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Open access

Lara N. Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Johannes Hertel, Katharina Wittfeld, René Walk, Nele Friedrich, Henry Völzke and Hans J. Grabe

Abstract

Objectives

Obesity is associated with several somatic diseases and increased psychological burden. This study focused on two potential psychological predictors of the body mass index (BMI), childhood trauma and depressive symptoms.

Methods

We used three independent populations: two general population samples (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP-2, N = 1,657; SHIP-TREND-0, N = 3,278) and one patient sample (GANI_MED, N = 1,742). Childhood trauma was measured with the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in SHIP-2 and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in SHIP-TREND-0 and GANI_MED. We investigated the impact of childhood trauma and depression on BMI. Furthermore, we used mediation analysis to assess whether depression was a significant mediator on the path from childhood trauma to adult BMI in each of the three samples.

Results

In all the three populations, depressive symptoms exhibited a significant association towards higher BMI (p < 0.05). Childhood trauma was positively associated with BMI with significant associations in SHIP-TREND-0 (p < 0.001) and GANI_MED (p = 0.005). The relationship between CTQ and BMI was significantly partially mediated (p < 0.05) by depressive symptoms in SHIP-TREND-0 (38.0%) and GANI_MED (16.4%), in SHIP-2 results pointed in the same direction. All the trauma sub-dimensions, except sexual abuse, exhibited at least one significant association towards increased BMI in one of the samples.

Conclusions

Childhood trauma and depressive symptoms may be considered as causes of obesity. These results suggest that psychological treatments against obesity should address childhood maltreatment as well as depressive symptoms in their diagnostic assessment and could facilitate psychotherapeutic treatment when necessary.

Open access

Isabelle Portugal Serrado, João Alberto Neves dos Santos, Nylvandir Liberato Fernandes de Oliveira and Andrey Pimentel Aleluia Freitas

Abstract

Due to the economic crisis, the Brazilian construction companies faced the challenge of remaining competitive in the market, therefore they need to be restructured. Construction projects are intrinsically risky because it changes the environment both physically and socially. Given this complexity and the great exposure to risk, this research aims to evaluate the market risks in construction projects through a field research, analyzing the perception and judgment of professionals in the area. The data analysis was performed by a multivariate index based on the statistical technique Factor Analysis that can be ordered by risk factors by degree of importance. It was possible to confirm the degree of correlation between the subgroups of risk factors and to establish a ranking of the degree of their importance, and the first one considered more relevant was the risk of reducing the quality of the workforce. It was also identified the low maturity in risk management in organizations, even though in civil works a thorough risk analysis is required.

Open access

Md. I. Zahid, A. Malarkodi, Meera Sreenarayanan, K. Meera, K.S. Joseph Wilson and R. Mohan Kumar

Abstract

Single crystal of sodium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate (Na-4-HBS) was grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Powder X-ray diffraction study was carried out to identify the lattice parameters of the crystal. FT-IR spectral analysis confirmed the existence of various functional groups in the compound. The optical transmittance, cut-off wavelength and band gap energy were estimated from the UV-Vis studies. Photoluminescence studies revealed the transition mechanism by optical excitation. The variation of dielectric properties and AC conductivity of the grown crystal with frequency was studied at different temperatures. Measurements of mechanical properties of Na-4-HBS were carried out to find the hardness of the material. The laser induced surface damage threshold and relative second harmonic generation nonlinear optical properties of the grown crystal were studied using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

Open access

Asif Ahmed Kibria, Kamrunnessa, Md. Mahmudur Rahman and Annanya Kar

Abstract

Banana plants (Musa paradaisica) and banana peels (Musa sapientum) two of same genus Musa are grown in worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purpose. All parts of the banana plants have medicinal applications. The aim of the present study was detection of phytochemicals from this two types of samples and find out some viable phytochemicals which might be used as food additives after commercial purification. These two types of samples banana plants and banana peels were collected from local area of sobhanbagh near Daffodil International University. Samples were washed and dried in room temperature and grinded in pestle. Then 25 gm of grinded samples were soaked in 75 ml of 70% methanol, ethanol, acetone and 0.9% NaCl solution for 72 hours. Then all the extracts of banana peels and banana plants were detected by standard protocol. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, terpenoids, were detected from those extracts. Negative and positive result of presence of phytochemicals were detected by the observing of color change. Banana peels and banana plant extracts were showed maximum result in ethanolic extracts. The present study showed qualitative analysis of phytochemicals content existence in banana peels and banana plants extracts. The study also discussed the application of some phytochemicals in food industry.

Open access

Silvina Quintana, Nicolás Szawarski, Gabriel Sarlo, Sandra Medici, Mariana Rivero, Martin Eguaras and Matias Maggi

Abstract

The honey bee tracheal mite Acarapis woodi is an internal obligate parasite of adult honey bees (Apis mellifera). The small size of the mites and location within the bee’s trachea create a challenge for diagnostic identification. Detailed assessment of low-level mite infestation involves microscopic examination of the bee’s tracheae, but this traditional diagnostic method takes a long time. In recent years, new molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed to identify A. woodi with the use of PCRs. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of microscopic examination and qPCR method for the detection of A. woodi in honey bee samples. Thirty-six samples were analyzed with both methods and qPCR was more sensitive than the microscopic method to detect A. woodi. This work demonstrates the practical application of molecular technology as a support tool for surveys and contingency management and to provide robust surveillance data on the presence or absence of A. woodi in honey bee colonies.

