In this study, we present a systematic study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of Para Red with the aim of Z-scan technique and quantum mechanical calculations. The Z-scan experiments were performed using a 532 nm Nd: YAG (SHG) CW laser beam. Para Red exhibited a strong nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order nonlinear susceptibility 3.487 × 10−6 cm2/W, 2.341 × 10−1cm/W and 2.157 × 10−4 esu, respectively. Also, quantum chemical analysis was used for the calculation of the dipole moment μ, dipole polarizability α, anisotropy of polarizability Δα and molecular hyperpolarizabilities (β,γ). The results revealed that Para Red has large first and second hyperpolarizabilities. However, from the obtained results, it was found that Para Red can be a promising material for applications in the development of non-linear optical materials.
Organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of quantum dots and conjugate polymers are important for the application in light emitting devices. In the present work, we have studied the effect of CdS and CdS/ZnO nanoparticle addition on the structure and fluorescence properties of spin coated PVK (poly(N-vinyl carbozole)) nanocomposite films. CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique and ZnO shell was grown on the CdS nanoparticles by simple wet chemical approach. The nanoparticles and the hybrid nanocomposites have been characterized by using XRD, SEM, FT-IR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The absorption peak for pure PVK remains at 345.5 nm accompanied with minor hump ~480 nm resulting from the incorporation of nanoparticles. It has been observed that the addition of nanoparticles to the hybrid material results in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity at 410 nm to 450 nm spectral regions. These results are important for the development of new light emitting devices at low fabrication costs.
ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures were successfully prepared by combining hydrothermal and dip coating methods. Flower-like hetero-nanostructures of ZnO-CuO were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-Vis. The sensing properties of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated in a chamber containing acetone or isopropanol gas at room temperature. The sensitivity of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to VOCs was enhanced compared to that of pure leafage-like ZnO nanostructures. Response and recovery times were about 5 s and 6 s to 50 ppm acetone, and 10 s and 8 s to 50 ppm isopropanol, respectively. The sensing performance of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures was attributed to the addition of CuO that led to formation of p-n junctions at the interface between the CuO and ZnO. In addition, the sensing mechanism was briefly discussed.
J. Tomków, D. Fydrych, G. Rogalski and J. Łabanowski
Wet welding is the most common method of welding in water environment. It is most often used for repairing of underwater parts of offshore structures. However, the water as a welding environment causes an increase of susceptibility of steels to cold cracking. For underwater constructions high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are widely used. In wet welding condition a HSLA steel is characterized by high susceptibility to cold cracking. Temper Bead Welding (TBW) was chosen as a method to improve the weldability of S460N steel. The studies showed that TBW technique causes significant decrease of maximum hardness of heat affected zone (HAZ). The largest decrease in hardness occurred in specimens with the pitches in range 66-100%.
A. Walczak, A. Niewczas, D. Pieniak, L. Gil, E. Kozłowski and P. Kordos
This paper reports the results of compressive strength and elasticity studies of light-cured polymer matrix ceramic composites (LC PMCCs). The main purpose was to obtain new data on experimental composites and compare them with commercial composites from the world’s leading manufacturer. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the content of reinforcing components in the composites studied and the stability of their strength in time, expressed as the number of fatigue thermal cycles.
Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is one of the most intensively studied of coatings’ applications area. From 1970’s TBC are developed in two independent ways: (i) development in new materials, with lower thermal conductivity, better erosion resistance and better thermal shock resistance or (ii) development in new deposition techniques. On this field besides conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and almost conventional (because of very common use) EB-PVD method, in the past 20 years two new techniques have been developed, namely suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). In this paper only SPS method was described, as well as, new materials, which could be used in industrial applications of TBC. Moreover, the key issues, like suspension preparation, type of suspension injection, interaction between liquid droplets and plasma jet and deposition mechanism were described.
Andrzej Sikora, Magdalena Moczała and Bartosz Boharewicz
In this paper, we present a novel approach developed in order to increase the reliability and accuracy of AFM investigation of morphological changes in a nanocomposite due to exposure to the media causing its degradation. By precise sample positioning and repetitive determination of the roughness changes at specific spots, we were able to create space-related degradation profiles. As the multi-step experiment based on exposure/scanning cycle was performed, we were able to observe a unique response of investigated samples revealing spatial inhomogeneity of the material. In order to present the measurement methodology, we used polystyrene samples containing various quantities of PC61BM nanofiller (0 %, 5 %, 10 % and 20 % of mass proportion), which was exposed to 370 nm UV radiation. Obtained data can be recognized as specific fingerprints of investigated materials. The solution based on creation and analysis of degradation profiles can be particularly useful for diagnostics of nanomaterials and nanocomposites to test their resistance to various conditions.
Glass forming ability of lone-pair semiconductors was analyzed for (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) system. Values of lone pair electrons L were calculated using average coordination number of valence electrons. These values were found to decrease, as the system was moving towards the rigid region. L > 3 values showed vitreous state. Deviation of the stoichiometry confirmed the chalcogen-rich region. A linear correlation was found between the mean bond energy and glass transition temperature. Chemical Bond Approach model was applied to calculate the cohesive energy of the system. A linear relationship was found to exist between the cohesive energy and the theoretical band gap, calculated using Shimakawa relation. A decrease in both parameters was explained on the basis of average stabilization energy and electronegativity of the system. The density values were found to increase and may account for higher refractive index of the system. Large Bohr radius of the Bi atom accounted for an increase in the polarizability. Other parameters viz. degree of covalency, packing density, compactness, molar volume, free volume percentage, excess volume and polaron radius were also calculated. An effort was made to correlate the effect of Bi addition to Ge12Se76 - xAs12Bixlone-pair semiconductor on the basis of the structure of the glassy matrix or the connectedness of the material.
The cavitation and cavitation erosion phenomenon have been shortly presented. The main four types of test rigs to investigate the cavitation erosion resistance have been shown. Each type of test design is described and an example of a design is shown. A special attention has been payed to the designs described in the International ASTM Standards: a vibratory design and a cavitating jet cell. There was shown that the design of a test device and the test conditions affect the resistance to cavitation erosion of a material.
Gnana Praveena Nethala, Ravindar Tadi, Aroli Venkateswara Anupama, Satish Laxman Shinde and V. Veeraiah
Mg substituted cobalt ferrite spinel powder samples with the general formula MgxCO1-xFe2O4(x = 0 to 0.25) were synthesized chemically through sol-gel method and annealed at 1100 °C for 2 h. They were initially screened for the structural and morphological properties by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Vibrational properties of the samples were studied by Raman and infrared spectroscopies. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of single pure or near-pure phase with cubic spinel structure for all the samples with expected occupancy values. The field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a decrease in the particle size with an increase in Mg concentration. Both structural and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using Mössbauer spectroscopy while the magnetic properties were studied using vibrating sample magnetometry. The changes in magnetic moment of ions, their coupling with neighboring ions and cation exchange interactions were confirmed from the Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis. Saturation magnetization and coercivity values can be explained based on the Slater-Pauling curve. The magnetometry results showed a decrease in saturation magnetization of the samples with increase in Mg concentration