The purpose of this article is to explain the historical significance of J.H. de la Rey’s death by analyzing the general's political involvement at the beginning of the First World War. The author also examines the outbreak of the Boer Rebellion and De la Rey's attitude towards it. The controversies surrounding the night of September 15, 1914 are discussed after providing a detailed illustration of the events leading up to the shooting the criminal activities of the Foster gang). It also analyzes the influence the general and Niklaas van Rensburg had on the Afrikaner society, which was faced with the option of revolting against the British. International media coverage of the accident is used in order to portray the world's reaction to the incident.
The article gives a brief ‘idea history’ of Hesperian melancholy a.k.a. Hesperian depression, the fleeting state of dejection that some humans and animals experience at dusk. The term was apparently coined by the South African poet and naturalist Eugene Marais (1871-1936), who noticed the phenomenon during his field observations of baboons. Marais' observations of primates were in the first place an attempt to shed more light on the evolutionary roots of the human psyche and its afflictions - not in the least his own. A personal focus seems probable in his notes on the use of euphoria-inducing substances among animals and humans, which are an evident reflection of his own morphine addiction; but also in his writings about Hesperian depression. During his lifetime, Marais only published about Hesperian depression twice, once in a very concise article in English, and once in more elaborate form in Afrikaans. The term ‘Hesperian depression’ only became more current when his manuscript on primate behaviour, The Soul of the Ape, was posthumously published in 1963. Since then, the term and its description sometimes appear in (popular) publications of paleobiologists and scholars of the evolution of human behaviour. In psychology and psychiatry, the term was introduced by the eminent American psychoanalyst William G. Niederlander, who presented it in a 1971 article in Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association as an idea of his own. It is evident, however, that he took his cue from Marais, who thus was posthumously plagiarized.
The contemporary Dutch language belongs to European multi-centered languages and has three variations: Dutch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch in Northern Belgium, and Dutch in Surinam. There are differences among the above variations which mainly regard the pronunciation and lexicon. The Flemish and Surinam variations pose a great challenge, especially for the translators of the Flemish and Surinam literature. Similarly, they pose also a significant theoretical and practical problem for the authors of one and two-language dictionaries of the Dutch language. The contemporary lexicography attempts to register the differences which one can find between the standard of the Dutch language and: its Northern Belgium variation, as well as its Surinam variation. It needs to be noted that lexicographers so far have been paying much attention to lexical differences between Dutch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Dutch of the Northern Belgium. In this very paper there are described four printed Flemish-Dutch dictionaries and one online dictionary, we also characterize the Prisma Handwoordenboek Nederlands met onderscheid tussen het Belgisch-Nederlands en Nederlands-Nederlands met medewerking van W. Martin en W. Smedts.
In the netherlands regional novels have never been considered as real literary works. in Flanders regional literature had a better status, especially because several writers of the Van Nu en Straks movement such as Stijn Streuvels wrote about regional themes. in Czech literature since 1848 regional themes was viewed as important in novels and stories, mainly till the end of world war ii. in 1932 the Catholic writer Antonín Matula defined the so-called ruralism, which became a movement of mainly Catholic writers from the countryside. Most of them were severely persecuted in a constructed Stalinist show trial against the green international in 1951. in his work Hlasy země v evropských literaturách (The Voice of Earth in European Literatures, 1933) Matula discussed nearly all major european literatures, i.e. Flemish regional writers. it is no coincidence that especially Flemish writers such as ernest Claes, Stijn Streuvels and Felix timmermans, were translated into Czech during the second quarter of the 20th century.
Metafor och Metonymi i Svenska Somatismer med Lexemet Huvud
The purpose of this study is to give a detailed analysis of the semantics of the Swedish body part term huvud (head). The study covers all types of linguistic units including the component huvud (idioms, compounds), both conventionalized everyday expressions and occasional uses. The theoretical basis of the analysis is the cognitive theory of metaphor and metonymy formulated by Lakoff and Johnson (1980).
A large part of semantic extensions of huvud are associated with the head as the upper part of the human body, containing the brain and sense organs. These features lead to metonymies: HEAD FOR THINKING ABILITY AND PERCEPTION and metaphor HEAD IS POSITION OF COMMAND. The head itself is conceptualized metaphorically as a CONTAINER in which thoughts, memories, emotional and physical states are stored.
The article reviews various definitions of adjectival category in Norwegian, and shows that although they define it in different ways, the core of the definitions is always the same. However, there are some classes of adjectives, which are treated diversely by the Norwegian linguists because of the unlike set of criteria they use in their classifications.
In my Ph.D. project, I analyze acquisition of Norwegian adjective agreement by Polish L1 speakers of L2 Norwegian. The aim of the present paper is to propose my own definition of adjective, which is based on prototypical and peripheral meanings. The definition shows a Norwegian prototype adjective (that is not unlike the adjectives presented by the Norwegian grammarians) and discusses the more peripheral cases. The definition focuses on the Norwegian adjectives, but also the Polish are mentioned.
Analyse av Jeg-Personens Minner i Lys av Memory Studies
Aleksandra Regina Wilkus
The purpose of this article is to perform an analysis of Lars Saabye Christensen’s poem ‘Nocturne’ from the perspective of Memory Studies. Recollections and the past are not simply the main issues of the literary work, but also provide a basis that can be used as a conceptual apparatus in one’s interpretative work. That is exactly what occurs in the relatively new study field that focuses on cultural aspects of literature, i.e. Memory Studies. Through an indepth analysis of the language, stylistic measures, and with reference to Aristotle, I focus on the mechanisms that are in control of the lyrical subject’s memory. Just as essential are P. Ricoeur’s reflections on location and spatiality as well as A. Assman’s postulates that enable to describe objects and places as having a memory. The application of the ideas of Memory Studies as a methodological tool allows to determine the lyrical situation including the lyrical subject’s internal states.
The current Polish migrant group in Sweden is the largest in Scandinavia, and experienced a significant growth after the enlargement of the European Union in 2004. The present overview is an attempt to give a systematic picture of this group, and is based on a selection of publications from a larger bibliography. The bibliography was compiled by the author in order to survey the knowledge on Polish migrants in Sweden, and is attached to this overview. The overview is primarily confined to the period between 1940 and 1990 because this period is covered by the scholarly literature.