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Abstract

Climate change is a major global issue, which is becoming increasingly important on the international scene. As it has a direct impact on ecosystems and societies. Water is at the heart of these changes. The aim of this article was to capture all the microeconomic and macroeconomic effects of resource availability, and to propose a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that takes into account long-term changes in the availability of the primary resource (water supply) with regard to population growth (demand). The results show that the very negative effects on the economy of water shortages could be counteracted by the introduction of a marginal cost demand management policy. This makes it possible to better manage the scarcity of this resource. In fact, the model shows that when Algeria is facing water deficits, the marginal cost tariff policy reverses the trends of an economy that would maintain a tariff policy at average cost. Total investment increases, and total welfare deteriorates less. The drop in the price of water (input and final good), generated by the transition from an average cost pricing to a marginal cost pricing, generates an expansion of many sectors, and stimulates economic activity which reduces the rate of unemployment.

Abstract

The construction of highways leads to several environmental and landscape impacts, including the fragmentation of natural habitats for many animal species. Highway projects are therefore generally accompanied by mobilisations from the inhabitants of the areas concerned and environmental associations. This work aims to model the potential impacts of a highway project in France on ecological networks and to study the reception of the results by the opponents of this project. We have adopted a three-step approach. First, a land-cover map of the study area was produced at a fine scale of 10 m resolution. Second, we developed a multi-species approach by defining fifteen species groups representative of different habitats of our study area. Third, the design of landscape graphs and the resulting calculation of connectivity metrics allowed mapping the impact of the highway on multi-species ecological connectivity. Reflexive feedback from comments on these results by the public during a mobilisation day against the highway project allows assessment of the relevance of such a modelling approach in this context.

Abstract

Providing a live data monitoring of raptor abundances and spatial localization of their most important nesting areas is very helpful in building a strong future study and applying a sound strategy for effective safeguarding of these emblematic species. Using geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) techniques, we investigated spatial patterns of raptors distribution in the northeastern areas of Algeria during two consecutive breeding seasons (2014 and 2015). The total area sampled (31,000 km2) host diverse raptor species (14 species), among them, the threatened species Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus; 108 individuals and 19 active nests) and red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus; 12individuals). The value of the region is attested by the presence of an abundant population of nesting black kite (Milvus migrans; 337 individuals). The large-scale spatial analyses of the studied region illustrate certain similarities in nesting habitat selection among raptors. Almost all species (90% of 209 nests detected) preferred to nest within multispecies assemblages (20 raptor assemblages found) and occupied altitudinal rocky cliffs across the inland region (semi-arid zones) rather than coastal region (sub-humid zones). Among all raptor species, exclusively, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is relatively synanthropic, because it was found to breed within cities (tolerate human activities). The raptor community in the coastal versus inland regions differed by 14%. The latter area seems to be more preferred in nest building, probably consequence of their semi-arid bioclimatic and landscapes characteristics, where high elevations and grasslands forming mosaics with Oak, Alpine, and Cedar forests are patchily distributed. The study is a first mapping database of important nesting sites dispatched across the northeastern areas of Algeria, and it can be effectively used in future complementary researches that aim to elucidate environmental factors that affect raptors life cycle.

Abstract

With a growing number of negative environmental burdens, several countries have increasingly begun to address the issue of environmental protection through a number of measures. Such measures include higher spending on public health, conservation of natural resources, less emission to the air, efficiency of waste sorting, reduction of water pollution, and groundwater. The contribution is based on the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) values to perform a cluster analysis of selected countries - especially OECD (organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. The database needed for analysis is the EPI indicator for the years for 2008 to 2018. The result will be clusters that will include countries with similar results of the EPI indicators for the reference period. It will be important for us to track the position of the Slovak Republic in this analysis.

