The present paper focuses on the resumption of individual sports associations foreign relations after 1945, and how it was affected both by the resumption of international sport matches and by exit permits of Czechoslovak athletes. Travelling abroad used to be highly regulated in this period and not many citizens met the strict conditions applied. Athletes thus received a status of state representants, became to an extent, privileged and had to, therefore, meet certain requirements. They also gained access to information and insight unavailable to ordinary citizens. The study analyses the differences between the trips to the so-called “friendly”, i.e. communist, countries and to the West, from the amounts of money spent on representations abroad to the reception by the host countries. The study focuses mainly on volleyball representatives whose golden age spanned the 1950s and 1960s and who were therefore considered the sport elite promoting volleyball in the world, in this period. Athletes would commonly share their experiences from abroad and pass these on to their fellow citizens during organised discussions or personal meetings. After finishing their active career, some sports representatives were approached by foreign organisations and offered further engagement. Even such matters were, however, regulated by The Czechoslovak Union of Physical Education and Sport. The life experiences and paths of selected athletes, through documents, diaries and oral history interviews, map out their reflection on foreign countries and on the issue of otherness.
In this contribution, we will discuss two German fencing manuscripts - Mscr.Dresd.C.13 (SLUB Dresden) and Add MS 17533 (BL London). Both manuscripts present texts on thrust-fencing based on the teachings of Salvator Fabris. The dedication of manuscript C13 was signed by the famous fencing author Johann Georg Pascha. The author of one of the texts contained in the 17533 manuscript is named H.A.V..
A textual analysis has been performed on these two books, and then the contents of the works have been compared. This comparison shows that C13 presents a largely identical text to the main treatises contained in 17533, the most significant difference being certain additions in C13, which Pascha also discusses in his dedication. Based on our analysis, both C13 and 17533 appear to present copies of an original text. We further hypothesize that H.A.V., the author of this original text, was Heinrich von und zum Velde, the fencing master of Johann Joachim Hynitzsch.
By the Late Middle Ages, mounted troops - cavalry in the form of knights - are established as the dominant battlefield arm in North-Western Europe. This paper considers the development of cavalry after the Germanic Barbarian Successor Kingdoms such as the Visigoths in Spain or the Carolingian Franks emerged from Roman Late Antiquity and their encounters with Islam, as with the Moors in Iberia or the Saracens (Arabs and Turks) during the Crusades, since an important part of literature ascribes advances in European horse breeding and horsemanship to Arab influence. Special attention is paid to information about horse types or breeds, conformation, tactics - fighting with lance and bow - and training. Genetic studies and the archaeological record are incorporated to test the literary tradition.
Twenty-six years after the first edition and translation by Sydney Anglo in 1991 of the anonymous manuscript Le Jeu de la hache , many elements can still be significantly improved. This paper offers a completely new critical edition of the text, and a major revision of the translation. This article includes a detailed glossary as well as notes to discuss the many ambiguous passages in the original text. Finally, the studies of the language, the vocabulary, the dialect, the writing style and the physical document make it possible to refine the dating of the manuscript to the third quarter of the fifteenth century, between 1460 and 1485, and its origin, probably Flanders or Wallonia in the entourage of the dukes of Burgundy.