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Open access

Yareellys Ramos Zayas, Moisés Armides Franco Molina, Reyes Tamez Guerra and Cristina Rodríguez Padilla

Abstract

Introduction

Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a sexually transmitted tumour affecting dogs worldwide, imposing a financial burden on dog owners. A stable culture cell line in continuous passages for >18 months has only been achieved once. The present study investigated a stable CTVT cell line isolated from a bitch and its potential as a vaccine.

Material and Methods

A biopsy from a 2-year-old mongrel bitch with CTVT was obtained for histopathological confirmation and isolation of tumour cells. The isolated cells were cultured to passage 55 and characterised by flow cytometry, with karyotyping by GTG-banding and by PCR detection of myc S-2 and LINE AS1. The isolated CTVT cell line was also used as a preventive vaccine in a canine model.

Results

Histopathological analysis of the isolated tumour cells revealed typical CTVT characteristics. Constant proliferation and stable morphological characteristics were observed during culture. Phenotypic analysis determined the expression of HLA-DR+, CD5.1+, CD14+, CD45+, CD83+, CD163+, and Ly-6G-Ly-6C+. GTG-banding revealed a mean of 57 chromosomes in the karyotype with several complex chromosomal rearrangements. LINE-c-myc insertion in the isolated CTVT cell line at 550 bp was not detected. However, a 340-bp band was amplified. Isolated CTVT cell line inoculation at a concentration of 1×108 did not induce tumour growth in bitches, nor did a challenge with primary CTVT cells.

Conclusion

The present study successfully identified and isolated a stable CTVT cell line that may be useful in CTVT prevention.

Open access

Ning Ma, Xin Li, Hong-bin Wang, Li Gao and Jian-hua Xiao

Abstract

Introduction

Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain.

Material and Methods

A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR.

Results

XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas.

Conclusion

XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.

Open access

Ewelina Pyzik, Agnieszka Marek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz S. Jarosz and Izabella Jagiełło-Podębska

Abstract

Introduction

The study sought to characterise antimicrobial resistance among coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species recovered from broiler chickens and turkeys in Poland including the presence of 12 antimicrobial resistance genes and five classical genes of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

Material and Methods

A panel of 11 antimicrobial disks evaluated the phenotypic sensitivity of the tested strains to antibiotics. Five multiplex PCR assays were performed using primer pairs for specific detection of antibiotic resistance genes and staphylococcal enterotoxin A to E genes.

Results

Selected antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing revealed 100% of such in in vitro conditions to cefoxitin among strains of Staphylococcus sciuri and S. chromogenes. The blaZ (for ß-lactam) and mecA (for methicillin resistance) genes were in 58.3% and 27.5% of strains, respectively. Among genes resistant to tetracyclines, tetK was most frequent. Fewer (CNS) strains showed genes resistant to macrolides, lincosamides, and florfenicol/chloramphenicol. Multiplex PCR for classical enterotoxins (A-E) detected the see gene in two S. hominis strains, while the seb gene producing enterotoxin B was found in one strain of S. epidermidis.

Conclusion

CNS strains of Staphylococcus isolated from poultry were either phenotypically or genotypically multidrug resistant. Testing for the presence of the five classical enterotoxin genes showed that CNS strains, as in the case of S. aureus strains, can be a source of food intoxications.

Open access

Güneri Atalan, Gültekin Atalan, Hanifi Erol, Muharrem Erol, Ayhan Atasever, Zafer Doğan, Vehbi Güneş, M. Kaan Yönez and Ihsan Keleş

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical doses of anaesthetic agents were administered to rabbits and effects on the brain, heart, and liver were investigated biochemically and histopathologically.

Material and Methods

The rabbits were randomly divided into three main groups (16 rabbits each) and each group into study (n = 8) and control (n = 8) groups. All study group rabbits received 3 mg/kg of midazolam (M) intramuscularly. Group 1.1 (M) received nothing further, group 2.1 (MK) also received 25 mg/kg of ketamine, and group 3.1 (MKI) besides ketamine was also given 2% isoflurane to induce anaesthesia for 30 min. NaCl solution in the same volume as midazolam and ketamine was injected into the controls.

