The genus Artemisia is one of the largest of the Asteraceae family. It is abundant and diverse, with complex taxonomic relations. In order to expand the knowledge about the classification of Kazakhstan species and compare it with classical studies, matK genes of nine local species including endemic were sequenced. The infrageneric rank of one of them (A. kotuchovii) had remained unknown. In this study, we analysed results of sequences using two methods — NJ and MP and compared them with a median-joining haplotype network. As a result, monophyletic origin of the genus and subgenus Dracunculus was confirmed. Closeness of A. kotuchovii to other species of Dracunculus suggests its belonging to this subgenus. Generally, matK was shown as a useful barcode marker for the identification and investigation of Artemisia genus.
Ainārs Rudzītis, Kristaps Šablinskis, Baiba Luriņa, Irina Cgojeva-Sproģe, Aļona Grāve, Andis Dombrovskis, Pēteris Stradiņš and Andrejs Ērglis
Percutaneous transcatheter device closure of secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) has now largely replaced surgical closure in most centres. The aim of this study was to compare results of transcatheter and surgical ASD closure in adults in Latvia during the years 2002–2014 and to analyse long-term outcomes of transcatheter closure. We analysed data from 334 patients with secundum ASD who underwent ASD closure in Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital. Patients were included into device or surgical closure groups. In the device group, three follow-ups were made 1, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. No follow-up data were available for surgical arm patients beyond their hospitalisation period. The mean age of patients was 45.3 ± 19.9 years for the device group and 40.0 ± 16.9 years for the surgical group (p = 0.023). The mean secundum ASD size in the device and surgical groups was 14.2 ± 5.6 mm and 28.7 ± 10.0 mm, respectively (p < 0.001). No differences were observed regarding procedure success rates: 99.2% in the device group and 100% in the surgical group (p = 0.451). Periprocedural complications generally were more common in the surgical closure group. The study results show a successful introduction of the percutaneous ASD closure method in Latvia with good early and late outcomes and without significant differences in procedure success rate compared to surgical closure.
Miroslava Kačániová, Margarita Terentjeva, Attila Kántor, Marián Tokár, Czeslaw Puchalski and Eva Ivanišová
The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of sage and rosemary essential oils (EO) on microbiota of fresh chicken breast. Sample treatments were stored without packaging, vacuum-packaged, vacuum-packaged with EDTA 1.5% v/w, sage and rosemary EO treatment 0.2% v/w. Assessment of food quality was done by anaerobic plate count (APC), and Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Pseudomonas spp. counts a period of 16 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5 °C. Bacterial species were identified with a MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Antimicrobial activity of isolates against both EO were tested. The APC varied from 2.97 log CFU/g to 6.81 log CFU/g, LAB from 2.35 log CFU/g to 3.36 log CFU/g and Enterobacteriaceae from 0.00 log CFU/g on day 0 to 4.77 log CFU/g with the highest counts on day 16 and in control unpackaged samples. Pseudomonas spp. was found only on days 0, 4, 8, and 12, with counts from 0.00 log CFU/g on day 16 to 2.89 log CFU/g on day 4 in control unpackaged samples. APC were represented by Staphylococcus and Kocuria, LAB with Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae with Buttiauxella, Escherichia, Hafnia, Serratia and Yersinia. The Pseudomonas genus was represented by ten species. The best antimicrobial effect on APC, Enterobacteriaceae, LAB and Pseudomonas was achieved by application of EO. The results suggest the potential use of Salvia officinalis L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. EOs as natural food preservatives and potential sources of antimicrobial ingredients in the food industry.
Inese Mieriņa, Laura Adere, Klinta Krasauska, Elīna Zoltnere, Dārta Zelma Skrastiņa and Māra Jure
Camelina sativa is well known due to high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in its oil. Till now this oil has been studied mainly for applications as raw material for synthesis of resins, biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels. This study examines the oxidative stability of cold-pressed Camelina sativa (also known as camelina, false flax or gold-of-pleasure) oil and its extracts of spices. Despite the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, Camelina sativa oil appeared more rigid against oxidation than rapeseed or flax oil. Extracts of different spices were prepared by maceration in camelina oil at room temperature for 24 h. The stability of extracts was determined under accelerated oxidation conditions and monitored by peroxide values. Most of the tested additives (e.g., bay leaves, allspice, clove, barley sprouts, coriander, ginger) did not influence or even decreased oxidative stability of the oil. However, oil with thyme additive demonstrated remarkably higher stability then Camelina sativa oil alone. Press-cakes of camelina seeds were extracted with two polar solvents (ethanol or water) and their mixtures under variable conditions (room temperature or reflux). Prepared polar extracts of press-cakes were characterised by total polyphenol content (Folin–Ciocalteu method) and antiradical activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl and galvinoxyl.
