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Open access

Larisa Pinte and Cristian Băicuș

Abstract

Background: Over the past years, eosinophil infiltration involving the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas leading to eosinophilic pancreatitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndrome, has been reported in the literature.

We aimed to analyze and compare the features involving patients with eosinophilic pancreatitis and pancreatitis associated with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and to determine ifthere is a connection between the two disorders or if they in fact meet the diagnostic criteria for hypereosinophilic syndrome.

Material and methods: The following search was performed in March 2019 on PubMed (MEDLINE) database using the medical terms “pancreatitis”, “eosinophilic pancreatitis”, “eosinophilic gastroenteritis” and “hypereosinophilic syndrome”.

Results: The search revealed 119 publications from 1970 onwards. A total of 83 papers were excluded, and the remaining 36 publications, consisting in case reports and case series, were analyzed. From 45 patients, 20 subjects with eosinophilic gastroenteritis developed pancreatitis, 20/45 had eosinophilic pancreatitis, and 5/45 Hypereosinophilic syndrome involving the pancreas. There was no significant difference regarding clinical, laboratory and imaging features between the three groups, despite the multiple theories that explain the association of pancreatic and gastrointestinal eosinophilic infiltration. Although there was a strong resemblance between the three groups, histological evidence of eosinophilic gastrointestinal infiltration guided the treatment towards a less invasive way, while subjects with eosinophilic pancreatitis underwent pancreatic surgery to exclude potentially malignant lesions.

Conclusion: Although there are various theories that explain pancreatitis development in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, hypereosinophilia diagnostic work-up should be taken into account in all patients with high number of blood eosinophils, even in those with eosinophilic pancreatitis in order to establish the diagnosis using a minimally invasive approach and to apply an adequate treatment.

Open access

Naim Aslan, Necati Başman, Orhan Uzun, Mustafa Erkovan and Fahrettin Yakuphanoğlu

Abstract

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were electrochemically deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using acetic acid and deionized water as electrolyte at low deposition voltages (2.4 V and 60 V). The transmittance of the films was investigated by UV spectrometry. Transmittance measurements versus wavelength revealed that the films transmit 86 % to 89 % light in visible region and band gap of the films varies between 3.87 eV and 3.89 eV. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for structural characterization to evaluate surface morphology of the DLC films. The grain size and the surface roughness increased for the films prepared at higher deposition potential, while their measured average height decreased. The mechanical properties (hardness H and elastic modulus Er) were determined from load-displacement curves which were obtained by using nanoindentation method. Hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased as the deposition voltage of the films increased from 2.4 V to 60 V.

Open access

Abraham Bosha, Abitew Lagibo Dalbato, Tamado Tana, Wassu Mohammed, Bizuayehu Tesfaye and Laila M. Karlsson

Abstract

Ensete ventricosum (enset) has been cultivated in Ethiopia since ancient times. It is a multipurpose, drought tolerant and food security crop. When burying enset corms for vegetative propagation, manure is usually placed on the soil surface. However, there is no research-based evidence to justify this practice. We hypothesised that enset sucker production would be enhanced by placing manure in the corm burial hole. We tested this hypothesis, investigated manure application rates per buried corm and tested the effect of supplying a small amount of inorganic fertilizer. Three enset cultivars (Endale, Gewada and Yanbule) were used. Ninety corm halves were buried in separate holes (N = 3), resulting in 1,389 individually recorded suckers. There were significantly more suckers and a larger total biomass when manure was placed with the corm than when spread on the top of the soil, thus corroborating the main hypothesis. The number of suckers and the biomass increased with increasing amounts of air-dried cow manure up to 4.0 kg DW per burial hole, while the size of the three largest suckers per buried corm increased further with 6.0 kg DW of manure. Supplying a smaller amount of manure (2.0 kg DW) or equal nitrogen amount from inorganic fertilizer increased the production, compared to the treatment with no fertilizer. In conclusion, we recommend that farmers should ideally bury the corm with 7-11 dm3 of air-dried pulverized manure, thoroughly mixed with field soil; if manure is in short supply, burying even a small amount of it with the corm is beneficial.

