Just as contemporary cartographic works, old maps were usually made for specific purposes, e.g. related to taxation, propaganda or military objectives. C. d’Örken’s map of Lublin of 1716 is an example of a cartographic work created for military purposes, as it was made in the context of negotiations of the Tarnogród Confederation. The author of the map focused on the thematic content – he marked control zones, as well as military outposts, and accommodation sites. In many instances, the base content is presented with little attention to detail. There are a few exceptions to this rule, with fortifications being the most noticeable one. It was most likely motivated by the author’s profession, as he was a military engineer. Still, although Lublin has never been a particularly well-fortified city, the aforementioned content of the map perfectly reflects not only the former shape of the city space, but also its contemporary organisation. This article, due to its detailed description of selected works and the methodology involving the use of old cartographic materials, can be used as an important source material for archaeological, restoration and regeneration works.
The author discusses new classifications of cartograms. Cartographic anamorphoses terminology and a multi-level classification, including not only cartograms but also anamorphical projections, have been proposed. The selected area cartograms’ classes were discussed in detail and compared.
The presented research concerning the landscape evolution of the area of the Kazimierski Landscape Park assumed the analysis of landscape changes that took place in the western part of the Nałęczów Plateau in eastern Poland as a result of increased anthropopressure. To achieve this goal, the diverse data was employed: archives of the “Archeological Survey of Poland” obtained from the National Heritage Board of Poland, the registry data from the 16th century made available as part of the “Atlas Fontium” project elaborated by the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, old map of the Western Galicia from 1808, a tactical map of the Military Geographical Institute in Warsaw from 1937, and the “Topographic Objects Database” (BDOT10k) obtained from the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. Based on the analysed data, maps presenting the development of the settlement network from the moment of permanent settlement of the area up to the present state and maps showing the changes in land use in the Kazimierski Landscape Park over the last centuries have been designed.
The results of historical and geographical analyses carried out as part of the research were compared with the results of geomorphological research conducted in the studied area. Verification of the obtained results allowed to determine the scope in which man influenced the evolution of the landscape of the analysed area, including its diversification depending on the historical period and the type of the economy. The process of georeferencing the map of Western Galicia elaborated by colonel A.M. von Heldensfeld from 1808 and the tactical map 1:100,000 of Military Geographical Institute from 1937 covering the research area (14,974 ha) was carried out in the ArcGIS Desktop software. The calibration process was evaluated in the Map Analyst program which makes it possible to analyze the distortions of old maps. Then, vectorization of selected terrain coverage classes and visualization of spatial data were conducted. This way, the land use maps were analyzed in terms of environmental changes that occurred over the past centuries by identifying the areas with the largest development changes. The obtained results were compared with the database of historical objects created for the purposes of this research, based on data provided by the National Heritage Board of Poland and the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences in order to determine the development trends of the settlement network in the region. The additional statistical analysis made it possible to determine the trend of changes and to interpret the distribution of areas threatened by the occurrence of mass movements with the analyzed anthropogenic determinants.
The Authors present the results of the multicriterial evaluation in 14 official map services of Capital City of Warsaw. The evaluation has been conducted in 2018 on two levels: in relation to all websites jointly (score according to one criterion) and individual mapping services (evaluation according to three criteria). The obtained results have been compared to previous analyzes of geoportals at various levels, including regional and state-owned. The Warsaw map service falls in a satisfactory manner, achieving a comparable or slightly higher rating than those previously analyzed by other authors.
After short introduction to carte-á-figure genre of maps discussed are three maps of Poland belonging to this category: the first state of Hondius’ Nova POLONIAE delineatio”, Visscher’s “Haec Tabula nova POLONIAE et SILESIAE, and Speed’s A NEWE MAPE OF POLAND. For the origin of the Hondius’ map a more precise range of dates is proposed. Question of the Visscher map’s order of states is clarified, supported by evidence from the author’s research. Finally, line of reasoning is presented and arguments quoted disproving widely held belief in priority of the Speed’s map over the Visscher’s. Also, dissimilarities between images of Silesia on Hondius’ and Visscher’s maps together with possible reasons of these are considered.
The author discusses the first maps of Ukrainian lands within the borders of various countries, reflecting their political and administrative division, which were published in the 16th century.
