People with epilepsy have increased mortality rates, which is partially attributed to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy syndrome (SUDEP). Poor seizure control appears to be the strongest SUDEP risk factor. Management of epilepsy and adherence to therapy is critical to seizure control. The belief by caregivers of negative influence caused by being informed about the syndrome is the main reason SUDEP is not disclosed. There are no clear recommendations when to disclose the risk of SUDEP and how much information should be provided. We addressed the preferences of Latvian epilepsy patients for discussing SUDEP as well as awareness of the syndrome. Our study involved 55 epilepsy patients. We found that, as in other studies, our patients were relatively well informed about SUDEP. We found that a considerable proportion of patients preferred to receive information about SUDEP from a general practitioner. We note the belief of patients that the disclosure of SUDEP would either improve or have no effect on the quality of life. We were able to identify groups of patients with a self-reported belief of more frequent expected anxiety and poor adherence to medical treatment. Our data improves the understanding of preferences of patient for discussing the negative aspects of epilepsy.
Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area) and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.
An increasing number of bacteria have been described as benefiting from interaction with free-living amoeba. The most common association between free-living amoeba and microorganisms is interaction of various non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial species with amoeba. Various pathogenic bacterial species have capacity to resist digestion by free-living amoeba, which has been observed by many researchers. Also, several of these pathogens are able to resist digestion by macrophages. In addition, free-living amoeba have been associated with several diseases in humans. Acanthamniioeba castella is an important predator of bacteria. It is a ubiquitous organism in water, soil, and air. Attention from a public health perspective is needed by investigation of interaction of foodborne pathogens and free-living amoeba. Bacteria can use free-living amoeba as reservoirs, mediators or vehicles, an infection route, “biological gym” and evolutionary crib or interaction may result in a close endosymbiotic relationship. The purpose of this review is to describe the interaction mechanisms between free-living amoeba and common bacteria species that survive in host cells.
We studied field performance of containerised Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies seedlings of different provenances. Shoot height, needle chemical composition, root collar diameter, root mycorrhization and mycorrhizal species composition were evaluated after four growing seasons following outplanting. The results showed that in general spruce had better survival than pine. Ectomycorrhizas on spruce were dominated by Wilcoxina, Amphinema and Tylospora, while on pine — by Suillus and Thelephora species. Spruce and pine showing best growth rates were colonised by ectomycorrhizal fungus Amphinema sp. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that forest nursery practices as well as provenance can significantly impact survival, growth and mycorrhization of the containerised pine and spruce seedlings.
Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. is a widespread necrotrophic pathogen causing grey mould on many economically important horticultural crops. The variability in various B. cinerea populations is known to be very high. Despite the economic importance, the variability of B. cinerea has not been investigated previously on fruit crops in Lithuania. The aim of the study was to characterise the variability of B. cinerea strains isolated from strawberry and apple in different growth conditions on various agar media and to assess mycelial compatibility among the isolates. Larger colony diameter after four days of incubation was observed for isolates from strawberry on potato dextrose and beer universal agars in 24 h dark or light regime, followed by pectin agar in 24 h light. Similarly, the maximum radial growth of the isolates from apple was on potato dextrose agar (dark), followed by beer universal agar (dark and light), after four days of incubation at 20 °C. In the mycelial compatibility tests, barrage formation was evident in mycelial contacts between several isolates, indicating their vegetative incompatibility. The tests revealed that 76% were compatible and 24% were incompatible among investigated strains.
Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties) and Germany (four varieties) were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren). The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %).
The trial was carried out at the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2013-2015. Cv. ‘Auksis’ was tested on 12 rootstocks: B.396, B.9, M.9, M.26, P 22, P 59, P 61, P 62, P 66, P 67, PB.4, and Pure 1. Accumulation of phenolic compounds depended on fruit yield and average fruit weight. On average, significantly lower concentration among rootstocks occurred when apple trees had abundant yield and fruits were smaller. On average chlorogenic acid constituted 50% and total procyanidins 28% of total phenols in ‘Auksis’ fruits. Flavonoid concentration most depended on rootstock and the highest variation was recorded. More than 50% difference occurred between the highest total flavonoid concentration in apples on PB.4 and the lowest on M.9 rootstocks. Low variability of total procyanidin concentration among rootstocks was observed. Differences between the highest and lowest concentration was 15%. Total concentration of phenolic compounds differed among rootstocks by 29-35% depending on the year. Differences in accumulation of phenolic compounds depended on rootstock genotype but not on yield or fruit weight. PB.4 and P 67 rootstocks had the highest, and M.9, P 62 and M.26 had the lowest concentration of total phenol in ‘Auksis’ fruits
Arable soils are one of the most valuable natural resources and their long-term sustainable management is a determining factor in the integrated production of strawberries. It is well known that the current large-fruited garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivars are more susceptible to many species of plant-parasitic nematodes and other plant pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of some cultural practices as potential methods for control of nematodes in the integrated production of strawberries. The investigation of the nematode populations was carried out in the region of western Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria (43°33'22.3"N 22°47'03.4"E), with cultivar ‘Maya’. In the surveyed area, plant protection products were applied under an approved scheme complying with the requirements for integrated fruit production (IOBC, IFP). Nematode populations were identified and classified to trophic level. The following genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified: Pratylenchus crenatus, P. neglectus, P. thornei, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Paratylenchus spp. The density and species composition of plant parasitic nematodes were significantly reduced at the end of the study period comparing to the beginning of the study. From the results, it is clear that the integrated production can be defined as an economically feasible production of high quality fruits, giving priority to environmentally safe methods of pest control.
This work is intended as a country checklist of fruit flies Rhagoletis Loew, 1862 for Europe (including transcontinental countries - Kazakhstan and Turkey), based on recent records, wherein we recognise 15 Rhagoletis species, including five species occurring in the Asian part of Kazakhstan. During the past 10-15 years, three species, Rhagoletis batava Hering, 1958, R. cingulata (Loew, 1862), and R. completa Cresson, 1929, have rapidly expanded their distribution range in Europe. We traced the potential route of an aggressive R. batava population movement into Europe, and it is postulated that this R. batava race originated from Siberia. R. batava was initially documented outside its natural range in 2001 in the European part of the Russian Federation. Later, this species was recorded in other territories to the west of Russia - Belarus (2010), Latvia (2011), Lithuania (2012), Germany (2013), and Poland (2014). In Germany and Poland, R. batava probably has both native and alien status.