Abstract

An Environmental Risk Assessment is an efficient technical and analytical method for analyzing environmental impacts and it supports the decision-making process connected with projects variants by using historical data collection, identification of regional risk sources, probability and impact estimation of signal risk type. In this article, an Environmental Risk Assessment was performed for groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfills in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland) to assess the impact of various factors on the quality of groundwater in the region. The assessment used qualitative and quantitative risk analysis methods, including cause and consequence analysis, completion of an effect/probability matrix and utilization of the SWOT analysis method. The results of the assessment indicate that use of the SWOT analysis was the best method for groundwater risk assessment in the examined area. The analysis included an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of leachate and groundwater quality (using data from a groundwater monitoring system), simulation of the longevity of both the top and bottom security system, spatial planning and an assessment of the impact of other parameters on groundwater, terrain and climatic conditions. The overall result for this analysis for the likely potential groundwater hazard was a score of -4. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is possible to consider additional factors that are likely to affect the water quality of the area under investigation or to use other methods that will be based on a time series analysis.

Abstract

Energy needs are determined by three main factors: population growth, the economic development of society, and the scientific and technical level of production processes. These needs are increasing year by year in the world and in 2018 they exceeded 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. More and more countries are developing and implementing plans and strategies for significant coverage, within 50-100%, of their energy needs through renewable energy sources. The findings of this study revealed that Ukraine’s energy demand per year is 200 million tons of oil equivalent of energy resources. Currently, the share of renewable energy in the structure of energy consumption in Ukraine is 4.4%. The authors also acknowledged that at the same time, 115 million tons of agricultural plant waste and about 97 million tons of animal waste are generated annually in Ukraine, which makes it possible to produce 7.21 million tons of oil equivalent and 2.2 million tons of oil equivalent, respectively from these. The study found that the production of biofuels from agricultural waste will have social, economic and environmental effects. An efficiency matrix was constructed by the authors to determine these effects. Using the SWOT method of analysis, factors that will affect the development of biofuel production from agricultural waste were determined.

Abstract

Mining is essentially an important income generating activity in the developing countries of the world. This is beneficial for their social and economic development and thus developing countries place a great dependence on their exploitation of mineral resources. The focal points for discussion in this article are the process of limestone mining, growth trends in limestone production, allocation of royalties, benefit sharing between limestone miners and local communities. The article undertakes an income-expenditure analysis of limestone contractors and transporters and considers local environmental issues including land degradation, rehabilitation, and compensation problems connected with the mining process. This study has been carried out in the Banor-Shiva limestone mining region which is located in the Sirmaur District of Himachal Pradesh State in India. The study calculated compound annual growth rates and benefit sharing between the miners and local people, and made a calculation of transport costs based on the mining rules in force and the actual practice prevailing in the region. The overall compound annual growth rates for limestone production are 16.2%, 1.6 % and 3.9% and for royalties are 14.1%, 8.5%, and 7.8 5 respectively for the State, District, and Banor-Shiva mining region over the study period. However, these growth rates have continuously decelerated and even found to be negative between the periods following the National Mineral Policies Act of 1993 and 2008. There is a sizeable divergence between the benefits from limestone mining shared between the indigenous communities and limestone miners highlighting the poor land acquisition practices in the study area. The financial benefits awarded by the miners in 2016-17 to the local communities are 1.22% whereas miners have appropriated the lion’s share with 81.37% of total limestone value. The revenue to the Government is 4.30% of market value of limestone. The transportation of limestone from quarry sites to the point of final sale is the largest cost factor in limestone miners’ expenditure which is 10% of the total market value of limestone. Adverse impacts of limestone mining operations in the vicinity such as public health problems, change in land use and cropping patterns, water pollution, lack of rehabilitation of the abandoned mines and unjust division of limestone receipts are the main contentious issues in the study area which are affecting the production and process of limestone mining. These have been reflected in the declining growth rates in production and royalties accrued from limestone produce.

