The paper investigates whether time and doses of powder activated carbon (PAC) effect adsorption rates of organic contaminants from water and proposes a new model of volume adsorption. Depending on the nature of the organic compounds present in water, a general description of the adsorption process may require a linear combination of adsorption models running at different rates and at different parameters of adsorption isotherms. The model showed a good fit with the measured data and could be used in designing adsorption units at water or wastewater treatment plants. The proposed set of model equations enables to predict the effects of PAC adsorption in both plug flow reactors and homogeneous reactors.
The quest for sustainable development and biodiversity protection leads to the creation of a new generation of urban parks where man allows natural plant succession, soil regeneration, and rainwater infiltration. New urban nature parks are also places for the promotion of social contacts and physical activity. They can be regarded as health-affirming places. The common features of urban parks presented in this paper can be seen in modern eco-neighbourhoods in France. Public parks of this new generation are planned for the centres of new eco-neighborhoods. These parks are being constructed in the first stages of development. Similar commonalities have been observed for eco-neighbourhoods around the world. The paper presents three examples of good practices: three new parks of this new generation in the eco-neighbourhoods of Paris.
This article presents two examples of contemporary private religious spaces against the background of the small-town architecture of the typical, largely unknown town of Szécsény, Hungary, using projects by the Hungarian architect Csanády Gábor Mátyás, DLA, as an example. It discusses the ideas that defined the adaptive reuse of a former school, located in an existing complex adjacent to a monastery of the Order of St. Francis, which was converted into a social care home, and a chapel in the architect’s own house.
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of protected areas in Polish seaside spa towns in order to preserve their nature value while focusing on the spatial order. Analyses were conducted considering the status of works on the Landscape Act concerning the interior of Polish spa towns and advantageous effects of that Act in the town space. This review paper presents protected areas based on the resources of the Central Register of Nature Conservation Forms (Centralny Rejestr Form Ochrony Przyrody CRFOP) available at the website of the General Directorate for Environmental Protection (Generalna Dyrekcja Ochrony Środowiska GDOŚ), which data may find multiple uses. The material for analyses is related to all the six Polish seaside spa towns (as for 01.2020). Polish seaside spa towns have many common natural characteristics. All of the six towns are located on the Baltic Sea, have sandy beaches and dunes and they are situated in the vicinity of protected areas. Frequently a green belt, typically a pine forest, separates the seaside zone from the town. Despite its very long seaside line Poland in 2019 has only six seaside spa towns (Kołobrzeg, Świnoujście, Sopot, Kamień Pomorski, Ustka, Dąbki).
This paper presents a proposal for updating and expanding the teaching of technical university students concerning the subject of roofs. Through the analysis of Polish textbooks and teaching studies, a lack of information on retractable roofs was identified. As a consequence, a lecture was prepared to fill this gap and presented to students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and to teaching staff of the Silesian University of Technology. The main components of the lecture are presented in this article. Furthermore, a discussion was undertaken to analyse the possibilities of incorporating new content (in the form of supplementary material) into the currently run courses as well as into optional classes such as student workshops and optional facultative courses.
One of the modern methods of reducing vibrations of plates and beams is using piezoelectric materials in the form of distributed elements or patches (applied in a passive or an active system). However, for the multimodal response of a structure, there is no possibility to place the actuators in exactly the areas with maximum curvature values for each mode. Additionally, in the case of passive multimodal suppression systems – in which energy is needed to be supplied to the system – there is the necessity to create a complicated electrical circuit. The particular electrical shunts of the circuit are tuned to the specific vibration forms which require damping. The main objective of this article is to show the possibility of creating a multimodal vibration suppression system with typical resonant shunts and proposed second slightly modified.
The proposed self-adjusting mechanism consists of a carousel rotor with a vertical axis consisting of two kinematically connected flat blades. The torque of this rotor can change the position of the directing unit and additionally the position of the main propeller in order to direct the wind stream or save the main rotor when the wind is too strong. The theory, principles of operation, and the properties of the self-adjusting system were illustrated by formulas and graphs. Based on research conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel, the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the flat blades were determined, and then the power and propeller torque of the rotor were found as a function of the angle of wind attack. A computational procedure provides kinematical and force relations as well as the resulting torque diagrams of the rotor. An example of the use and the design structure of a self-adjusting unit in the case of a horizontal axis wind turbine is presented.
Contemporary architectural transparency, understood as the optical property of the construction material, is constantly being redefined and, over the last two decades, new design trends have developed. These trends are the result of: (i) dynamic technological progress; (ii) advancement in the field of materials science; (iii) changes in the attitude of clients and users. Transparency is no longer limited to specific functions (e.g. illumination of the interior) but has become a tool of formal expression itself. This paper defines most recent trends, which are divided into two main types: (i) optical-perceptual – relying on phenomenal effects, (ii) geometrical – that differentiate the large group of spatial transformations developed from what was initially flat planar façade.
The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the business environment in the coastal area of Tulcea county, by administrative-territorial units, with the help of a synthetic indicator to appreciate the economic-financial performance, the profit rate. The analysis was performed for year 2018, the economic phenomena and processes being captured at the spatial level. The results obtained from this work support the strategy for the rehabilitation of the coastal zone in order to increase the economic performances by adopting policies corresponding to the new realities.
The nineteenth century was a period of ground-breaking events in the history of humanity relating to the industrial revolution, scientific discoveries, knowledge development and social changes. It was also a time when new types of commercial buildings were being formed and transformations of those that had existed for centuries were taking place. The aim of this article is to present the problems of the Central Market Hall in Budapest by Samu Pecz and compare its architectural solutions with selected nineteenth-century constructions serving the same purpose elsewhere in Europe.