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Open access

Dorin Sarafoleanu and Raluca Enache

Abstract

Whiplash syndrome is a quite common pathology and can be defined as a neck injury produced by a sudden acceleration-deceleration, the consequence of which is a sudden forward and backward movement of the head and neck. The main production mechanism is a sudden acceleration-deceleration process that has as a consequence the sudden extension/flexion of the neck. Starting from the many structures involved, the whiplash syndrome is an interdisciplinary challenge (ENT specialist, neurologist, orthopedist, ophthalmologist, psychologist) and can be described by multiple signs and symptoms.

Whiplash syndrome is a complex pathology both through the mechanism of production and symptoms, and through the forensic implications that it has. The interdisciplinary medical collaboration, the implementation of stricter rules on wearing the seat belt and the development by car manufacturers of chairs and head restraints that protect the head and neck of passengers, would be the preventive step in the occurrence and especially the chronicization of these lesions.

Open access

Călin Ciobotari

Abstract

This study intends to check how much Romanian performances of the last two decades owe to tradition and what is, nonetheless, contemporary in the ‘contemporary performance’. The study takes into consideration the shows produced in the public theatres, the ones which provide the overwhelming majority of the Romanian theatrical production.

Open access

Gašper Rak, Marko Hočevar and Franci Steinman

Abstract

The complexity of flow conditions at junctions amplifies significantly with supercritical flow. It is a pronounced three-dimensional two-phased flow phenomenon, where standing waves with non-stationary water surface are formed. To analyse the hydrodynamic conditions at an asymmetric right-angled junction with incoming supercritical flows at Froude numbers between 2 and 12, an experimental approach was used. For a phenomenological determination of the relations between the integral parameters of incoming flows and the characteristics of standing waves at the junction area, water surface topographies for 168 scenarios at the junction were measured using non-intrusive measurement techniques. The new, phenomenologically derived equations allow for determination of location, height and extent of the main standing waves at the junction. Research results give important information on the processes and their magnitude for engineering applications.

Open access

Werner Moskopp

Abstract

All of metaethical positions today can be replaced by a universal architecture of moral philosophy, all but one: moral realism. Here, I use the term “metaethics” to refer to any theory of ethics concerning the groundwork of ethics, on the one hand, and the inquiry of the use of philosophical words, concepts or methods on the other. In this article, I will present my hypothesis that in moral philosophy, we do not need any specialized metaethics at all. Metaethics as a discipline of philosophy is only required by the work of moral realists, who try to show us a realm of values and norms that exist (per se) naturally, non-naturally or supernaturally. How can they know? The effort of metaethical realists cannot be proven either in ontology or in the philosophy of language or in cognitive science or in any meta-science that works en plus to ethics, because even in every additional discipline, we have to accept the presupposition of a validity of judgments. So, let us try it the other way around; we have to find a way to found ethics by following its structures, and that means, based on David Velleman’s concepts: a) We have to search for a ubiquitous point of ethical theory in its foundation – here, no kind of value or norm can be found that is not based on a universal formal structure of normativity. b) We have to start an empirical inquiry to collect norms and values in actual use. MFT, moral psychology and moral sociology are in charge here. The combination of such an abstract groundwork with mere empirical study has to be legitimized again. Hence, I am going to try to sum up the main ideas of such a project to show the relevance of a new architecture of moral philosophy today. There is a line of reasoning that addresses the possibility of a transcendental critique in practical philosophy; therefore, it has to look into the different notions of “intuition” in moral methods like it was used by Sidgwick (Rashdall, Green, Ross, Brentano, McTaggart) and Moore on the one hand and Brentano and Bergson on the other. In my view, there is a way to combine these perspectives using the two-level-model of Hare, Singer, Greene, where “intuition” is used to categorize habits and customs of the common sense morality in general while a critical reflection uses act-utilitarian calculus to provide a universal decision – in the sense of “concrete reason” – for any possible actor in a singular situation (Hegel, Peirce, Bloch etc.). The change between these levels may be explained by means of a pragmatistic kind of continuum of research with an ideal summum bonum in the long run and a concept of common sense morality as can be found in every group or society.

