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Open access

Yigit Aydede and Atul Dar

Abstract

A growing wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers is well documented and is a fundamental policy issue in Canada. It is quite possible that wage differences, commonly attributed to the lower quality of foreign credentials or the deficiency in the accreditation of these credentials, merely reflect lower wage offers that immigrant workers receive due to risk aversion among local firms facing an elevated degree of asymmetric information. Using the 2006 and 2011 population censuses, this paper empirically investigates the effects of wage bargaining in labor markets on the wage gap between foreign- and Canadian-educated workers. Our results imply that a significant part of the wage gap between foreign-educated and Canadian-educated immigrant (and native-born) workers is not driven by the employers’ risk aversion but by differences in human capital endowments and occupational matching quality.

Open access

Natally Horvat, Serena Monti, Brunna Clemente Oliveira, Camila Carlos Tavares Rocha, Romina Grazia Giancipoli and Lorenzo Mannelli

Open access

Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Salvatore Filice, Paola Incollingo, Andrea Belli, Francesco Izzo and Antonella Petrillo

Open access

Michalis Liontos and Nikolaos Tsoukalas

Open access

Elmira Muratova

Abstract

The article deals with the transformation of the Crimean Tatars’ institutions and discourses after the 2014 conflict around Crimea. It shows the change in the balance of power of traditional institutions such as Mejlis and Muftiyat, which for many years represented secular and religious components of Crimean Tatars’ ethnic identity. It tells how the Mejlis was dismissed from the political stage in Crimea, while the Muftiyat has enjoyed a great support by new authorities. This transformation and threats to societal security inevitably led to reassessment of previous views and goals of the main actors in the Crimean Tatar community and the formation of new institutions with hybrid composition and discourse. The article focuses on organization such as ‘Crimean solidarity,’ which was formed in 2016 as a reaction to authorities’ pressure over the Crimean Tatars. Using discourse analysis of statements of activists of this organization and content analysis of social media, the author presents the main topics of its discourse and types of activity. She shows how the traditional Islamic discourse of activists of this organization has been transformed by the incorporation of the main concepts of secular discourse developed by the Mejlis. The author argues that the appearance of ‘Crimean solidarity’ indicates the blurring of lines between secular and religious, and ethnic and Islamic in the Crimean Tatar society. It shows how people with different backgrounds and agendas manage to leave their differences aside to support each other in the face of a common threat.

Open access

György Tóth

Abstract

This article examines the use of the memorialization of Reagan in transatlantic relations – specifically in the commemorations of the Ronald Reagan Centennial Year in 2011 in Central and Eastern Europe. Extrapolating from the case of Hungary, the article argues that because of the contemporary political status of its drivers and its oblique message, the Reagan Centennial’s campaign in Central Europe can be called “shadow” memorial diplomacy, which in 2011 used the former president’s memory to articulate and strengthen a model of U.S. leadership and foreign policy parallel to and ready to replace those of the then Obama administration. This study can serve as an international extension of previous scholarship on the politics of the memory of Ronald Reagan within the United States, as well as a case study of the use of memory in international relations.

Open access

Razvan Peagu, Roxana Sararu, Ana Necula, Alexandru Moldoveanu, Ana Petrisor and Carmen Fierbinteanu-Braticevici

Abstract

Introduction: Current guidelines recommend that all patients with cirrhosis undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) screening for esophageal varices (EV). Unfortunately, UGE has a lot of disadvantages, consequently various non-invasive methods of diagnosing EV have been proposed. We evaluated if spleen stiffness measured by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) is a viable technique in diagnosing EV.

Methods: We recruited 178 patients with cirrhosis caused by Hepatitis B and C who underwent biochemical tests, abdominal ultrasound, UGE, LS and SS measurements using ARFI elastography. Based on the endoscopic results the patients were divided in 3 groups: without EV, with small EV (<5 mm) and with large EV (>5 mm).

Results: ARFI SS was the only non-invasive parameter associated with the presence of EV (2.7±0.30 vs. 3.4±0.52, p<0.001) and large EV (2.91±0.36 vs. 3.86±0.37, p=0.001) after multivariate logistic regression (p<0.001). ARFI SS for predicting EV showed an AUROC of 0.872 (CI 95%: 0.799-0.944), for a cut-off value of 2.89 m/s: Sensitivity (Se) 91.4% (CI 95%: 81-97%), Specificity (Sp) 67.7% (CI 95%: 51-85%). ARFI SS for diagnosing large EV (>5mm) had better results with an AUROC 0.969 (CI 95%:0.935-0.99), and for a cut-off of 3.30 m/s: Se 96.4% (CI 95%: 82-99.9%), Sp 88.5% (CI 95%: 78-95%).