Kurzfassung

In Deutschland setzt sich der Trend zu steigendem Pro-Kopf-Wohnflächenkonsum fort. Das Erreichen der Reduktionsziele hinsichtlich des Energieverbrauchs von Wohngebäuden wird damit konterkariert. Während die strukturellen Treiber hinter dieser Entwicklung – beispielsweise Präferenzverschiebungen, zunehmender Wohlstand und der demographische Wandel – im Einzelnen deskriptiv gut erforscht sind, herrscht über deren quantitative Einflusskraft Unklarheit. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird anhand von Daten der Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichprobe (EVS) für Deutschland zwischen 1978 und 2013 untersucht, inwiefern die Entwicklung des Wohnflächenkonsums durch sozioökonomische und soziodemographische Veränderungen im Zeitverlauf erklärt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse einer Dekompositionsanalyse zeigen, dass demographische Veränderungen, insbesondere die Verkleinerung der mittleren Haushaltsgröße durch Remanenzeffekt und Singularisierung, hauptsächlich für den Anstieg des Pro-Kopf-Wohnflächenkonsums verantwortlich sind. Diese Entwicklung geht mit steigenden Wohnkosten einher, welche alle Einkommensgruppen, jedoch überproportional ärmere Haushalte, zunehmend belasten. Die Wohnkostenbelastung dämpfte eine weitere Ausweitung des Wohnflächenkonsums in den vergangenen Jahren. Regional lässt sich zudem ein Ungleichgewicht zwischen Wohnungsangebot und Wohnungsnachfrage identifizieren. Dieses könnte verringert werden, indem kleinere Wohnungen und Häuser gebaut, bestehende Gebäude umgebaut und ältere Bewohnerinnen und Bewohner mit übergroßen Wohnflächen zu einem Umzug motiviert würden. Steuernd müssten dazu regulatorische Maßnahmen und/oder Anreizmechanismen implementiert werden.

Kurzfassung

Dieser Beitrag behandelt das Thema der urbanen Neubaugebiete aus zwei spezifischen Perspektiven: Zum einen geht es nicht primär um das Wohnen, sondern um Wissenschaft und Forschung als Rahmenthema der Stadterweiterung, insbesondere Hochschulstandorte und Wissenschaftsparks. Zum anderen geht es um die Analyse städtischer Management- und Governance-Praktiken, vor allem die Herauslösung großer Vorhaben aus dem üblichen Kontext der Stadtplanung. Zentral ist hier die Definition dieser Vorhaben als „Projekt“ und ihre Unterordnung unter einen spezifischen Steuerungsansatz. Im Kontext der Diskussion von Großprojekten und urbaner Governance ist die These dieses Beitrags, dass sich Projekte umso mehr als Fremdkörper in der Stadtplanung entfalten können (und damit das Ziel auf urbane Integration unterlaufen), umso weniger sie Gegenstand bewährter Planungsprozesse und regulatorischer Praktiken sind. Zur empirischen Illustration dieses Arguments dient die Wissenschaftsstadt Belval im Süden Luxemburgs, die seit 2003 realisiert wird und deren Entwicklung hier kritisch analysiert wird. Als generelle Schlussfolgerungen werden planerische Anforderungen an den Umgang mit großen Neubauvorhaben formuliert.

Kurzfassung

Eine Steuerung der Siedlungsentwicklung, die dem Flächensparziel verpflichtet ist, erfordert ein genaues Monitoring. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt, wie die Flächenneuinanspruchnahme für Siedlungs- und Verkehrszwecke mit verschiedenen Planverfahren in Deutschland zusammenhängt. Am Beispiel 30 repräsentativ ausgewählter Gemeinden wurde empirisch ermittelt, in welchem Maße Bund, Länder und Gemeinden zur Flächeninanspruchnahme beitragen. Das Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen zeigt, dass rund zwei Drittel der Flächenneuinanspruchnahme durch Gemeinden im Rahmen ihrer kommunalen Planungen verursacht werden. Sonstige Entwicklungen, die zum Beispiel aus Planfeststellungsverfahren resultieren und von Bund und Ländern getrieben sind, tragen zu einem Drittel der Flächeninanspruchnahme bei. Der relativ hohe Anteil nicht kommunal veranlasster Flächenneuinanspruchnahmen war so nicht erwartet worden. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass Flächensparbemühungen auf allen Raum- und Planungsebenen erforderlich sind, um die Nachhaltigkeitsziele zu erreichen. Derartige Untersuchungen benötigen flächendeckende und laufend aktualisierte Geometriegrundlagen zur tatsächlichen Flächennutzung. Nur so sind Veränderungen der Flächennutzung realistisch und zeitnah messbar und eine Überprüfung der Wirkungen der Flächensteuerung möglich. Die laufenden methodisch bedingten Veränderungen in der Flächenerfassung (Geodatenmodellierung, Flächennutzungsnomenklatur) und deren zeitversetzte und unterschiedliche Umsetzung in den Bundesländern beeinträchtigen allerdings das Flächennutzungsmonitoring.