Open access

Vincenzo Alagna, Vincenzo Bagarello, Simone Di Prima, Fabio Guaitoli, Massimo Iovino, Saskia Keesstra and Artemi Cerdà

Abstract

In bare soils of semi-arid areas, surface crusting is a rather common phenomenon due to the impact of raindrops. Water infiltration measurements under ponding conditions are becoming largely applied techniques for an approximate characterization of crusted soils. In this study, the impact of crusting on soil hydraulic conductivity was assessed in a Mediterranean vineyard (western Sicily, Italy) under conventional tillage. The BEST (Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer parameters) algorithm was applied to the infiltration data to obtain the hydraulic conductivity of crusted and uncrusted soils. Soil hydraulic conductivity was found to vary during the year and also spatially (i.e., rows vs. inter-rows) due to crusting, tillage and vegetation cover. A 55 mm rainfall event resulted in a decrease of the saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks, by a factor of 1.6 in the inter-row areas, due to the formation of a crusted layer at the surface. The same rainfall event did not determine a Ks reduction in the row areas (i.e., Ks decreased by a non-significant factor of 1.05) because the vegetation cover intercepted the raindrops and therefore prevented alteration of the soil surface. The developed ring insertion methodology on crusted soil, implying pre-moistening through the periphery of the sampled surface, together with the very small insertion depth of the ring (0.01 m), prevented visible fractures. Consequently, Beerkan tests carried out along and between the vine-rows and data analysis by the BEST algorithm allowed to assess crusting-dependent reductions in hydraulic conductivity with extemporaneous measurements alone. The reliability of the tested technique was also confirmed by the results of the numerical simulation of the infiltration process in a crusted soil. Testing the Beerkan infiltration run in other crusted soils and establishing comparisons with other experimental methodologies appear advisable to increase confidence on the reliability of the method that seems suitable for simple characterization of crusted soils.

Open access

Tamer Kutluca, Murat Yalman and Ali Tum

Abstract

As interactive whiteboards have been used recently in secondary schools for sustainability, this study on use of interactive whiteboards is considered to be very important in terms of knowing the effects of interactive whiteboards on mathematics lessons, determining the perspectives of teachers as users of the system and increasing the efficiency of the attempts related to the use of interactive whiteboards. In this respect, the purpose of the study was to investigate the use of interactive whiteboard in teaching mathematics for sustainability and to examine its effects on the role of teachers. The qualitative research approach was adopted in the study as it tried to conduct a deep analysis of a situation. The study was conducted with eight secondary school mathematics teachers working in the province of Adiyaman in Turkey. The research data were collected using a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Each interview lasted in a period of time ranging from 8 to 14 minutes. The data collected in the study were analyzed using descriptive analysis with a qualitative approach. In the study, the data were interpreted considering the following themes: “The changes created by interactive whiteboards in the process of teaching mathematics”, “The facilities provided by the system for mathematics teachers”, “The effects of using interactive whiteboards in teaching mathematics on the role of teachers”, “The preparations for using interactive whiteboards in teaching mathematics” and “Use of computer software with interactive whiteboards in teaching mathematics”. The results obtained in the study revealed that the teachers were not sufficiently informed or directed regarding the use of whiteboards in teaching mathematics or provided with in-service training support which they needed in relation to the use of interactive whiteboards especially in teaching mathematics. Current role of teachers existing in accordance with the constructivist educational approach has not changed with the use of interactive whiteboards in teaching mathematics, but this role has only become stronger. Furthermore, it was found that interactive whiteboards in mathematics classes are generally used for mathematical exercises.