Conclusions: SS measured using ARFI is a good method of detecting EV and is an excellent method of diagnosing large EV in patients with virus-related cirrhosis.

Open access

Yuanxiang Xiao, Enlong Wen, Nazmus Sakib, Zhonghua Yue, Yan Wang, Si Cheng, Jiri Militky, Mohanapriya Venkataraman and Guocheng Zhu

Abstract

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous membranes with fiber diameter from nanoscale to microscale were prepared by electrospinning. The structural parameters of PVDF fibrous membrane in terms of fiber diameter, pore size and its distribution, porosity or packing density, thickness, and areal weight were tested. The relationship between solution concentration and structural parameters of fibrous membrane was analyzed. The filtration performance of PVDF fibrous membrane in terms of air permeability and filtration efficiency was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the higher solution concentration led to a larger fiber diameter and higher areal weight of fibrous membrane. However, no regular change was found in thickness, porosity, or pore size of fibrous membrane under different solution concentrations. The air permeability and filtration efficiency of fibrous membrane had positive correlations with pore size. The experimental results of filtration efficiency were compared with the predicted values from current theoretical models based on single fiber filtration efficiency. However, the predicted values did not have a good agreement with experimental results since the fiber diameter was in nanoscale and the ratio of particle size to fiber diameter was much larger than the value that the theoretical model requires.

Open access

Tai-Dong Nguyen and Manh-Tung Ho

Abstract

In this paper, the concept of “people as the roots” (of the state) is explored through its myriad expressions in Vietnamese history: the emphasis of Vietnamese feudal rulers on fulfilling the people’s will, loving the people, and ensuring peace for the people. From these historical examples, the authors argue that in the politics of Vietnamese traditional Confucianism, there has been the presence of democratic elements. Yet, they do not reflect a full-fledged democracy and should be seen only as signs of village democracy. This view holds an important implication for the process of democratization of modern Vietnamese society: while the concept of “people as the roots” is essential for a village democracy and is valuable for building a democracy, it does not necessarily mean a straightforward translation to a modern democracy. Here, the authors suggest that civil society will play an important role in making this transition smoother.

Open access

Ioannis D K Dimoliatis, Ioannis Zerdes, Athanasia Zampeta, Zoi Tziortzioti, Evangelos Briasoulis and Ioannis Souglakos

Abstract

Background

Can learning outcomes be transformed in useful tools revealing strong and weak learning outcomes, learners, teachers; reporting student self-assessment overestimation; informing formative feedback and summative examinations?

Methods

Based on the ESMO / ASCO global curriculum, 66 level-two learning outcomes were identified and transformed in the iCAN!-Oncology and theyCAN!-Oncology questionnaires, anonymously completed online, before and after teaching, by trainees and trainers respectively, in a five-day fulltime undergraduate oncology course.

Results

In total, students assessed themselves (iCAN!) with 55% before and 70% after the course (27% improvement); teachers assessed students (theyCAN!) with 43% before and 69% after (60% improvement). Twenty level-two learning outcomes (30%) were scored below the pass / fail cut-point by students while 46 (70%) by teachers, before the course; none after the course. Students assessed themselves the highest in “TNM system” before (81%) and after (82%), while the teachers assessed students so in “Normal cell biology” before (72%) and “Moral / ethical issues in clinical research” after (83%). The lowest assessed outcome was the “Research protocol” by students (28%) and teachers (18%) before, and the “Anticancer agents” after (54% by both). Individual students self-assessed themselves from 31% to 88% before, and from 54% to 88% after; individual teachers assessed students from 29% to 66% before, and from 55% to 94% after. The iCAN! / theyCAN! provided detailed individual student or teacher profile, tightfisted or generous.

Conclusions

The iCAN! / theyCAN! differentiate strong and weak learning outcomes, learners, teachers; reveal no student self-assessment overestimation; inform formative feedback and summative exams at a metacognitive level; generalize to any course and assessor; support evidence-based teaching and learning SWOT policy.