State and administration borders in Ukrainian territories were presented on the map of Southern Sarmatia (1526) by the Polish cartographer B. Wapowski and on the wall map of Europe (1554) by the Dutch cartographer G. Mercator. Maps by S. Münster and G. Gastaldi, including names of individual administrative units without reflecting state and administrative borders, were taken into account. A thorough analysis was carried out of the territorial division of Ukrainian territories on maps in the atlases by A. Ortelius (maps of Poland by W. Grodecki and A. Pograbka), on the maps of Lithuania and Taurica Chersonesus in the atlases by G. Mercator, including their subsequent adaptations. A number of inaccuracies regarding the location of state and administrative borders as well as names of administrative units have been revealed. Particular attention has been paid to the manner of presenting administrative borders.
It was established that in those times no special attention was paid to the presentation of political and administrative divisions on maps. During subsequent editions of maps, no national and administrative borders were updated. Maps could be published without changes for decades. Map publishers often borrowed unverified information, which led to duplication of errors.
The authors present a comparative analysis of presentation of build-up areas with conventional symbols on 60 civil European topographic maps. The above-mentioned maps are in different scales, from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000, and have been published in nineteen European countries and the autonomous community of Catalonia. The analysis has proved that the scope of characteristics of build-up areas presented on the analysed maps was very diverse, from qualitative and quantitative point of view (e.g. there were between 2 and 25 different categories on 1:10,000 maps). The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 maps generally contain more information on the characteristics of build-up areas than 1:25,000 maps. The characteristics themselves are also very diversified (e.g. only 6 of them appear on more than half of the analysed maps – most often churches).
Polish maps stand out due to the fact that they contain particularly rich and consistent representation of both physiognomic characteristics and general functional characteristics of buildings and build-up areas at all the analysed scales.
National atlases provide comprehensive information about nature, population, social and economic situation of the country. In 2017 the process of compiling and publishing the National Atlas of Lithuania (Lietuvos Nationalinis Atlasas) was finished. The goal of the authors is: in the context of the whole National Atlas to present a thorough analysis of the structure of content and cartographic visualization methods of Volume III. This volume focusses on social and economic phenomena in Lithuania. The authors discuss the principles of compiling the whole National Atlas of Lithuania and presents its structure in a concise manner. Following the classification of traditional mapping methods, specific examples of mapping in Volume III are presented, advantages of mapping techniques are discussed and the structural analysis of mapping methods is also conducted. The conclusions and the discussion part present the problems encountered while compiling Volume III as well as solutions to them.
The authors examine the impact of the development of image-based remote sensing systems on the activities of state administrations in the cartographic production and making of geographical information publicly available in the Eastern Bloc countries. A convergence of cartography, secrecy, and power occurred during the Cold War. Through investigation of facts relevant to the acquisition image data of the Earth surface performed by the USA and the USSR, it aims to examine the key questions of why the logic behind the development of cartography in the Eastern Bloc countries after World War II was distorted. The lack of logic was reflected in the fact that the amount of information actually presented on maps decreased with an increase in the information about the surface of the Earth acquired by the means of remote sensing systems.
It was suggested that image data in the member states of the Eastern Bloc, in spite of their restricted use and a drop in the informational value of maps, was the main factor behind the creation, detail, and geometric accuracy of civilian maps. Proving this thesis involved analyzing the correlations between the achievements in the field of remote sensing and the quality of maps developed during the Cold War in the Eastern Bloc states.
The author presents the problems associated with geographical name conventions and labels on coloured tactile maps in atlas-type publications for the blind and visually impaired, based on the author’s many years of experience. The detailed description of the ‘keys’ system and Braille ‘abbreviations’ which Polish cartography uses in this type of works shows the benefits of using the system in the editing of map series. A framework of logical and intuitive ‘abbreviations’ presents many possibilities and makes maps easier to read. The system for connecting names of a particular ‘family’ of terms by using a two-letter abbreviation preceded by a unique ‘key’ should be a fundamental principle for creating sets of Braille ‘abbreviations’ for use in a given work. The author also highlights the need to use exonyms, since Braille’s basic alphabet has none of the diacritic characters which typify various languages, which hinders the correct transcription of certain names.
The proposed system for constructing ‘abbreviations’ and ‘keys’ may also be used effectively in individual town plans and maps to improve the communication of information. The comprehensive structure of this system also makes it easier to search through indexes of ‘abbreviations’ and their explanations.
All the described elements have an impact in raising the practical value of tactile maps.