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Effect of addition of Cu on the properties of eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy

Abstract

The present work reports the effect of Cu addition on the melting point, hardness and electrical resistivity of Sn-57 wt.% Bi eutectic solder alloy. Both binary eutectic Sn-57 wt.% Bi and ternary Sn-(57-x)Bi-xCu (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%) alloys containing various amounts of Cu were developed by melting casting route. The microstructure of the various solder alloys was analyzed using an optical microscope and a SEM. The variation in melting point, hardness and electrical resistivity of the Sn-Bi eutectic solder alloys with the addition of Cu was determined. The melting point of the eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy was found to decrease up to the addition of 0.7 wt.% Cu. However, further addition of Cu led to an increase in the melting point of the alloy. Addition of Cu led to an increase in the hardness of the eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy whereas the electrical resistivity of this alloy was found to increase up to the addition of 0.7 wt.% of Cu beyond which a decrease in the electrical resistivity was observed. A change in the microstructure of the solder alloy was observed when it was reheated above the melting temperature.

Open access
Effect of heat treatment on microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance of ZE41 Mg alloy

Abstract

Magnesium and its alloys are now attracting a great attention as promising materials for several light weight engineering applications. ZE41 is a new Mg alloy contains Zinc, Zirconium and Rare Earth elements as the important alloying elements and is widely used in aerospace applications. In the present study, heat treatment has been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 335 °C) to assess the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and corrosion behavior of ZE41 Mg alloy. The grain size was observed as almost similar for the unprocessed and heat treated samples. Decreased amount of secondary phase (MgZn2) was observed after heat treating at 300 °C and increased intermetallic phase (Mg7Zn3) and higher number of twins appeared for the samples heat treated at 335 °C. Microhardness measurements showed increased hardness after heat treating at 300 °C and decreased hardness after heat treating at 335 °C which can be attributed to the presence of higher supersaturated grains after heat treating at 300 °C. The samples heat treated at 335 °C exhibited better corrosion resistance compared to those of base materials and samples heat treated at 300 °C. From the results, it can be understood that the selection of heat treatment temperature is crucial that depends on the requirement i.e. to improve the microhardness or at the loss of microhardness to improve the corrosion resistance of ZE41 Mg alloy.

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Effectivity of Piezoelectric Transition Elements in Modelling of Electro-Mechanical Systems

Abstract

The paper presents the coupled electro-mechanical problem. In the numerical analysis of the issue, piezoelectric solid-to-shell transition elements were applied. They combine three-dimensional or hierarchical shell piezoelectric elements with piezoelectric first order elements. The mentioned first order of the element refers to the field of transversal displacements of an element. The mechanical field of the discussed piezoelectric elements may correspond to: the model of three-dimensional theory of elasticity, hierarchical shell models of higher orders or the first order shell model. The electrical field of the potential may be modelled with hierarchical dielectric first order models or higher in transverse direction or with a three-dimensional theory. Effectiveness of modification of algorithms of classical piezoelectric elements was assessed in this paper. To perform such an assessment, curves of convergence of hp method in model tasks are presented. Curves obtained with the use of classical and modified piezoelectric transition elements were set and compared.

Open access
The effects of deposition potential on the optical, morphological and mechanical properties of DLC films produced by electrochemical deposition technique at low voltages

Abstract

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were electrochemically deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using acetic acid and deionized water as electrolyte at low deposition voltages (2.4 V and 60 V). The transmittance of the films was investigated by UV spectrometry. Transmittance measurements versus wavelength revealed that the films transmit 86 % to 89 % light in visible region and band gap of the films varies between 3.87 eV and 3.89 eV. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for structural characterization to evaluate surface morphology of the DLC films. The grain size and the surface roughness increased for the films prepared at higher deposition potential, while their measured average height decreased. The mechanical properties (hardness H and elastic modulus Er) were determined from load-displacement curves which were obtained by using nanoindentation method. Hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased as the deposition voltage of the films increased from 2.4 V to 60 V.

Open access
Electric aircraft - present and future

Abstract

In this paper, an outlook about the present of electrical aviation is given. The relatively small energy density of current battery technologies is adequate to build usable electric car, but not suitable for electric aircraft. Because of the very limited amount of energy available on-board, a couple of percent in efficiency can give significant increase in range and flight time, hence the development of more efficient propulsion system and E-motor is as important as the development of battery technologies. Current research results at the University of Dunaujvaros show, that building E-motors from amorphous materials is possible, and can easily increase the efficiency of high speed E-motors.