Results

In clinical evaluation significant differences were detected in respiratory and heart rates. In blood gas analysis the PO2 and PCO2 values showed statistical differences in anaesthesia intervals. Significant biochemical value changes were recorded in creatine kinase-Mb, glucose, and total protein. Histopathological liver examinations revealed higher total apoptotic and normal cell numbers in the MK than in the M and MKI groups. Apoptotic cell numbers were statistically significant in M and MK groups.

Conclusion

Anaesthetic agents may increase programmed apoptosis. The MKI anaesthetics combination was found to cause less cell destruction in general than the other study groups. It was indicated that MKI was the safer anaesthetic combination in rabbits.

Open access

Joanna Wessely-Szponder, Tomasz Szponder, Ryszard Bobowiec and Joanna Michalska

Abstract

Introduction

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are a large group of innate immune effectors, which apart from antimicrobial activity show immunomodulative properties. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of autologous growth factors and is used for stimulation of bone and soft tissue healing. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of PRP and AMP extract on ovine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures.

Material and Methods

The study was conducted on ovine macrophages (Mfs) previously stimulated with LPS or dexamethasone and then with preparations of PRP or AMP. Following activation of the Mfs their morphological and functional features were assessed.

Results

The study revealed pro-inflammatory influence of both examined preparations on Mfs cultures on the basis of morphology, ROS generation and arginase activity. Both preparations enhanced the pro-inflammatory response of cultured Mfs.

Conclusion

This activity may intensify the antimicrobial action of Mfs, however, in cases of excessive and prolonged inflammation the use of these preparations should be limited.

Open access

Minoru Yatu, Mitsuhiro Sato, Jin Kobayashi, Toshihiro Ichijyo, Hiroshi Satoh, Toshinori Oikawa and Shigeru Sato

Abstract

Introduction

Breeding profiles at the periparturient stage in red foxes which mated naturally or were subjected to artificial insemination were retrospectively surveyed using 130 vixens during their reproductive seasons of 2012–2017 in Japan.

Material and Methods

Natural mating vixens were encouraged a maximum of three times with the same male, while artificial insemination was conducted using frozen-thawed semen with the bovine semen extender as a diluent.

Results

With natural mating, conception rates after one, two, and three copulations were 55.8%, 68.0%, and 85.7%, respectively, showing a significant difference between the rates for one and three copulations. Conception rates with artificial insemination were 82.4%. Mean gestation periods were between 52.1 and 53.3 days in all groups. Mean litter sizes were 3.7–4.3 cubs with natural mating, and 4.4 cubs with artificial insemination. Although some sporadic and inconsistent changes in litter sizes were noted between primiparous and multiparous groups, these were of doubtful clinical importance.

Conclusion

This is the first report from Japan concerning basic breeding events of red fox vixens in captivity.

Open access

Joanna Pajdak-Czaus, Elżbieta Terech-Majewska, Dagmara Będzłowicz, Martyn Mączyński, Wioletta Krystkiewicz, Sebastian Łabuć, Aleksandra Platt-Samoraj and Wojciech Szweda

Abstract

Introduction

The thyroid and parathyroid glands play a major role in maintaining physiological homeostasis in all vertebrates. Reptiles have plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones far lower than mammals. Low levels of these hormones in reptiles impede thyroid hormone detection with assays designed for the higher levels of mammals. The aim of this study was to explore teaming this with ultrasound imaging of the thyroid to appraise glandular function.

Material and Methods

Thyroid function of four pond sliders was evaluated based on the results of T4 analyses and ultrasound.

Results

The concentrations of T4 varied considerably between the examined animals from <9 nmol/L to >167.3 nmol/L. Ultrasound examination revealed uniform echogenicity and a smooth outline of the thyroid gland in all animals.