Open access

Aleksandra Łata, Barbara Baranowska and Piotr Węgrzyn

Abstract

Introduction. The midwife profession is an independent profession, entitled to provide part of the services of gynaecology and obstetrics. Women whose pregnancy goes in a physiological way may benefit from midwife-led services as part of the benefits refunded by the National Health Fund. This model makes it possible to maintain continuity of care, considered a beneficial solution in the area of mother and child health.

Aim. Determination of the scale of the phenomenon of midwife-led antenatal care in Poland and comparison of groups of women actively using the Internet who chose midwife-led or doctor-led antenatal care.

Material and methods. The survey was carried out in February-March 2018. The research tool was an electronic questionnaire. Questions regarding socio-demographic factors of pregnancy, antenatal education, labour, intervention during labour and labour experience described by women-Internet users were used for the purpose of the analysis. The Chi-square test of independence, the Fisher’s Exact Test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to develop the results.

Results and conclusions. The prenatal care of midwives is not a common phenomenon in Poland. Groups of women who decide on a different form of midwife-led or doctor-led antenatal care differ mainly in the material situation. Women choosing midwifeled antenatal care more often attend antenatal classes and prepare a birth plan. In order to popularize the model of antenatal care provided by midwives, attempts should be made to study the motivation of women who decide on an alternative antenatal care.

Open access

Vandana Singh and Manager Rajdeo Singh

Abstract

This investigation deals with the chemical composition and microstructural analysis of the iron object, a spear excavated from Sanur, Tamil Nadu- a megalithic site dated 300 B.C. to 50 A.D. Phase analysis and microstructural examination were carried using XRD, optical and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Optical micrograph shows the equiaxed grain structure along with the Newman bands. Formation of Newman bands suggests that the original artifact was forged at high temperature followed by cooling, although not so rapid to produce the marked hardening. The absence of carbides at the grain boundary, within the grains and lower value of micro-hardness indicates that the iron spear was not subjected to the carburizing treatment. Results of corrosion characterization revealed that deterioration of excavated iron artifact is associated with the presence of chlorine in corrosion products. However, compact nature of the outer rust (goethite) was helpful in protecting the object. The formation of goethite [∝-FeOOH] layer may prevent the iron matrix suffering from attacks by other environmental factors due to its good continuity. In addition, less aerated environment of storage and no history of any cleaning of object were also helpful in preventing the iron spear from further deterioration.

Open access

Al Mukhlas Fikri, Ahmad Sulaeman, Sri Anna Marliyati and Mokhamad Fahrudin

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids of propolis from three provinces of Indonesia with two methods of extraction. Stingless bee propolis from Banten, South Kalimantan, and South Sulawesi was prepared through ultrasound-assisted extraction with water and ethanol solvents, separately. Antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) methods, respectively. The result showed that the antioxidant activity expressed as IC50 of Indonesian propolis ranged from 452.52 to 1027.29 mg/L. Ethanol extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than water extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoids content detected in the samples ranged from 10.00 to 28.65 mg/g GAE and 0.76 to 3.39 mg/g QE, respectively. The ethanol extract of propolis from South Kalimantan had the highest total phenolic contents, while that from South Sulawesi possessed the highest total flavonoids.

Open access

Cihan Altuntas

Abstract

Urban changes occur as a result of new constructions or destructions of buildings, extensions, excavation works and earth fill arising from urbanization or disasters. The fast and efficient detection of urban changes enables us to update geo-databases and allows effective planning and disaster management. This study concerns the visualization and analysis of urban changes using multi-period point clouds from aerial images. The urban changes in the city centre of the Konya Metropolitan area within arbitrary periods between the years 1951, 1975, 1998 and 2010 were estimated after comparing the point clouds by using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The changes were detected with the point-to-surface distances between the point clouds. The degrees of the changes were expressed with the RMSEs of these point-to-surface distances. In addition, the change size and proportion during the historical periods were analysed. The proposed multi-period change visualization and analysis method ensures strict management against unauthorized building or excavation and more operative urban planning.

Open access

Lütfiye Tutkun, Servet Birgin İritaş, Serdar Deniz, Özgür Öztan, Sedat Abuşoğlu, Ali Ünlü, Vugar Ali Türksoy and Sultan Pınar Çetintepe

Summary

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known biomarkers of systemic inflammation that have been associated with many diseases in the past. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between impaired lung functions and the levels of these biomarkers in DMAc exposed people.

Methods

101 non-exposed control subjects (Group 1) and 109 DMAc-exposed workers from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry were included in the study. In the next step, the exposed group was divided into two groups according to the level of exposure (Group 2 and 3). DMAc, TNF-α, IL-6, creatinine, ALT, AST, GFR and standard spirometry measurements were carried out in all subjects.

Results

When compared to the control group, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly high compatible with the increase of DMAc levels, in the exposed groups. Urinary DMAc Levels were 0.06 mg/L in the control group. This level is significantly low when compared to exposed and severely exposed group (2.43 mg/L and 3.17 mg/L). TNF-α levels were 56.86 pg/mL, 145.52 pg/mL and 230.52 pg/mL in control, exposed and severely exposed groups. IL-6 levels were found to be 38.08 pg/mL, 89.19 pg/mL and 116 pg/mL for control, exposed and severely exposed groups, respectively. Similarly, the FEV1/FVC ratio decreased especially in the severely exposed group (p 0.001).

Conclusions

In our study, results have revealed that TNF-and IL-6 levels are promising biomarkers in the early diagnosis of lung function impairment in inhalational DMAc exposure.