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Knowledge about genetic inheritance as a concept in children and young people with bleeding disorders is synonymous, in many ways, with other inherited genetic conditions. Children and young people have a more physiological understanding of inheritance, but may hold mistaken and inaccurate beliefs in understanding basic genetics. There are complex ethical and social problems in the genetic testing of youngsters with bleeding disorders to establish carrier status. Current guideline recommendations indicate circumstances where clear psychosocial and medical benefits can be demonstrated. However, children and young people have a reduced capacity to understand the tests and their implications, and in many cases family communication may impact the extent of disclosure of genetic risk factors. This paper explores the genetics of inherited bleeding disorders, including basic knowledge of the concept of inheritance and reproductive risks. Carrier status in children and young people will be considered, drawing on legal rulings that may shed light on best practice in establishing carrier status based on genetic testing. Communication patterns within families around inherited bleeding disorders and the complicated process of disclosure will also be discussed.


The aim of the present study was to compare the concentrations of KYNA, 3-OH-KYN and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with depression vs. healthy controls as well as in patients with depression treated pharmacologically vs. those treated using ECT. We also evaluated the relationship between the concentrations of KYNA, 3-OH-KYN and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and clinical improvement measured on the MADRS scale in patients treated pharmacologically and those treated with ECT.

Subjects and methods: The study group comprised 29 patients aged 28 to 60 years with a diagnosis of a major depressive episode. Eleven of the patients received pharmacological treatment and 18 were treated with ECT.

Patients were assayed for serum levels of KYNA and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Clinical improvement was measured on the MADRS depression rating scale and the clinical global impression (CGI) scale.

Results: Significant differences were found in KYNA levels between depressive patients and healthy controls. Pharmacological treatment significantly contributed to the increase in KYNA levels and ECT – to the increase in TNF-α levels in depressive patients.


  1. Depressive patients have significantly lower concentrations of KYNA than healthy individuals
  2. Depressive patients who have undergone pharmacological treatment have significantly higher KYNA concentrations than before treatment.
  3. Depressive patients who have undergone ECT treatment have significantly lower TNF-α concentrations than before treatment.
  4. High pre-treatment levels of IL-6 are associated with a lower MADRS improvement index in pharmacologically treated patients with depression.


Alcohol dependence and its treatment is not an exactly resolved problem. Based on the EZOP [Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Accessibility of Mental Health Care] survey, which included a regular analysis of the incidence of mental disorders in the population of adult Polish citizens, we were able to estimate that the problem of alcohol abuse in any period of life affects even 10.9% of the population aged 18-64 years, and those addicted represent 2.2% of the country’s population. The typical symptoms of alcohol dependence according to ICD-10, include alcohol craving, impaired ability to control alcohol consumption, withdrawal symptoms which appear when a heavy drinker stops drinking, alternating alcohol tolerance, growing neglect of other areas of life, and persistent alcohol intake despite clear evidence of its destructive effect on life. At the moment, the primary method of alcoholism treatment is psychotherapy. It aims to change the patient’s habits, behaviours, relationships, or the way of thinking. It seems that psychotherapy is irreplaceable in the treatment of alcoholism, but for many years now attempts have been made to increase the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment with pharmacological agents. In this article we will try to provide a description of medications which help patients sustain abstinence in alcoholism therapy with particular emphasis on baclofen.


The study aimed to evaluate oral health in women with eating disorders. The clinical study covered 30 patients aged 14-36 years suffering from diagnosed eating disorders and treated in closed psychiatric institutions. The control group comprised 30 healthy women at the mean age corresponding to that of the patient group. No relationships were confirmed between eating disorders and the intensity of dental caries. Eating disorders contribute to increased loss of dental hard tissues. In women suffering from eating disorders non-specific lesions in oral cavity are more common than in healthy women.


This article describes the psychometric properties of the Disease Perception Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Obrazu Choroby, KOCh, in Polish). An original version of KOCh consisting of 99 items was used to survey a group of 161 subjects aged 25 to 85 years. On the basis of factor analysis, four factors (scales) were identified which pointed to the subjects’ different perceptions of their disease: (1) Disease as a Threat, (2) Disease as a Weakness, (3) Disease as a Task, and (4) Disease as a Benefit. Items with the lowest factor loadings and the lowest factor specificity indexes were rejected. The factors identified explained 38% of the total variance. The final version of the KOCh questionnaire consisted of 57 items. The coefficients of reliability for the individual factors were Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94 for Disease as a Threat, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 for Disease as a Weakness, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84 for Disease as a Task, and Cronbach’s alpha = 0.85 for Disease as a Benefit


On 10-11th March in Warsaw, in the Conference Center Muranow, there was held a scientific conference “Schizophrenia-Forum”, organized for the nineteenth time. In this edition, particular attention was paid to educational aspects, by virtue of the fact that among the participants of the Conference there was a large number of young physicians specializing in psychiatry.