Open access

Maria Scuderi, Matej Rebersek, Damijan Miklavcic and Janja Dermol-Cerne

Abstract

Background

In electrochemotherapy (ECT), chemotherapeutics are first administered, followed by short 100 μs monopolar pulses. However, these pulses cause pain and muscle contractions. It is thus necessary to administer muscle relaxants, general anesthesia and synchronize pulses with the heart rhythm of the patient, which makes the treatment more complex. It was suggested in ablation with irreversible electroporation, that bursts of short high-frequency bipolar pulses could alleviate these problems. Therefore, we designed our study to verify if it is possible to use high-frequency bipolar pulses (HF-EP pulses) in electrochemotherapy.

Materials and methods

We performed in vitro experiments on mouse skin melanoma (B16-F1) cells by adding 1–330 μM cisplatin and delivering either (a) eight 100 μs long monopolar pulses, 0.4–1.2 kV/cm, 1 Hz (ECT pulses) or (b) eight bursts at 1 Hz, consisting of 50 bipolar pulses. One bipolar pulse consisted of a series of 1 μs long positive and 1 μs long negative pulse (0.5–5 kV/cm) with a 1 μs delay in-between.

Results

With both types of pulses, the combination of electric pulses and cisplatin was more efficient in killing cells than cisplatin or electric pulses only. However, we needed to apply a higher electric field in HF-EP (3 kV/cm) than in ECT (1.2 kV/cm) to obtain comparable cytotoxicity.

Conclusions

It is possible to use HF-EP in electrochemotherapy; however, at the expense of applying higher electric fields than in classical ECT. The results obtained, nevertheless, offer an evidence that HF-EP could be used in electrochemotherapy with potentially alleviated muscle contractions and pain.

Open access

Emilia Jaroszewska

Abstract

The industry which was a driving force of the economy and contributed to the population growth in many cities for decades became later the source of their problems. The crisis of the activity of old industrial cities creating the economic base (especially of the traditional industry), provoked by the deindustrialisation process and in post-socialist countries additionally by the “shock” of the economic transformation, caused long-lasting and unfavourable changes in many areas. It resulted in the present process of shrinkage of old industrial cities in demographic, economic, social aspects as well as spatial ones (Bontje 2004; Oswalt 2005; Turok, Mykhnenko 2007; Pallagst et al. 2009; Cunning-ham-Sabot et al. 2010; Bontje, Musterd 2012; Hospers 2012, 2014; Haase et al. 2013; Pallagst et al. 2014; Stryjakiewicz 2014; Runge et al. 2018). This process can take a different course in different socio-economic patterns depending on the geographical situation and the time of observation. However, it leads to unfavourable results in each place, first of all to a decrease in the number of inhabitants. The aim of the article is twofold: (1) the identification and analysis of the process of urban shrinkage of Wałbrzych city as well as (2) the examination of different regeneration strategies adopted to mitigate negative effects of urban shrinkage. It is particularly important to understand this process and results of the adopted strategies especially in the context of the future development of this city which according to demographic forecasts will be shrinking in the long run.

Open access

Barbara Maćkiewicz, Raúl Puente Asuero and Antonio Garrido Almonacid

Abstract

Increasing demand for urban agriculture (UA) can be perceived as a global phenomenon. In some parts of the world its main function is to feed the rapidly growing population while in others it is more associated with lifestyle and environmental issues. Undeniably, UA provides opportunities for sustainable city development. UA can support all pillars of sustainable development: ecological, economic, and social. However, depending on existing circumstances certain pillars may be influenced more than others. In this paper we concentrate on urban allotments in Andalusia and take Baeza as an example of a city with an interesting approach to urban gardening. We attempt to answer the question how urban allotments in Baeza affect the city’s sustainable development and what remains to be done to make this influence more effective. Our study showed that allotment gardens in Baeza endorsed all three pillars of sustainable city development. However, developing broader community relations on the city scale, revival of declining local grocery market and dissemination of environmental initiatives which allotment gardens may also promote and facilitate was missing.

Open access

Aiyared Iampan

Abstract

In this paper, we construct the fundamental theorem of UP-homomorphisms in UP-algebras. We also give an application of the theorem to the first, second, third and fourth UP-isomorphism theorems in UP-algebras.