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Open access

Beatriz Serrano-Pérez, Dimitrios Rizos, Irene López-Helguera, Ester Molina, Irina Garcia-Ispierto and Fernando López-Gatius

Abstract

This study examined the effect of progesterone (P4) supplementation from Days 16 to 18 post-AI on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression on Day 19 in high-producing dairy cows. Gene expression levels were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Possible relationships between ISG expression and the incidence of pregnancy failure were also investigated. Cows were alternately assigned on Day 16 post-AI to a control (C: n = 13) or treatment group (P4: n = 14). Out of 27 cows, 12 returned to oestrus before pregnancy diagnosis and 9 were diagnosed as pregnant on Day 28. ISG expression was assessed in all cows. Expression levels for the genes OAS1, ISG15, MX1 and MX2 were higher for pregnant than for non-pregnant cows (P = 0.04; P < 0.001; P = 0.02; P = 0.045; respectively). A significant (P = 0.01) interaction was observed between the treatment and positive pregnancy diagnosis groups on Day 28 post-AI for the probability of showing ISG expression. This interaction suggests that in cows not pregnant on Day 28, P4 supplementation may have lead to increased ISG15 mRNA expression on Day 19. Lower ISG15 expression was detected for cows returning to oestrus than for pregnant cows (P < 0.001). However, cows with a negative pregnancy diagnosis showed intermediate values, differences being non-significant when compared to cows returning to oestrus or pregnant cows. Our results suggest that P4 supplementation during the pre-implantation period promotes conceptus signalling.

Open access

Zeinab Alizadeh, Awat Feizi, Mehri Rejali, Hamid Afshar, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Mahbubeh Abdollahi and Peyman Adibi

Abstract

Association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in Middle Eastern countries. Th is study aimed to examine the prevalence of two common mental health problems, i.e., depression and anxiety, and their lifestyle determinants in a large sample of Iranian population.

This study was conducted within the framework of SEPAHAN population based cross-sectional study (N=4763(. The General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ) was used to assess physical activity and the Iranian-validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method for data analysis by SPSS version 16.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The risk of anxiety and depression was 2.5 (OR=2.56,95% CI: 1.97-3.33) and 2.21(1.83-2.67) times higher in women than men, respectively. With every one-year increase in the age, the risk of anxiety decreased by 2% (OR=0.98,95% CI:0.97-0.99). Individuals with higher education had 56% lower risk of anxiety (OR=0.44,95% CI: 0.36-0.55) and 46% depression (OR=0.54,95% CI: 0.46-0.64) than the undergraduate group, and the risk of depression in the inactive (less than one hour of activity per week) group was 27% higher than the active group (OR=1.27,95% CI: 1.06-1.51). The risk of anxiety in the non-smoker group was 65% (OR=0.35,95% CI: 0.20-0.59) and depression was 64% lower than among smokers (OR=0.34,95% CI:0 .22-0.53). In the ex-smoker group, the risk of anxiety was 60% (OR=0.40,95% CI:0.19-0.85) and depression was 59% lower than for the smoker group (OR=0.41,95% CI: 0.24-0.73).

This current study’s results demonstrated significant associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and increased risk of anxiety and depression. Hence, special attention must be paid to preventive intervention programmes aiming to enhance healthy lifestyle among at-risk populations.

Open access

Li Ai, Hongmei Cao and Yawei Zhu

Abstract

Attempts were made to find a more environmentally friendly technique for the printing of polyester (PET ) fabric, acting as an alternative to a usual disperse dye direct-printing process by using a plenty of water and salt and producing effluent contaminants. The low-emission printing technique includes the recipe containing disperse dye paste, synthetic thickener and the water-based silicone-modified acrylate and high-temperature curing process. The water-based silicone-modified acrylate for adhesive coating of polyester (PET) fibres was synthesized using butyl acrylate (BA), eight four methyl siloxane (D4), acrylonitrile (AN), styrene (St), methyl acrylic acid (MAA) and N-methylol acrylamide (NMA).The results showed that the silicone-modified acrylate adhesive could increase the percentages of dye fixation and the colour strength. The superior colour fastness (≥level 4) with the low-emission printing process was realized. The wastewater stream produced by the technique had a residual dye concentration of 2.62 mg/L, which was reduced by approximately 19 times that produced by traditional direct printing. The effluent wastewater drainage was reduced by 76.9%.