Open access
Failure of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete in Compression under Stress Gradients

Abstract

The objective of this experiment is to investigate the behaviour of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) under compression and with stress gradients. Experimental program contained three sets of LWAC which were used for production of 21 prisms. Lightweight aggregate argillite slate, called Stalite, from North Carolina had been used. The sets differed in using dry (0.10% moisture content) or saturated (7.9% moisture content) aggregate. The third set included a small amount of polyvinyl alcohol fibres (PVA). The geometry of the prisms were 100 × 140 × 480 mm (width × length × height). Prismatic samples were loaded centrically and eccentrically in compression.

From the achieved experimental results, it is visible that the lateral deformation of the most stressed fibre is counteracted by the less stressed fibres that confine compressive stress and increase strains. The obtained strain level was much higher than expected, especially for the third set of concrete samples with PVA fibres. Recorded strains in prisms test was in range from 3.08‰ to 6.82‰). In general, LWAC with Stalite showed ductile behaviour followed with very high strains. The third set of samples included a small amount of polyvinyl alcohol fibres (0.5% of volume fractions) was even more ductile and non-brittle.

Open access
Growth, solvent effect, optical and electrical properties of sodium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate

Abstract

Single crystal of sodium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate (Na-4-HBS) was grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Powder X-ray diffraction study was carried out to identify the lattice parameters of the crystal. FT-IR spectral analysis confirmed the existence of various functional groups in the compound. The optical transmittance, cut-off wavelength and band gap energy were estimated from the UV-Vis studies. Photoluminescence studies revealed the transition mechanism by optical excitation. The variation of dielectric properties and AC conductivity of the grown crystal with frequency was studied at different temperatures. Measurements of mechanical properties of Na-4-HBS were carried out to find the hardness of the material. The laser induced surface damage threshold and relative second harmonic generation nonlinear optical properties of the grown crystal were studied using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

Open access
Hybrid-Optional Effectiveness Functions Entropy Conditional Extremization Doctrine Contributions into Engineering Systems Reliability Assessments

Abstract

In this publication a Doctrine for the Conditional Extremization of the Hybrid-Optional Effectiveness Functions Entropy is discussed as a tool for the Reliability Assessments of Engineering Systems. Traditionally, most of the problems having been dealt with in this area relate with the probabilistic problem settings. Regularly, the optimal solutions are obtained through the probability extremizations. It is shown a possibility of the optimal solutions “derivation”, with the help of a model implementing a variational principle which takes into account objectively existing parameters and components of the Markovian process. The presence of an extremum of the objective state probability is observed and determined on the basis of the proposed Doctrine with taking into account the measure of uncertainty of the hybrid-optional effectiveness functions in the view of their entropy. Such approach resembles the well known Jaynes’ Entropy Maximum Principle from theoretical statistical physics adopted in subjective analysis of active systems as the subjective entropy maximum principle postulating the subjective entropy conditional optimization. The developed herewith Doctrine implies objective characteristics of the process rather than subjective individual’s preferences or choices, as well as the states probabilities maximums are being found without solving a system of ordinary linear differential equations of the first order by Erlang corresponding to the graph of the process. Conducted numerical simulation for the proposed mathematical models is illustrated with the plotted diagrams.

Open access
The impact of composition dependent and process-related properties in the laser cutting of metallic glassy tapes

Abstract

A short survey is reported on the advantageous and disadvantageous properties of soft magnetic glassy tapes to build stator and rotor elements for the increase of motor efficiency. The relative high saturation magnetization and the relative permeability of these alloy groups seem to be promising in this application field. On the other hand, the sample thickness (30 µm) displays limitations in terms of a filling factor. High hardness of tapes hinders the effectivity of mechanical shaping. Laser cutting can be successful as shaping method, presuming that the extension (thickness) of heat affected zone (HAZ) can be successfully reduced below 50µm, avoiding the brittleness evolution.

Open access
Impact of Parameters of Irradiation of Potato Bulbs with UVC on Selected Coefficients of Assessment of Colour of Fries Determined with CIE L*A*B* Method

Abstract

Assessment of the colour with the use of many parameters is used with reference to evaluation of the quality changes of products resulting from application of specific technological treatments. The paper investigates the effect of relations between parameters of irradiation of potato bulbs with UVC on selected coefficients of assessment of the colour of fries determined with CIE L*a*b* method. It was statistically significantly proved that UV-C radiation affected brightness of fries, change in colour, recognition of the difference in colour and intensity of the colour reception. Statistical analysis of results was carried out at the assumed level of significance α=0.05.

Open access