Open access

Ling He, Yu-Feng Ma, Ke-Sen Zhang and Ya-Xing Wang

Abstract

In recent years, shortage of nurses, high turnover rate, low self-worth, and team instability have become increasingly serious. With the development of positive psychology, more and more nursing managers have begun to attach great importance to the mental health of nurses. Self-esteem, as one of the core indicators of individual mental health, has received extensive attention from researchers in different fields since its inception. This paper reviews and summarizes the research status and development trends of nurses’ self-esteem considering the aspects of self-esteem as a concept, assessment tools, significance, and intervention methods. At the same time, it also puts forward problems that need to be solved by undertaking research into nurses’ self-esteem, in order to provide a reference for further studies on nurses’ self-esteem.

Open access

Qiao-Miao Zeng and Lian-Xiang He

Abstract

Objective

Reflection is a process of deliberating thinking and examining one’s practice in the past and thereby encouraging nurses to make improvements in future care delivery. This work outlines a piece of reflection involving the practice of communication between nurses and the elderly, to emancipate the authors from their constraints, help to find values as practitioners, and gain a greater understanding of the nurse–patient relationship.

Methods

Using Smyth’s four-stage model as a guide, as well as empirical and theoretical knowledge on nurse–patient relationships, this paper presents a deep reflection on the relationship that the authors developed with elderly patients and their families, encountered during the practice as a nurse. By applying the four main stages consisting of describe, inform, confront, and reconstruct, this model enabled the authors to frame, describe the practice issue, and explore the meaning behind it, which helps to facilitate a structured reflection.

Results

Critical emancipatory reflection, in association with the Espoused theory and Theory-in-use, as well as reflexivity, critical social theory, and hegemony, was applied to uncover the various power relationships and constraining forces in the authors’ practice involved in communicating with the elderly, such as the underlying false consciousness, hegemony, hidden assumptions, influential values, and dominant power structure, which are subtle and persuasive. By applying this process of critical reflection, transformative practice could be achieved.

Conclusions

The process of critical reflection facilitated the development of the abilities required to develop and maintain the nurse– patient relationship. It helps to enhance the care of old patients and their families, which illuminates the future nursing practice.

Open access

Yue Zhang and Marcia A. Petrini

Abstract

Objective

The elderly population has proliferated worldwide. The empty-nest family pattern has become predominant among the aging people, and they are more vulnerable to the development of cognitive disorders. However, there is no standardized service in the community nursing care that includes procedures on how to improve the cognitive function of the elderly. Meanwhile, the booming number of empty-nest elderly stimulates the community nurses to assume the responsibility for their care. All of these bring more difficulties and opportunities for community nurses who are dedicated to the prevention of geriatric cognitive disorders.

Methods

The authors reviewed the literature related to “empty-nest elderly”, “cognitive function”, “mahjong”, and “Chinese square dance” in the Elsevier, Web of Science (WOS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Springer and PubMed databases. The study illustrates the utility possibility of an efficient and straightforward method for improving the cognitive function among the elderly in the context of community nursing care in China and even in the rest of the world.

Results

Mental and physical activity contributes to cognitive fitness and may be beneficial in delaying cognitive decline. Mental activities, such as playing mahjong, and physical activities, such as the Chinese square dance, are common Chinese activities. Both of them can affect cognitive function in some way.

Conclusions

China is experiencing one of its most severe aging problems. Community health personnel and related professionals may consider using mahjong and Chinese square dance to promote psychological health in empty-nest elderly individuals in the community.

Open access

Lian-Lian Tang

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to demonstrate and promote the skill of critical emancipatory reflection through reflecting on a nursing practice-based ethical issue about nurses’ paternalistic decision-making for patients. Meanwhile, critical awareness will be developed and the underlying issues of paternalism in nursing decision-making will be analyzed. Then, by applying the procedure, improvement in nursing decision-making practice will be expected.

Methods

Taylor’s model of emancipatory reflection with four steps, including construction, deconstruction, confrontation, and reconstruction, is utilized to guide the author’s reflection.

Results

Guided by the socialization theory, the author’s personal and professional socialization is seen to be associated with the formation of the value of paternalism. The theory of reflexivity is applied to unearth the related issues, including deeper personal value, work environment, as well as historical and cultural contexts. Moreover, the power derived from policy, work relationship, and nursing administration, which could induce paternalism in the author’s nursing decision-making practice, was critically debated using the hegemony theory. Finally, new insights into paternalism will be achieved, which enable change in terms of how to facilitate patients’ autonomous decision-making.