Open access

Piotr Herbut, Sabina Angrecka, Dorota Godyń and Gundula Hoffmann

Abstract

A trend of global warming has been observed over the last few years and it has often been discussed whether there is an effect on livestock. Numerous studies have been published about heat stress in cattle and its influence on the physiology and productivity of animals. Preventing the negative effects of heat stress on cattle is essential to ensure animal welfare, health and productivity. Monitoring and analysis of physiological parameters lead to a better understanding of the adaptation processes. This can help to determine the risk of climate change and its effects on performance characteristics, e.g. milk yield and reproduction. This, in turn, makes it possible to develop effective measures to mitigate the impact of heat load on animals. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current literature. Studies especially about the physiological and productive changes due to heat stress in cattle have been summarised in this review. The direction of future research into the aspect of heat stress in cattle is also indicated.

Open access

Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Aurelia Mucha, Tadeusz Blicharski and Marek Babicz

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between polymorphism in the RYR1 gene (rs118192172) and on-farm test results (fattening, slaughter and reproductive traits) of pigs maintained in conservation herds. The experiment covered 76 boars and 291 gilts kept in 33 herds. Animals aged 150 - 210 days were weighted and P2 and P4 backfat thickness as well as P4 loin muscle depth (P4M) were measured with an ultrasonic device. Standardised daily gain (g/day) of the animals and carcass meat percentage (%) were determined. The following reproductive traits of sows were also collected: number of teats, age at first farrowing, dates of next farrowing, number of piglets born alive and weaned at 21 days of age. Hair roots were sampled from the gilts, sows and boars to determine the RYR1 gene polymorphism. It was found that only 3% of the animals in the analysed population had TT genotypes, whereas 28.34% were heterozygous (CT). This polymorphism (CT) was carried by 28.34% of the animals. When analysing the effect of this polymorphism on fattening and slaughter traits in live animals, it was found that sows with TT genotype, compared to the others, were characterised by higher backfat thickness only (P ≤ 0.05). In the boars with CC and CT genotypes, no significant differences were noted between the values of the analysed traits. For reproductive traits of the sows, it was observed that females with TT genotype weaned more piglets until 21 days of age (P ≤ 0.05).

Open access

Joanna Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna Zarzyńska, Janusz Bogdan, Alicja Majewska, Marek Karwański, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Jarosław Kaba, Krzysztof Anusz and Emilia Bagnicka

Abstract

The goat (Capra hircus) is a perfect animal model for analyzing the transcriptome of milk somatic cells (MSCs), as sufficient numbers of somatic cells in goat milk, i.e., exfoliated epithelial cells, can be obtained using noninvasive methods. RNA integrity and purity are the first and most important parameters qualifying samples for transcriptomic tests and next-generation sequencing, as RNA quality influences experimental results. The aim of this study was to optimize a method for obtaining high-quality RNA from goat MSCs, irrespective of effects like breed, lactation stage, health status (e.g., with or without small ruminant lentivirus [SRLV] infection), or number of somatic cells. Milk samples were obtained from goats of two Polish breeds in various lactation stages and in different parities, and from goats infected and not infected with SRLV. Altogether, 412 MSC samples were examined: 206 using method A with fenozol and 206 using method B with QIAzol. Though the overall purity (measured as absorbance ratios at 260 nm/280 nm and 260 nm/230 nm) of the RNA material was comparable, the average yield of RNA isolated using method A was 11.9 µg, while method B’s average yield was 29.9 µg. Moreover, method B resulted good quality RNA suitable for transcriptome analysis. Results were confirmed by RT-qPCR, using 18S rRNA and RPLP0 as the reference genes. The application of our modified treatment method was successful in obtaining high-integrity samples for transcriptomic or next-generation sequencing analysis. Using a 400 mL milk sample cooled in ice directly after milking, securing the cooling chain process from milking to MSC isolation, and applying method B to isolate RNA, we obtained good RNA quality irrespective of the goats’ breed, lactation stage, parity, milk yield, SRLV infection, and even milk yield and number of somatic cells in milk.

