A comparison of two methods of radiocarbon age determination of groundwater is presented. The simplest Pearson model and the “user-defined” option of the NETPATH program were considered. Both methods were used to determine the age of water from a PZ-2 piezometer that is situated in the foreground of chamber Z-32 in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Results of these calculations clearly demonstrate that 14C ages obtained by the Pearson model can be significantly overestimated in comparison with those determined by the NETPATH code. Without additional data, such as the stable isotope composition of the water, conclusions on the age of the groundwater based solely on the Pearson model may be highly inadequate.
Considering the country’s development and quality of life, recognition of the water cycle mechanism is of great importance. A significant contribution to this comes from the isotopic composition of particular elements of the water cycle. However, a weak point is that in Poland only one element of the water cycle, precipitation, is sampled and measured over more than 312 thousands km2 at a single station. It is therefore necessary to seek extension of or alternatives for these rare data. Such an alternative is the sampling of groundwater containing tritium in the national monitoring network of groundwater bodies that is maintained by the Polish Geological Institute. Based on such data we have constructed δ18O and δD isoscapes (i.e., maps of δ18O and δD values) of recent groundwater. These data provide spatial distribution of δ18O and δD values which can be used as input to hydrogeological models.
The 14-m-thick sandy succession at Ujście in western Poland formed during the Odranian stadial of the Saalian glaciation, is exceptional in being very well sorted, almost mono-fractional (fine-grained sands) and mono-mineral (mainly quartz grains) and in lacking Scandinavian erratics. The lower sequence (5 metres in thickness) consists of three stacked packages of clinoforms (inclined cross-stratified sands) and is interpreted as having been deposited on a subaqueous fan in a shallow lake during two phases of rising water levels. The upper sand (9 metres in thickness) with (sub) horizontal stratification was redeposited on a subaerial alluvial fan. Distinctive distributary channels that occur in the uppermost part of the subaqueous fan and in the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan may indicate a change in sedimentation style from subaqueous to subaerial. Moreover, the subaerial position of the fan supports the presence of ice-wedge casts that developed under periglacial conditions in the upper part of alluvial fan. The results of granulo-metric analysis, rounding and frosting of grains and mineral analysis indicate that the sands are derived from Gorzów Formation of Early Miocene age. The only feasible explanation is that the 14-m-thick unit must have been redeposited during the Saalian glaciation.
The Futoma Member (Oligocene, Rupelian) of the Menilite Formation is present only in the northern part of the Skole Nappe. Some diatomitic layers of this member in the Nowy Borek section contain coarse-grained detrital material composed of a variety of metamorphic, volcanic and sedimentary rock fragments. The material derives from primary and secondary sources. Most abundant are debris of metamorphic rocks, mostly gneisses and mica schists. The metamorphic origin of these rocks is confirmed by the composition of heavy mineral assemblages and garnet chemistry. These rocks could have been transported from a local source located close to the margin of the Skole Basin or within that basin. The volcanic rocks reflect Paleogene volcanic activity that was widespread in the Carpathian region. Cherts, which could have been subjected to synsedimentary erosion, may have been derived from the older portions of the same formation.
The sediments of the Cretaceous Gyeokpori Formation in south-western South Korea accumulated in a lake in which mainly siliciclastic rocks were deposited, with some interbedded volcaniclastics. The nearby volcanic activity resulted in unstable lake margins inducing a dominance of gravity-flow deposits. The high sedimentation rate facilitated soft-sediment deformation on the sloping margin. The deposition of numerous gravity-flow deposits resulted in a vertically heterolithic stratification. The slumps are composed of different lithologies, which is expressed in different types of deformation due to the difference in cohesion between sandy and mussy layers within the slumps. Coarser-grained (cohesionless) slumps tend to show more chaotic deformation of their lamination or layering. The difference in slumping behaviour of the cohesive and non-cohesive examples is explained and modelled.
A unique soft-sediment deformation structure is recognized. This structure has not been described before, and we call it ‘envelope structure’. It consists of a conglomerate mass that has become entirely embedded in fine-grained sediment because slope failure took place and the fine-grained material slumped down with the conglomerate ‘at its back’. The cohesive laminated mudstone formed locally slump folds that embedded the non-cohesive overlying conglomerate unit, possibly partly due to the bulldozing effect of the latter. This structure presumably can develop when the density contrast with the underlying and overlying deposits is exceptionally high. The envelope structure should be regarded as a special – and rare – type of a slumping-induced deformation structure.
The Suchedniów water reservoir is located in the central section of the River Kamionka in the northern part of the Holy Cross Mountains of central Poland. This area once belonged to the Old Polish Industrial District that, during the Middle Ages, was very intensively developed by iron metallurgy. Many forges and mills along the rivers used water power, which led to the construction of an anthropogenic, small-scale water retention system. At the beginning of the twentieth century many of these reservoirs were drained after the collapse of metallurgical activities. The present-day reservoir was built in 1974 and drained in 2017. Research into the drained basin has documented various forms and sediments, some of which record present-day depositional processes (fire proof clay layer, inland fan delta), while others represent the historical period (lacustrine sediments of older reservoirs). Traces of catastrophic events have been preserved as well; an assemblage of megaripples marks the sudden drainage caused by a dam break in 1974.