In the present work, a new organic second order NLO material: L-isoleucinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LIPT) is synthesized and reported for the first time. The LIPT is crystallized in a non-centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21. Structural and hydrogen bond nature of the compound is analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal exhibits very good optical properties such as wide optical transparency in the region of 210 nm to 1100 nm and the ultraviolet wavelength emission (λ = 283 nm). The second harmonic generation efficiency is found to be 1.7 times the standard KDP. Good thermal, mechanical properties and low dielectric constant at high frequency range show that the material may be a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications.
In this communication, we report on Cu2SnS3 quantum dots synthesized by the solvothermal process using different solvents. The optical properties of the quantum dots are analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results suggest that Cu2SnS3 material has tunable energy bandgap and appropriate wavelength for fabrication of light emitting diodes and laser diodes as sources for fiber optic communication. They exhibit wide absorption in the near infrared range. Further morphological studies with the use of atomic force microscope confirm the surface topography and the existence of quantum dots. The observed characteristics prove the efficiency of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots for O-band wavelength detection used in fiber optic communication and solar cell applications.
This paper attempts to describe an effective method for producing a composite of quantum dots consisting of CdSe (core) with CdS (shell). This nanoparticles composite was synthesized from modified organometallic precursors. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction data using Debye-Scherer formula and compared with high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical spectra. The shape of CdSe/CdS NPs is nearly spherical and revels that the CdS shell with the thickness ~0.6 nm almost fully covers the CdSe core (higher contrast). Using UV-Vis spectroscopy, a systematic red shift in the absorption and emission spectra was observed after the deposition of CdS which confirms the shell growth over the CdSe core. In the CdSe/CdS core/shell structure, the holes are confined to the core, while the electrons are delocalized as a result of similar electron affinities of the core and the shell. The increased time of synthesis resulted in shell thickness increase. The observed properties of prepared CdSe/CdS QDs demonstrate the capability of the nanocomposite for using in the optoelectronics and photonics devices.
An inorganic coordination complex of single crystal containing sodium and aluminum (SA) was grown at room temperature by slow evaporation technique. The crystal was characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, UV-Vis, SHG, SEM, EDX and TG/DTA analyses. The size of the grown crystal was around 17 mm × 15 mm × 5 mm. Both optical and SEM photographs confirmed that the crystal is transparent with smooth surface. The XRD data showed that the crystal belongs to the BCC crystal structure. The crystal shows excellent transparency in the entire region of visible light (cut-off value is 339 cm−1). The dielectric constant as well as dielectric loss of the sample was calculated by varying frequencies at different temperatures and the presence of low dielectric loss proved that this crystal can be used for the NLO application.
Ingrid Lande Larsen, Otto Terjesen, Rein Terje Thorstensen and Terje Kanstad
This paper aims at identifying the direction for more sustainable development of the use of concrete in road infrastructure in an industrialised context.
The increase in the global mean temperature is one of the most severe challenges today. The concrete industry is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gases, most attributable to cement production. However, concrete is one of the most important building materials in the world and indispensable for the societal development in countries at all development stages. Thus, the concrete industry needs to take measures for reducing emissions.
This paper investigates possible directions for the development of the concrete industry, to reduce climatic impact and accommodate positive societal growth. The investigation is carried out as a SWOT analysis, focusing on three terms dominating the present discussion on any development within the construction industry; sustainability, industrialisation and digitalisation. The result is a thorough discussion and a set of recommendations for the direction of future research and innovation on sustainable use of concrete in the construction of road infrastructure. The major opportunities and threats are summarised in the conclusions, and future research to be carried out in two of the authors’ PhD-projects are described.
Božana Čolović, Danilo Kisić, Bojan Jokanović, Zlatko Rakočević, Ilija Nasov, Anka Trajkovska Petkoska and Vukoman Jokanović
Thin films of titanium oxides, titanium oxynitrides and titanium nitrides were deposited on glass substrates by the methods of direct current (DC) and pulsed magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc evaporation. Phase analysis of the deposited films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed the presence of phases with various Ti oxidative states, which indicated a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. The films morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Investigations of the films wettability, either with water or ethylene glycol, showed that it depends directly on the concentration of oxygen vacancies. The wettability mechanism was particularly discussed.
