This paper aims to find out how the research consortia supported in the Competence Centres programme were created, what motives and factors decide on the involvement of various actors in these consortia. It is based on a combination of a questionnaire survey, structured interviews and analysis of quantitative data from the Research, Development and Innovation Information System. The most frequent motives of consortium members for involvement in competence centres were the development of their own research activities and access to knowledge / facilities shared by partners. The main beneficiary, or a narrow group of beneficiaries forming the core of the consortium, played a decisive role in shaping the consortium. The main factor for the involvement of individual members was the combination of previous experiences with partners and their competences. Furthermore, participating enterprises have developed and extensive research and development activities, do not compete, and their activities are complementary or linked. The differences in motives and factors for each type of partner can indicate the hierarchical arrangement of consortium members.
The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the cooperation of the European countries in projects related to the AI in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7) and in the current Horizon 2020 Programme. The analysis is based on the information obtained from European Commission database eCORDA (External COmmon Research DAtawarehouse). Dynamic scientometric maps were constructed to describe in more detail the collaboration of European subjects in the EC funded AI research. Within the FP7, 1223 projects in the AI field received roughly 2,8 billion €. In the current H2020 programme the EC has already provided 2,1 billion € for 1081 projects in AI. In the FP7, higher education institutions dominated in both the number of awarded project and the received financial support. In the H2020 programme, a profound shift favouring business enterprise sector occurred. Approximately one third of AI projects in the FP7 was in the thematic area Information and Communication Technologies. In the H2020 programme the EC extended the support further to other thematic areas including global societal challenges especially in the field of transport and security. The extent of the involvement of the member countries varies extensively. The countries above average participating in the AI projects are Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, Portugal, and Slovenia. The Czech Republic falls in the group of less participating countries. The Czech Republic also exhibits a smaller increase of the participation between RP7 and H2020. Universities involved in approximately two thirds of AI project have dominated in the Czech participation in the FP7. In the H2020 program their share in the AI project decreased by approximately 10 percent points. On the other side, their share of financial support was conserved. The most participating universities were the Czech Technical University Prague (24 projects, and 30% share of the EC contribution for the Czech AI projects) and the Brno University of Technology (14 projects, and 12,4% financial share). In the business enterprise sector Honeywell International s. r. o. attained the highest participation. The Czech subjects collaborate most frequently with German, British, Italian and French research teams.
Research purpose. The aim of the research is to assess the transparency of financial performance of public benefit organisations (PBOs).
Methodology. To achieve the aim and to accomplish the tasks set, general-scientific methods were used: the monographic method, the method of document analysis and the graphical method. A statistical analysis method – descriptive statistics – and a sociological research method – surveying – were used as well.
Findings. Since 1 October 2014 when the Public Benefit Organisation Law came into force in Latvia, the number of PBOs has been increasing every year. On 1 January 2018, the number of organisations with valid PBO status had reached 2,775. To get an insight into the opinions of Latvian PBOs on the disclosure of financial information, a questionnaire was developed. The survey was attended by 201 respondents. The questionnaires revealed that 64.68 percent of the respondent organisations had a website or a web page on a social network, although only 21.89 percent of these respondents' websites contained some sort of financial information. In parallel with the PBO survey, a society survey was conducted to get an overview of the public opinions about the need to make PBO financial information freely available. The survey was attended by 116 respondents. The results indicated that although the PBO attitude to the disclosure of financial information was considered to be reserved, the public saw the need for such information. In view of the insufficient availability of financial information in the country and the low activity of PBOs themselves in voluntarily disclosing their financial information on their websites, it is necessary to carry out activities that supplement free-access information resources and/or motivate the organisations themselves to provide free access to such information.
Practical implications. Based on the experience of other European countries, the Ministry of Finance has to consider amending the PBO Law to oblige PBOs to publish their annual financial and performance reports on their websites or in an equivalent way, thereby contributing to the transparency and accountability of the PBOs towards the society.