The formula of the two-day Conference based on the experts’ debates in a particular way affected the participants, so the conference was very interesting, it enabled the exchange of experiences and reflections on the problems of schizophrenia. The conference was attended by leading scientists and clinicians, for example: Marek Jarema, Janusz Rybakowski, Andrzej Czernikiewicz, Jerzy Samochowiec, Dominika Dudek and others, which is why it allowed to enrich the knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders and good presentation of mature clinical thinking. The organizer of the Conference was the Foundation III Department of Psychiatry, “Syntonia” and the guest of honor was Dr. Peter Falkai - Head of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. The lecture by Professor Falkaia entitled Schizophrenia treatment guidelines, at a plenary lecture, was presented in English, translated simultaneously, and was divided into parts: the characteristics of schizophrenia, guidelines for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia - states of acute pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia - long-term treatment, side effects of long-term pharmacotherapy and conclusions. After a two-day Conference the hugely popular workshop sessions took place. They were addressed to physicians during specialization. All workshop sessions were very popular, as well as the entire conference, which became a forum for the exchange of information, ideas and experiences, sometimes intriguing, inspiring and innovative but never blank. At the end of the Conference the certificates were distributed and there was the opportunity for guests - visiting the permanent exhibition “1000 years of history of Polish Jews,” Polin, located at the Conference Centre Muranow. XIX Conference on Schizophrenia Forum 2016 was an interesting event cognitively and it maintained a high level of scientific and substantive jurisdiction important events in Polish psychiatry.


The purpose of the present study is to examine the life satisfaction levels in two groups of women - with excess body weight and normal weight and the relationship between life satisfaction and the level of social competences The study involved 70 women (35 with excess body weight and 35 with normal weight). The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire and Social Approval Questionnaire were used in the study. The study revealed no significant differences in terms of overall life satisfaction among women with excess weight and normal weight and a number of other relationships between the variables (like the importance of the need for social approval for the assessment of life satisfaction in those who have excess body weight).


The basic purpose of this article is to compare how people with low and high self-esteem rated particular values. Additionally, the authors look at gender differences concerning the attitudes toward certain values.

The study involved 268 individuals aged 19-24 (M= 21.71, SD= 1.54). The participants were surveyed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The results were considered significant at p<0.05. The findings demonstrated that people with lower self-esteem had higher opinion of values like Conformity, Pleasure, and Comfortable Life as well as some Instrumental Values (Self-Control and Politeness), when compared against the individuals with higher self-esteem. On the other hand, they were found to value Courage. There were no differences concerning the way individuals with high and low self-esteem rated Social Recognition, A Sense of Accomplishment and Self-Respect.

Also, the authors noticed that men were more likely to appreciate Hedonistic and Intellectual values, while women attached greater significance to Relational values. There were no gender differences concerning the rating of Aesthetic and Subjective values.


Adriamycin (doxorubicin) is a chemical substance in the anthracycline class with a wide range of applications in oncology and hematology. The mechanism of action of Adriamycin is related to formation of irregular bonds between nucleobases of DNA and inhibition of key enzymes of DNA synthesis - topoisomerase I and II as well as to formation of free radicals damaging DNA.

A major limitation in the drug use is associated with its adverse effects such as cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.

The mechanism of myocardial injury by Adriamycin is linked to an increase in oxidative stress associated with impaired mitochondrial function and structure.

Cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is classified as: acute, chronic or late (delayed).

Hepatotoxicity of Adriamycin as a damage of the liver is associated with a dysfunction of this organ. Adriamycin studies have shown increased level of transaminase present in 40% of patients treated with Adriamycin. The state was transient and asymptomatic, returning to the initial level even when treatment continued.

Knowledge of cancer diseases contributed to a successive creation of two improved forms of Adriamycin (doxorubicin) – nonpegylated and pegylated formulas of the drug.

The mechanism of anticancer effects of liposomal Adriamycin is similar to the mechanism of conventional Adriamycin, but placement of the molecules of active substance in liposomes has significant influence on the distribution of the drug.

In order to increase the distribution of the drug, a special form of liposomal Adriamycin has been created by covering the surface of the liposomes with a hydrophilic polymer - (MPEG). This process, known as pegylation, decreases the interactions between the lipid bilayer membrane and the plasma components. Pegylated form of the drug is associated with a higher incidence of acute complications.