observation. TSC as the micro-landform classification approach was derived from SRTM30 DEM data. Multi-temporal Sentinel-1 data were used to construct a pattern of historical inundation or past flooding in the study area and also to produce the flood probability map. The results of the study indicate that the proposed flood hazard mapping (FHM) from the TSC as a micro-landform classification approach has the same pattern with the results of the integration of historical inundation or previous floods, as well as field investigations in the study area. This research will remain an important benchmark for planners, policymakers and researchers regarding spatial planning in the study area. In addition, the results can provide important input for sustainable land use plans and strategies for mitigating flood hazards.
This investigation additionally recognizes partner cooperation issue and furthermore to moderate the real issue through subjective and quantitative appraisal of riverine wetland. Considering a floodplain wetland in rustic West Bengal, the concentration was extended to perceive the type of wetland capacities as per the idea of individuals’ contribution by group examination. Be that as it may, NDVI was connected to ponder the total weeds condition into the wetland to decide the connection between Water Quality Index (WQI) with Normalized Difference Vegatation Index (NDVI) and its impact on valuation. In ANOVA, which is computed by MINITAB programming, centrality level was lower than 0.05 for each case.
Similar to most cities in Europe/the world, Kosovo also faces the problem of urban mobility, which is characterised by congestion. The most concerning problems are: waste of time, money, energy consumption, environmental problems and others. They arise due to the imbalanced state of using urban mobility in Pristina (Prishtinë), while eco-travels are minor. In order to reduce these problems, this paper aimed to examine the current situation of urban mobility in Pristina by analysing the mobility indicators of cars, trains, buses, bicycles and walking, in relation to purpose, distance and time. The research methodology was the direct survey method conducted with the citizens of Pristina and daily immigrants over a week. The results of the survey showed that 44% of the participants used cars for travelling, while other transportation alternatives (soft and eco-transport) were limited and problematic. In the absence of institutional practices for collecting periodic data, the results of this study will not only contribute in filling the information gap, but also will properly address the needs for transportation planning in Pristina and design objectives for a multimodal transportation strategy in this city to lessen the negative impacts of the aforementioned problems and increase travel facilities.
The aim of this study is to highlight three of the urban geomorphosites of Craiova city, which can be promoted in a specific itinerary for geotourism or integrated, along with other objectives, in different touristic products. The selection of the three sites was made after analysing historical documents, images and maps, which show the landscape transformation, the development of the community and the settlement expansion. For the assessment of the sites, the method created by the University of Rome was used and two stages were performed: a) the geomorphological analysis by multitemporal and multidisciplinary approaches and b) the geomorphoheritage characterisation by calculating the VSGh index (Value of a Site for Geotourism index) based on the presence of five attributes. One of the three sites, The Valley of the 7 Wells, is nowadays an invisible geomorphosite with an important geotouristic and educational potential.
A waterfall is a very steep (commonly nearly vertical) fall of some magnitude in a river course. Waterfalls are widespread fluvial landforms that have been described from many parts of the world. Thirty-eight World Heritage Properties include waterfalls in their designation. In addition, some waterfalls are actual or potential geomorphosites. Waterfalls occur in almost all climatic environments, though they are particularly common in formerly glaciated areas. They occur on a huge diversity of rock types, although in general, they do not form persistent or large falls on soft or unconsolidated rocks. Waterfalls also occur in a wide range of geomorphological settings: glaciated areas, areas of active tectonism, areas of sea-cliff retreat and sea-level change, great escarpments on passive margins, basins with river capture, rifted and faulted areas and areas that have been subjected to megaflooding. Multiple processes account for waterfall retreat and varying rates of recession. Although the greatest interest has been in rates of waterfall recession, there are examples of waterfalls that prograde as a result of tufa deposition.
The predominant culture of Sabah consists of a motley of cultures, each of which has been brought in by the different ethnic groups from their indigenous cultures. The total population of Sabah consists of more than thirty different ethnicities and races, and the number of languages and dialects go over eighty. Hence the cultural tourism in Sabah would have varied criteria that can be looked into. The aim of this paper is to use the scoring model in operational research to rank these decision criteria according to highest scores. The preferability of tourist visiting these hot spots is done by ranking their preferability based on a weightage. Highly scored attraction factors would attract more tourists to visit cultural spots in Kota Kinabalu. Therefore, these would help operational managers in the tourism industry to focus on promoting and marketing this sector.
This paper presents an efficient method and its usage for the three-dimensional random bearing capacity evaluation for square and rectangular footings. One of the objectives of the study is to deliver graphs that can be used to easily estimate the approximated values of coefficients of variations of undrained bearing capacity. The numerical calculations were based on the proposed method that connects three-dimensional failure mechanism, simulated annealing optimization scheme and spatial averaging. The random field is used for describing the spatial variability of undrained shear strength. The proposed approach is in accordance with a constant covariance matrix concept, that results in a highly efficient tool for estimating the probabilistic characteristics of bearing capacity. As a result, numerous three-dimensional simulations were performed to create the graphs. The considered covariance matrix is a result of Vanmarcke’s spatial averaging discretization of a random field in the dissipation regions to the single random variables. The matrix describes mutual correlation between each dissipation region (or between those random variables). However, in the presented approach, the matrix was obtained for the expected value of undrained shear strength and keep constant during Monte Carlo simulations. The graphs were established in dimensionless coordinates that vary in the observable in practice ranges of parameters (i.e., values of fluctuation scales, foundation sizes and shapes). Examples of usage were given in the study to illustrate the application possibility of the graphs. Moreover, the comparison with the approach that uses individually determined covariance matrix is shown.
Businesses today face great competition in their operations, making it necessary for them to adopt a “customer-oriented” approach. In this competitive environment, where customers are more valuable, enterprises accrue great advantages from an understanding of the characteristics of the target audience in all dimensions. This is where the importance of geo-marketing and demographic segmentation for enterprises emerges. This study performed a geo-demographic segmentation of the urban neighbourhoods of Eskişehir province and sought to determine the characteristics of the people living in these neighbourhoods at the household level. The Groups created using the SPSS package program as well as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were then mapped on the GIS platform as urban neighbourhoods.
The study aims at interrogating the transformation of education in Buffalo City following integration of East London with its black townships. This paper is largely framed from a quantitative paradigm that draws from statistical data in linking population changes with educational patterns in the study area. Census data was used to trace population changes in post-apartheid South Africa, while performance in education was informed by matriculation results. Quantitative data were complemented with key informants’ qualitative opinions. The results indicate that the quality of education in former “white” schools is better than that of “township” schools. There are several pull factors that attract township learners to former white schools, albeit with integration challenges. The study concludes that if these challenges are masked to education planners and policy makers, they militate against the envisioned liberalisation of the democratic education system.