Behavioural additionality is defined as permanent (long-term) changes in all spheres of behaviour and general capabilities of supported companies as a consequence of public support received. It closely relates to the output additionality because it creates prerequisites for improvement of firms economic performance. This paper aims to show the concrete application of this concept in the evaluation of programmes in the Czech Republic on the example of the TIP programme. It also tries to outline certain aspects that cannot be captured on the one hand when looking only at input and output additionalities, but on the other hand they enable better understanding of these additionality types. The methodology used for assessing behavioural additionality is based on a qualitative approach, a mix of a questionnaire survey and structured interviews. The evaluation confirmed the applicability of the behavioural additionality concept for programmes evaluation in the Czech Republic and showed that both the short-term and long-term effects of the R&D support in the areas of cooperation, R&D activities and firms strategies have already occurred.
Research purpose. Housing availability indicator shows the area of residential real estate possible to purchase for the average monthly wage in the enterprise sector. The research carried out in this paper is aimed at determining the current level of housing availability indicator and its detailed analysis, taking into account the dynamics of changes in 2006 to 2018. This analysis will be carried out for primary and secondary market for selected Polish cities.
Design/Methodology/Approach. Calculations were based on the average transaction prices obtained from the transactional database of residential real estate of the National Bank of Poland and the value of the average monthly remuneration in the enterprise sector obtained partly from statistical data and official journals of the Central Statistical Office.
Findings. The analysis shows that the indicator of housing availability in Poland, despite the visible upward trend, is at a very low level, placing Warsaw at the first place. In addition, the extension of the analysis to the division of the housing market into the primary and secondary market provided more information about shaping the housing availability indicator. Whereas in the primary market in individual cities its value was at a similar level, the secondary market was subject to greater fluctuations.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. This paper is of practical nature. Due to the asymmetry of information on the Polish real estate market, especially regarding housing prices, knowledge about the value of the housing availability indicator in Poland may be exceptionally valuable, especially for people interested in the housing market, including individual investors and market practitioners, as an auxiliary source of information in purchasing decisions of households.
Research purpose. Consumer is becoming demanded one in the purchasing process. Thus, consumer behaviour analyses thinking about his or her involvement in the purchase process could be a solution for marketers. This article concentrates on the consumer’s choice of food products in the purchase process because the author is interested to clarify the connection amongst choice, purchase and wasting of food. The research purpose is to evaluate the consumer’s consciousness in choosing food product in the purchase process.
Design/Methodology/Approach. Quantitative method using questionnaire was applied to 643 respondents whilst implementing formulated aim. Cronbach’s alpha analyses of 35 items (0.870) showed reliability of the research.
Findings. The research results indicated that consumer in the food purchase process is low conscious because he or she does not understand that he or she is buying more than what he or she needs and thus some of his or her purchase becomes waste. Consumer’s consciousness could be seen in the consumer’s lifestyle such as preferences for homemade food.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. The research results could be used in practice and science. Food-producing companies might use some research results making their packaging solutions. The research results could give incites for scientists for future research.
Research purpose. The marketing and sales activity of a company can involve synergy, and coordinated operations can contribute to the success of the enterprise. However, the operations of the former departments often rely on individual successes, which boost conflicts of interest and hinder collaboration. The main aim of the research described in this paper is to explore the areas and focal points of collaboration and conflict in order to highlight the tools that can contribute to enhancing alignment and effectiveness. A further goal is to examine the relationship between marketing and sales and their appraisal of each other.
Design/Methodology/Approach. The empirical research applied three qualitative focus group interviews among marketing and sales employees in different positions at multinational enterprises. Results are analyzed using grounded theory methodology.
Findings. The research highlights the process interfaces between marketing and sales activities and results in the identification of the competence and attitude gaps in their cooperation. Marketing is an entire corporate function, although without knowledge of customers and markets and experience of sales it is unable to foster the innovation processes which, along with cost and time management, result in “efficient and effective corporate operations” as the core category of grounded theory. The outcomes presented here are novel in relation to how they highlight that collaboration should be grounded on clearly defined corporate targets and the engagement of employees with these, as well as supportive and reinforcing manager–subordinate relationships. However, the prioritization and appraisal of the departments of organizational units appears to be dependent on the position and information coverage of employees. Having more information increases the latter’s ability to better evaluate other fields of business. In addition to these issues, the explored discrepancies refer mainly to the information transfer process, suggesting that the external and internal accessibility and availability of information to departments is crucial. Information that is accompanied by accurate predictions about market demand and local needs adjustment enables successful innovation and helps create marketable, innovative, well-differentiated, high-quality, valuable products, the availability of (and customer responses to) which is required for the successful performance of a company. The former may be delivered through the contribution of both organizational units. Building and reinforcing human relationships can facilitate these processes.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. In comparison to other research on this topic, the present study applies focus group interviews as a novel method to create a deeper and more thorough picture of the related processes. The model which emerges from the analysis of results highlights problems with practical management that can contribute to the development of a more efficient management system. Employees can be trained to decrease the identified discrepancies, while rewarding positive attitudes to collaboration contributes to their alignment.