Open access

Juan Xie, Menghe Miao and Yongtang Jia

Abstract

We explore the conductive mechanism of yarns made from metallic fibers and/or traditional textile fibers. It has been proposed for the first time, to our knowledge, that probe span length plays a great role in the conductivity of metallic fiber-based yarns, which is determined by the probability and number of conductive fibers appearing on a cross section and their connecting on two neighboring sections in a yarn’s longitudinal direction. The results demonstrate that yarn conductivity is negatively influenced to a large extent by its length when metallic fibers are blended with other nonconductive materials, which is beyond the scope of conductivity theory for metal conductors. In addition, wicking and wetting performances, which interfere with fiber distribution and conductive paths between fibers, have been shown to have a negative influence on the conductivity of metallic fiber-based yarns with various structures and composed of different fiber materials. Such dependence of the conductivity on the probe span length, as well as on the moisture from air and human body, should get attention during investigation of the conductivity of metallic fiber-based composites in use, especially in cases in which conductive yarns are fabricated into flexible circuit boards, antennas, textile electrodes, and sensors.

Open access

Hoger Ghahramani and Saman Sattari

Abstract

Let Alg be a nest algebra associated with the nest on a (real or complex) Banach space X. Suppose that there exists a non-trivial idempotent P Alg with range P (X), and δ : Alg Alg is a continuous linear mapping (generalized) left derivable at P, i.e. δ(ab) = (b) + (a) (δ(ab) = (b) + (a) baδ(I)) for any a, b Alg with ab = P, where I is the identity element of Alg . We show that δ is a (generalized) Jordan left derivation. Moreover, in a strongly operator topology we characterize continuous linear maps δ on some nest algebras Alg N with the property that δ(P ) = 2P δ(P ) or δ(P ) = 2P δ(P ) − P δ(I) for every idempotent P in Alg N .

Open access

Jurgita Šateikė and Rimvydas Milašius

Abstract

Nanofibers were electrospun from bicomponent poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and modified cationic starch (CS) mixed solution PVA/CS with different mass ratios (75/25, 50/50 and 35/65) at a total concentration of 12 wt% for all polymer compositions. For comparison, pure PVA solution was used. Electrospinning technique Nanospider (Elmarco, Czech Republic) with a rotating electrode with tines was used to obtain nanofibrous web. The influence of prepared polymer solution compositions on the structure and morphology of nanofibers and webs were investigated. Analyzing the structure and morphology of the formed nanofiber webs, it was noticed that the fineness nanofibers were formed from the PVA/CS solution with a mass ratio of 50/50. This ratio of solution also lets us to obtain the nanofibrous web with less sticked nanofibers on spunbond. The increase in the CS ratio by more than 50/50 had a negative influence on the diameter of nanofibers and the structure of nanofibrous web.

Open access

Wei-Chieh Wu, Yi-Ru Chang, Yo-Liang Lai, An-Cheng Shiau, Ji-An Liang, Chun-Ru Chien, Yu-Cheng Kuo and Shang-Wen Chen

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was investigate the impact of body-mass factors (BMF) on setup displacement during pelvic radiotherapy in patients with lower abdominal cancers.

Patients and methods

The clinical data of a training cohort composed of 60 patients with gynecological, rectal, or prostate cancer were analyzed. The daily alignment data from image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) were retrieved. Setup errors for were assessed by systematic error (SE) and random error (RE) through the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Several BMFs and patient-related parameters were analyzed with binary logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curves. A scoring system was proposed to identify those with greater setup displacement during daily treatment. The results were validated by another cohort.

Results

A large hip lateral diameter correlated with a greater SI-SE and AP-SE, whereas a large umbilical AP diameter correlated with a greater ML-SE and ML-RE. A higher SI-RE was associated with a large hip circumference. The positive predictors for setup uncertainty were chosen to dichotomize patients into groups at high risk and low risk for setup displacement. Based on the scoring system, the adequate treatment margins for the SI direction in the high-and low-risk groups were 5.4 mm and 3.8 mm, whereas those for the ML direction were 8.2 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively. The validated cohort showed a similar trend.

Conclusions

Large BMFs including hip lateral diameter, hip circumference, and umbilical AP diameter are associated with greater setup uncertainty. Based on the scores, IGRT or required treatment margins can be adapted for patients with high risk features.