Conclusions

The process of refection makes it clear that respecting patients’ right and performing patient-centered caring are the bases to change the paternalism existing in the nursing decision-making practice currently. The reconstruction step assists the author in terms of how to value the patients’ autonomy and balance patients’ safety and choice, rather than being overprotective; carry out risk assessment, and search for strong evidence to counterbalance the positive and negative aspects of risk-taking; communicate with patients appropriately in a manner that they can comprehend; spend more time to explore patients’ preference and choice; make every effort to elevate the patients’ decision-making capacity; implement patient-centered care and shared decision-making in nursing practice; consult with other colleagues and obtain the required support when limitations or challenges exist; try to justify and avoid hidden paternalism behind policy or guidelines; deal with the power in hand well and fairly; and also positively face the powers that constrain the author.

Open access

Agus Warseno and Anastasia Suci Sukmawati

Abstract

Objective

Relaxation technique is a nonpharmacological treatment applied to increase sleep efficiency and the quality of sleep. Hydrotherapy is one of the relaxation techniques and uses warm water to decrease stress and muscle stiffness, as well as to warm the body. The incidence of sleep deficiency among older people in Integrated Community Health Services, Pandak I Bantul, has slightly increased year by year. This research aims to evaluate the effect of hydrotherapy on sleep deprivation among older people.

Methods

The research was a quasi-experimental study with a pre–post test design. Purposive sampling was used to enroll 66 older people from the Integrated Community Health Services, Pandak I Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, as a sample, and we divided them into two groups: 33 people formed the intervention group, and 33 people comprised the control group. The intervention group did hydrotherapy once a day for a total of 7 days. First, they soaked their feet in warm water for 10 minutes. The water temperature was adjusted according to the body temperature, to approximately 40.0°C–43.0°C. Then, the intervention group took a bath using warm water. The level of sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the Wilcoxon test.

Results

The mean score for sleep quality in the pretest in the intervention group was 9.04 (standard deviation [SD]: 2.57) and the score on the posttest was 42 (SD: 1.43). The mean score for sleep quality in the intervention group was 4.67, with P=0.05. Meanwhile, the research found that the difference between the pretest and posttest scores for quality of sleep in the control group was 0.42, with P=0.059. Wilcoxon analysis found that in the intervention group, there was a significant difference after intervention using hydrotherapy, with P<0.05. In the control group, there was no significance difference between the pretest and posttest scores, with P>0.05.

Conclusions

According to the results of the present study, it appears that the practice of hydrotherapy is effective in reducing sleep deficiency and hence can be considered an effective method of intervention.

Open access

Xiao Xiao and She-Ning Zhu

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this article is to reflect on the role of theater nurses in a multidisciplinary team, understand the factors that have influenced theater nurses’ practice, and improve the authors’ clinical practice ultimately.

Methods

The author used Smyth’s model to guide the process of reflection on the practice issue. Critical reflection, critical emancipatory theory, reflexivity, and critical social theory were used to help the author analyze the factors that have affected theater nurses’ practice in the organization.

Results

There are gaps between the espoused and enacted theories. A theater nurse’s practice is determined by multiple factors, such as political, structural, social, historical, cultural issues, and so on. The hierarchy of the health context could hinder possible changes in theater nurses’ practice. To better understand our practice and implement transformation, we should shape a supportive environment, bear in mind the practice motto of “patient-centered” care, and improve our knowledge and reflection skills.

Conclusions

Reflection plays a significant role in the advancing of practice among theater nurses and needs to be combined with clinical practice. To provide the best service of care to perioperative patients, a theater nurse should have an insightful understanding of the factors that have influenced her/his behaviors historically, socially, and culturally. By improving their critical reflection skills, practitioners could gain knowledge from experience.

Open access

Rui-Fang Zhu, Hong-Xia Ren, Xiu-Juan Wang, Chi-Chen Zhang, Qi Yu, Zhi-Guang Duan and Shi-Fan Han

Abstract

As nursing becomes a first-level discipline, the central focus of the development process of nursing science is the independent exploration of the future path of nursing care. Although many countries have made efforts to develop nursing as an independent discipline, no remarkable advancement has been achieved due to the incorrect understanding of the relationship between nursing and medicine and the improper comprehension of other factors involved in the process of nursing reform. Teaching and practicing nursing also face many problems. Based on our understanding of the relationship between nursing and medicine and through a careful analysis of the existing problems in the current nursing discipline, this paper provides some insights into the future directions of nursing development by exploring the independently developing nursing discipline in foreign countries.