Research purpose. The high penetration of the Internet and increased level of use of digital devices create conditions for the development of the digital economy and society. Understanding and management of this model are essential whilst seeking to compete in the global market and to ensure a high standard of living for citizens. However, despite the opportunities presented by the digital economy, the Baltic States have not yet fully exploited the potential of digital technologies for sustainable development. The purpose of this research is to assess the progress of the Baltic States towards developing a digital economy and society and to identify areas requiring priority investments and action.
Design/Methodology/Approach. The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) published by the European Commission is used to explore the potential of the digital economy. It is an index measuring progress in digital performance through five components: connectivity, human capital, use of internet, integration of digital technology and digital public services. DESI is a crucial tool to reflect the performance of the Baltic States in the context of other European countries.
Findings. The survey shows the individual performance of each Baltic country and compares them amongst themselves as well as with other EU countries. Estonia has the highest DESI when compared with other Baltic countries; however, lower scores in connectivity and integration of digital technology components are observed. Lithuania scores high in the integration of digital technology, whereas the human capital component remains lower. Latvia is a leader amongst connectivity but descents to other Baltic countries in human capital and integration of digital technology components.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. The digital economy remains a widely discussed topic; however, a lack of unanimous scientific definition and detailed research on this economic model complicates understanding of digital technologies. It is essential for each government to analyse the model and focus on the improvement of the digital economy in order to ensure that the country remains digitally competitive in the world.
Research Purpose. The human resource function of firms is faced with the challenges of identifying recruitment practices that contribute to employee retention as a recruitment outcome. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between E-recruitment practices and employee retention of multinational corporations (MNCs) in Nigeria.
Design/Methodology/Approach. Two research questions were posed for the study and two hypotheses formulated in line with the objectives. Questionnaires were administered to the selected population of the Unilever Nigeria Plc. Corporate websites and commercial websites sites were the E-recruitment practices used to analysed their influence on employee retention. The data were analysed using manual and electronic based methods through the data preparation grid and statistical package for the social science, (SPSS). The study made use of statistical tools such as regression analysis in testing hypothesis and analysis of variance (ANOVA), which helped in the interpretation of results.
Findings The research use analysis to estimate trends that corporate websites and commercial websites were significant in explaining employee retention. The results of this study confirm existing literature that argues for a positive relationship between the two variables. The results also portray that human resource managers should have an understanding of the relationship between E-recruitment practices and employee retention.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. The study seeks to contribute to existing literature on E-recruitment practices and employee retention. The practical justification would be useful to human resource practitioners by making them aware of the current E-recruitment practices and the impact of its implementation to a firm’s level of employee retention
Research purpose. This paper aims at identifying and evaluating the means of communication used and the perceived barriers from employees of the banking system in Albania. The following research questions were formulated: (a) What are the means of communication used in vertical and horizontal communications? (b) Which mean is preferred and valued as the most effective? (c) Which are the barriers that hinder the effective communication flow in these organizations?
Design/Methodology/Approach. A structured questionnaire was addressed to 120 employees of 3 different commercial banks in Tirana, Albania, out of which 100 fully answered questionnaires were received. The questionnaire is divided into three main parts, each of which has two subcategories, and the valuation used for each question is according to the Likert scale from 1 (very few) to 5 (a lot).
Findings. E-mail is the most used communication tool vertically, whereas phone and e-mail are added at the horizontal one. Employee preferences are mostly for e-mail and face-to-face communication vertically and phone and e-mail horizontally. Time pressure and overload of information are perceived as main barriers vertically, whereas distractions are mentioned as biggest hindrance horizontally.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. We suggest that the managers of organizations in the banking sector should properly consider these two communication tools and create suitable conditions for their use. The employees themselves use more of those tools as, according to their perception during communication with colleagues, those tools improve their effectiveness. Other similar studies might be conducted in different types of organizations to point out similarities and contrasts with banking sector.