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Open access

Ewa Możdżer, Krystyna Cybulska, Teresa Krzyśko-Łupicka and Edward Meller

Abstract

Therefore the carried out study aimed at determination of the effect of high-calcium brown coal ash and compost being produced from municipal sewage sludge on the content and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in potato tubers, wheat grains and rapeseeds during a three-year period. Rapeseeds contained most Cd whereas wheat rains less. Potato tubers, wheat grains and rapeseeds contained more Mn, Ni and Zn in the fertilization objects with municipal sewage sludge with or without coal ash and compared to those where calcium carbonate or coal ash had been introduced into the soil at a dose corresponding to 1.5 Mg CaO · ha−1 at the beginning of this study. Differences in the Mn, Ni and Zn contents in test plants between the fertilization objects with sewage sludge of with and without addition of ash were not significant.

Open access

Andrzej Kostrzewski and Tadeusz Stryjakiewicz

Open access

H. Öge and S. Öge

Summary

Faecal samples were collected from 224 dogs (47 villages) in Ankara. Toxocara spp. eggs were diagnosed in faeces using centrifugal flotation and sedimentation methods. A total of 21 dogs (9.38 %) were positive for Toxocara spp. eggs. In this study, we used the PCR technique that, in combination with DNA sequencing, allows the detection and identification of T.canis eggs in faeces of infected dogs. For this purpose, the ATPase subunit-6 gene (mtDNA) was selected as a target for the amplification T. canis. The primers were used to amplify 217 bp region. Amongst 21 coproscopically detected Toxocara isolates from dogs, 5 (23.8 %) samples were PCR-positive for T. canis, and the remaining 16 samples were PCR-negative. Results indicate that PCR can detect Toxocara canis DNA in faeces of infected dogs, but efficacy was low when compare to sedimentation/flotation. PCR is additional test for diagnosing of this infection. But, the difficulties of identification based on PCR in faecal examinations need to be investigated further.

Open access

Dawid Bedla and Ewa Dacewicz

Abstract

The paper discusses the use of multiclustering statistical analysis in the assessment of domestic wastewater filtration effectiveness. Calculations included data collected over four months of experiments with using waste as filling material of vertical flow filters for domestic sewage treatment. The effectiveness of pollutants removal was analysed in case of mechanically shredded waste in the form of PET flakes, PUR foam trims, shredded rubber tires and wadding. The organic compounds (CODcr, BOD5) removal, suspend solids, biogens (as NH4 +, PO4 3−ions) and oxygen saturation changing compared with sand filling was analysed. Multiclustering statistical analysis allowed to divide pollutants removal efficiency of analysed materials into 3 clusters, depending on the hydraulic loading. The first group consisted in quality parameters of treated sewage: the highest reduction of BOD5 and NH4-N. It included the values of quality parameters and indicators for the filtrates obtained at the lowest hydraulic load from columns filled with 60 cm of rubber tires or sand. The second group comprised the results for fillings containing foam, PET and rubber tires (the other hydraulic loads). It featured the highest reduction of total suspended solids and PO4 3−. Removal of easily biodegradable organic compounds was at a similar level in both cluster groups. The filter filled with polyester waste (wadding), which was as effective as 30 cm layer of sand, and the filters filled with 60 cm of sand working at the highest hydraulic load. Third group showed the lowest values of parameters and indicators for analysed filtrates.

Open access

Špela Zupančič

Abstract

Core-shell nanofibers have grown in popularity over the last decade owing to their special features and their many applications in biomedicine. They can be produced by electrospinning of immiscible polymer blends or emulsions through a single nozzle or by electrospinning using a coaxial nozzle. Several of the electrospinning parameters allow great versatility for the compositions and diameters of core-shell nanofibers to be produced. Morphology of core-shell nanofibers can be investigated using transmission electron microscopy and, in some cases, scanning electron microscopy. Several studies have shown that core-shell nanofibers have some advantages over monolithic nanofibers, such as better drug, protein, gene or probiotic incorporation into the nanofibers, greater control over drug release, and maintenance of protein structure and activity during electrospinning. We herein review the production and characterization of core-shell nanofibers, the critical parameters that affect their development, and their advantages as delivery systems.

Open access

Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Mahbobeh Oroei and Shahrokh Khoshsirat

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Septoplasty is routinely used to resolve the deviated nasal septum. To obviate postoperative complications, some surgeons pack both nasal cavities and some other use suturing techniques after septoplasty.

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the efficacy of septal suturing and packing in patients post-septoplasty.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Loghman Hakim, Tehran, Iran. 146 patients aged 17 years and above were enrolled for septoplasty. Septal suture was performed in 73 patients (group A) and nasal packing in the other 73 patients (group B). The principal outcomes in terms of bleeding, pain, respiratory problems, septal hematoma, adhesion and perforation were measured over a post-operative follow-up period.

RESULTS. A total of 146 patients, 74% female and 26% male, were enrolled. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to respiratory problems and patient comfort (p<0.001). The patients in both groups had no septal perforation.