B. Trybuś, J. M. Olive, N. Lenoir and A. Zieliński
The investigations of high-temperature oxidation of zirconium alloys, applied for fuel pellets in nuclear power plants, are usually limited to oxidation kinetics, phase transformations and microstructural characterization. The purpose of this research was to characterize the degradation phenomena occurring within oxide layer and at the interface oxide/metal, on internal and external Zircaloy-2 tube surfaces, below and over crystalline transformation temperature of zirconium oxides. The commercial tubes were oxidized at 1273 K and 1373 K in calm air for 30 min and then examined with a technique novel for such purpose, namely a high-resolution X-ray computer tomography. The light microscopy was used to examine the cross-surfaces. The obtained results show that the form and intensity of oxide damage is significant and it is in a complicated way related to oxidation temperature and on whether external or internal tube surface is studied. The found oxide layer damage forms include surface cracks, the detachment of oxide layers, the appearance of voids, and nodular corrosion. The oxidation effects and damage appearance are discussed taking into account the processes such as formation of oxides, their phase transformation, stress-enhanced formation and propagation of cracks, diffusion of vacancies, formation of nitrides, diffusion of hydrogen into interface oxide-metal, incubation of cracks on second phase precipitates are taken into account to explain the observed phenomena.
M. Davarpanah, G. Somodi, L. Kovács and B. Vásárhelyi
Understanding the quality of intact rock is one of the most important parts of any engineering projects in the field of rock mechanics. The expression of correlations between the engineering properties of intact rock has always been the scope of experimental research, driven by the need to depict the actual behaviour of rock and to calculate most accurately the design parameters. To determine the behaviour of intact rock, the value of important mechanical parameters such as Young’s modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (ν) and the strength of rock (σcd) was calculated. Recently, for modelling the behaviour of intact rock, the crack initiation stress (σci) is another important parameter, together with the strain (σ). The ratio of Young’s modulus and the strength of rock is the modulus ratio (MR), which can be used for calculations. These parameters are extensively used in rock engineering when the deformation of different structural elements of underground storage, caverns, tunnels or mining opening must be computed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between these parameters for Hungarian granitic rock samples. To achieve this goal, the modulus ratio (MR = E/σc) of 50 granitic rocks collected from Bátaapáti radioactive waste repository was examined. Fifty high-precision uniaxial compressive tests were conducted on strong (σc >100 MPa) rock samples, exhibiting the wide range of elastic modulus (E = 57.425–88.937 GPa), uniaxial compressive strength (σc = 133.34–213.04 MPa) and Poisson’s ratio (ν = 0.18–0.32). The observed value (MR = 326–597) and mean value of MR = 439.4 are compared with the results of similar previous researches. Moreover, the statistical analysis for all studied rocks was performed and the relationshipbetween MR and other mechanical parameters such as maximum axial strain for studied rocks was discussed.
Abdelmadjid Abdi, Khelifa Abbeche, Djamel Athmania and Mounir Bouassida
This paper presents the results obtained from an experimental programme and numerical investigations conducted on model tests of strip footing resting on reinforced and unreinforced sand slopes. The study focused on the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of strip footing subjected to eccentric load located either towards or opposite to the slope facing. Strip footing models were tested under different eccentricities of vertical load. The obtained results from tests conducted on unreinforced sand slope showed that the increase in eccentricity of applied load towards the slope facing decreases the ultimate bearing capacity of footing. Predictions of the ultimate bearing capacity obtained by the effective width rule are in good agreement with those proposed from the consideration of total width of footing subjected to eccentric load. The ultimate bearing capacity of an eccentrically loaded footing on a reinforced sand slope can be derived from that of axially loaded footing resting on horizontal sand ground when adopting the effective width rule and the coefficient of reduction due to the slope. When increasing the distance between the footing border to the slope crest, for unreinforced and reinforced ground slope by geogrids, the ultimate bearing capacity of footing is no more affected by the slope ground.
We show that the global non-linear stability threshold for convection in a double-diffusive couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. The optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. It is also found that couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium is thermally more stable than the ordinary viscous fluid, and the effects of couple-stress parameter (F ) , solute gradient ( S f ) and Brinkman number ( D a ) on the onset of convection is also analyzed.