Māra Bleidere, Zaiga Jansone, Ilze Grunte and Ida Jakobsone
Differences in biochemical composition in dehulled and pearled grain samples affected by the various degrees of pearling were studied for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twelve covered spring barley and two hulless genotypes were examined. Commercial samples of pearled barley were included for comparison. Covered barley grain samples were pearled using a small-scale barley pearler to obtain dehulled and pearled barley grain products with pearling percentage of 12% and 30%, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the chemical composition between dehulled grain and pearled grain. As the outer layers of the covered grain were removed to a greater degree by pearling, crude protein content, crude ash, total phenolic concentration and radical scavenging activity in the pearled grain significantly decreased (p < 0.001), while starch concentration increased, without changes in the β-glucans concentration. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the dehulled barley grain samples were 1.30 to 1.61 times higher than for pearled grains. There was a significant (p < 0.01) correlation determined among values of dehulled and pearled grain of different barley genotypes in crude protein, starch, and β-glucan content, but no relationship was found in total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity.
It is very important to promote public awareness of the negative effects on health — trans fatty acid effects on cardiovascular disease. The study included 70 patients of the Latvian Centre of Cardiology, Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital (PSCUH). The PSCUH research institute gave permission to conduct the study. The patients answered questions about their awareness of trans fatty acids. The questionnaire used was obtained from the study “Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population” and modified for survey of the cardiology unit patients. The majority (74%) of the respondents had heard and read something about trans fatty acids, but 62% women and 54% men were poorly informed about trans fatty acids and their negative effect on cardiovascular diseases. Unclear issues for patients were discussed after the questionnaire.
Ingrīda Augšpole, Tatjana Kince and Ingmārs Cinkmanis
The main purpose of the study was to determine changes of polyphenol concentrations in hybrids of Nante type carrots during storage. Fresh Nante type ‘Forto’ variety carrots and carrot hybrids ‘Bolero’ F1, ‘Champion’ F1, and ‘Maestro’ F1 were cultivated in the Zemgale region of Latvia. Carrots were stored for six months in air (+3 ± 1 °C, RH = 89 ± 1%) and polyphenol compound concentrations were determined at two month intervals. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine concentrations of eight polyphenols in carrots: gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, and rutin. Significant differences occurred in polyphenol concentrations of fresh Nante type variety ‘Forto’ carrots and several hybrids (‘Bolero’ F1, ‘Champion’ F1, and ‘Maestro’ F1) during storage. After six months of storage, the concentration of polyphenol compounds of Nante type carrots decreased — caffeic acid by 64.6%, chlorogenic acid — by 37.9% and vanillin — by 81.5%. However, during storage, concentration of some polyphenol compounds increased, as catechin by 30.5%, epicatechin by 85.2%, gallic acid by 48.5% and ferulic acid by 87.9%.
Līga Kalniņa, Guntars Selga, Melita Sauka, Aija Randoha, Eva Krasovska and Viesturs Lāriņš
The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calculated using the Nutri Survey software. Ballet dancers were slightly shorter, lighter, with less fat and fat-free mass compared to girls from ordinary school. 51.3% (95% CI 35.59 to 66.97) of ballet dancers and 4% (95% CI; 0.27 to 11.15) of ordinary school girls had a body fat level of 12% or less. The recommended amount of 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass for aesthetic sports was not reached by 42.1% (95% CI 27.61 to 50.65%) of ballet dancers. No statistically significant difference was found in percent body fat between ballet dancers who consumed energy less than the recommended amount compared to those who ate normally, but fatfree mass (p < 0.05) was lower in those who consumed 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass or less compared to those who ate more. The investigated groups had an inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins during the winter period.
Concentration of trace and major elements is an important indicator of nutritional value of food, also regarding cultivated food crops like fruits, berries, and vegetables. Concentration of elements differs regionally and is influenced by various factors. Nevertheless, some chemical elements (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc.) are known as environmental pollutants and may affect the quality and safety of crops and food products. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of potentially toxic elements like Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples of berries grown in allotment gardens of Rīga city. Dried and homogenised samples of raspberries, strawberries, red currants, black currants, gooseberries, and cherries were mineralised in a solution of concentrated HNO3/H2O2 by heating on a thermoblock. Quantitative analysis of sample solutions was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Potentially toxic elements were in concentrations as follows: Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cd. Mean concentrations of the elements of the major concern were: Ni 0.54 mg/kg, Pb 0.20 mg/kg, Cr 0.10 mg/kg, and Cd 0.03 mg/kg. Results indicated significant variability of element concentration among the species.
Bouchra Sayed-Ahmad, Evita Straumīte, Mārtiņš Šabovics, Zanda Krūma, Othmane Merah, Zeinab Saad, Akram Hijazi and Thierry Talou
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05) effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.