CONCLUSION. Septoplasty using trans-septal suturing without packing can be safe and suitable to prevent or minimize postoperative complications.

Open access

Ramiya Ramachandran Kaipuzha, Nirmal Coumare Venkataramanujam, Padmanabhan Karthikeyan and Davis Thomas Pulimoottil

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. To study and compare the benefits of microdebrider-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery and conventional endoscopic sinus surgery in terms of subjective and objective improvement in symptoms of nasal polyposis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study involved 60 patients with bilateral sinonasal polyposis scheduled to undergo Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups: Group A -Conventional endoscopic sinus surgery and Group B -Microdebrider-assisted endoscopic sinus surgery.

RESULTS. There was a significant difference in the mean VAS at 3 months postoperatively in Group B, but no significant difference at 6 months postoperatively following either of the two methods. The mean time for surgery (p<0.01) and the mean intraoperative blood loss (p<0.01) were significantly lower in Group B.

CONCLUSION. A well-trained surgeon with proper anatomical knowledge, good instruments, hypotensive anaesthesia, minimal mucosal injury and regular proper follow-up will have similar postoperative results with both methods.

Open access

Cristina Ariza-Carricondo, Francesca Di Mauro, Maarten Op de Beeck, Marilyn Roland, Bert Gielen, Domenico Vitale, Reinhart Ceulemans and Dario Papale

Abstract

The agreement of Leaf Area Index (LAI) assessments from three indirect methods, i.e. the LAI–2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer, the SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis System and Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) was evaluated for four canopy types, i.e. a short rotation coppice plantation (SRC) with poplar, a Scots pine stand, a Pedunculate oak stand and a maize field. In the SRC and in the maize field, the indirect measurements were compared with direct measurements (litter fall and harvesting). In the low LAI range (0 to 2) the discrepancies of the SS1 were partly explained by the inability to properly account for clumping and the uncertainty of the ellipsoidal leaf angle distribution parameter. The higher values for SS1 in the medium (2 to 6) to high (6 to 8) ranges might be explained by gap fraction saturation for LAI–2200 and DHP above certain values. Wood area index –understood as the woody light-blocking elements from the canopy with respect to diameter growth– accounted for overestimation by all indirect methods when compared to direct methods in the SRC. The inter-comparison of the three indirect methods in the four canopy types showed a general agreement for all methods in the medium LAI range (2 to 6). LAI–2200 and DHP revealed the best agreement among the indirect methods along the entire range of LAI (0 to 8) in all canopy types. SS1 showed some discrepancies with the LAI–2200 and DHP at low (0 to 2) and high ranges of LAI (6 to 8).

Open access

Fatemeh Afrasiabi, Habib Khodaverdiloo, Farrokh Asadzadeh and Martinus Th. van Genuchten

Abstract

Complete descriptions of the particle-size distribution (PSD) curve should provide more information about various soil properties as opposed to only the textural composition (sand, silt and clay (SSC) fractions). We evaluated the performance of 19 models describing PSD data of soils using a range of efficiency criteria. While different criteria produced different rankings of the models, six of the 19 models consistently performed the best. Mean errors of the six models were found to depend on the particle diameter, with larger error percentages occurring in the smaller size range. Neither SSC nor the geometric mean diameter and its standard deviation correlated significantly with the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs); however, the parameters of several PSD models showed significant correlation with Kfs. Porosity, mean weight diameter of the aggregates, and bulk density also showed significant correlations with PSD model parameters. Results of this study are promising for developing more accurate pedotransfer functions.

Open access

Tayyab Naveed, Azmat Hussain, Aijaz Ahmed Babar, Awais Naeem, Hassan Mussana, Wang Xin, Li Duan and Yueqi Zhong

Abstract

In the apparel manufacturing, fabric utilization always remains the significant apprehensions in controlling the production expenditure. Alteration in pattern shapes and marker preparation leads to the enormous utilization of fabric. The purpose of this research is to study fabric efficiency in correspondence with four different human body shapes in both genders. Two clothing styles, fitted trousers and fitted shirts, were processed conventionally in the garment manufacturing company. The comparative study of auto-marker and manual-marker making through Garment Gerber Technology (GGT) software were also accomplished. The evaluation of fabric consumptions, marker efficiency, marker loss, fabric loss, and fabric cost relevant to four different body shapes was analyzed for both women and men. The investigation carried out in this article concludes that there are differences in fabric consumptions, efficiencies, and cost-effectiveness relative to body shapes. The result revealed that the manualmarker of trousers for triangular body shape in women’s wears has the least fabric consumption (most cost-effective), whereas the shirt’s auto-marker for an oval body shape in men’s wears has the most fabric utilization (least costeffective). The manual-virtual-marker making is efficient (significant p-value) than auto-generated-markers. Also, fabric utilization for women’s garments is cost-effective than that for men. Trousers are cost-effective compared to the shirts.