Conclusion

Monitoring of thyroid function based on T4 and electrolyte concentrations is helpful in assessing the health and living conditions of reptiles, which is important in veterinary practice but problematic. Ultrasound examinations are useful in diagnosing changes in gland structure, such as tumours and goitres, and a combination of both methods supports comprehensive assessments of the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland.

Open access

Joanna Skonieczna, Jan P. Madej and Romuald Będziński

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this research was to provide a detailed description of the morphology, topography, and histometry of rabbit accessory genital glands.

Material and Methods

Seven male New Zealand White rabbits, 3–4 months of age and weighing 2.1–3 kg were used for the study. The whole urethra from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice accompanied by accessory genital glands was sliced at intervals of 1 mm. The serial sections were prepared with haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Movat–Russell modified pentachrome stain.

Results

A detailed description of the morphology and morphometry was provided. The topography of the organs was explained on the basis of characteristic cross-sections on histological slides. The inconsistent nomenclature and descriptions of these glands by different authors were also discussed.

Conclusion

The morphometric analysis indicated that some of the glands described have similar dimensions in different individuals, while others like paraprostates revealed high diversity in the number of lobes, their size, and their structure. The accessory glands are also good topographic markers which precisely define the segment of the urethra. The terms “proprostate”, “prostate”, and “paraprostates” as the nomenclature of the prostate complex reflect the location of these glands well and indicate their common origin and function.

Open access

Eva Maria Prem, Nadine Praeg, Katrin Hofmann, Andreas Otto Wagner and Paul Illmer

Summary

Five differently developed soils aged 6, 35, 80, 150, and >5000 years with the same bedrock and the same (current) climate conditions were chosen to assess abiotic and enzymatic properties as well as methanogenic and methanotrophic activities. Most abiotic properties (dry weight, pH, soil organic matter, and ammonium content), enzyme activities (dehydrogenase [DH] activity, ammonification [AM] rate, dimethylsulfoxide reduction), and potential methane oxidation (PoMO) per gram of dry weight (DW) increased with soil age. In contrast, potential methane production (PoMP) as well as the nitrate content per gram of DW and most enzymatic properties per gram of soil organic matter (SOM) did not increase with soil age but reached its maximum in the middle-aged soils (80–150 years). Our results show that (i) microbial activity does not consequently increase with SOM content/soil age; (ii) methane production can be measured in undeveloped soils, whereas methane oxidation is more restricted to fully developed soils; and (iii) certain soil modifications (change in water content, ammonium addition) could influence potential methane production/oxidation. When considering the concurrent release of raw soil because of the melting of perpetual ice, these data could help to better understand and assess the consequences of global change.

Open access

Anna Lenart-Boroń, Tadeusz Zając, Piotr Mateusz Boroń and Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

Summary

The bacterial nodulation (nod) genes are essential in the formation process of root nodules. This study was aimed to verify the occurrence of nodule-associated bacteria in two pea varieties (“Tarchalska” and “Klif ”) inoculated with Rhizobium inoculants – Nitragine™ and a noncommercial one produced by the Polish Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG). The number of colonies isolated on yeast extract mannitol (YEM) agar from the nodules of “Klif ” inoculated with IUNG inoculants was significantly higher than the number of colonies isolated from other variants. Species identification was based on sequencing of 16S rDNA, which revealed that despite careful sterilization of nodules, sequences of other bacterial species were detected. Among them, one sequence belonged to Rhizobium leguminosarum (isolated from IUNG inoculant). To assess the presence of nodulation-capable Rhizobium, amplification of the nodC gene was performed, which revealed that of 29 samples, 19 were positive. The remaining isolates, including reference strain and bacteria isolated from Nitragine™, lacked this gene. The results show that pea nodules harbor a very diverse community of bacteria. The lack of nodC gene in some strains isolated from plants inoculated with Nitragine™ and with IUNG inoculant proves that even if R. leguminosarum are abundant, they may not be efficient in nodulation.