Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Antoaneta B. Georgieva, Stiliana P. Belcheva and Roman E. Tashev
Ferulic acid (FA), called also hydroxycinnamic acid, is a polyphenol compound found in many foods such as coffee, apples, rice, oats and wheat. It acts as an antioxidant but its other activities in vivo have not been well studied as a whole. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FA on exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in male Wistar rats. FA was administrated orally (20 mg/kg) to different groups of rats for 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. These groups were compared respectively with saline-treated controls. At the end of each experimental period, the changes in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity were recorded in an Opto Varimex apparatus (Columbus Instruments, USA). The number of horizontal and vertical movements recorded every minute for the first 5 min served as a measure of exploratory activity and habituation to the new environment. The total number of movements during the first 5 min and during the whole 10-min period of observation was used as a measure of locomotor activity. It was found that FA at all doses for all treatment periods did not significantly affect exploratory behavior and locomotor activity of rats, when compared with the saline-treated controls. At all testing periods, FA did not disturb habituation. As habituation is considered an elementary form of learning, the present study suggested that FA did not disturb the memory and learning processes in rats.
Maria L. Valcheva-Traykova, Trayko T. Traykov and Georgeta S. Bocheva
Propylthiouracil is used against Grave's Disease and for developing animal models of hypothyroidism. Apart from depressed metabolism, free radical-induced tissue damage has been registered as an effect from this drug. Superoxide is essential for generation of free radicals in tissues. The mutual effects of Propylthiouracil and superoxide radical have not been well investigated.
The in vitro effects of Propylthiouracil on the free radicals in three model systems generating superoxide were measured using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry. The drug did not affect the formation of free radicals in the presence of potassium superoxide and in pyrogallol-oxygen solutions, while in the presence of the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system a distinct prooxidant effect was registered. The investigation of the system propylthiouracil/xanthine oxidase showed mild free radicals formation along with decreasing intensities of the drug's UV-specter.
Our in vitro investigation indicated that, along with the transformation of xanthine to uric acid over xanthine oxidase, some free radicals may be produced due to the interaction of propylthiouracil with the enzyme. It was proposed that this might contribute to the in vivo free radicals-induced tissue damage observed in the presence of propylthiouracil.
Rositsa V. Sandeva, Stanislava M. Mihaylova and Gergana N. Sandeva
The participation of the anorexigenic peptide leptin and the orexigenic peptide ghrelin in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and obesity is well studied. In this review, we are taking a look at the structure, anatomical expression, regulation, receptors and physiological functions of these two neuropeptides. Leptin is produced almost exclusively in adipose tissue. It acts on the brain and is a key element in long-term regulation of energy balance. Leptin suppresses appetite and reduces body weight. Besides its central effects, important aspects of its action on peripheral tissues have been discovered recently: direct regulation of immune cells, pancreatic beta cells, adipocytes and muscle cells. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the active form of the growth hormone receptor (GHS-R1a) and stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion. We focus on the role of leptin and ghrelin in central nervous system neural mechanisms that are associated with depression. Studying new aspects of these two neuropeptides aims to expand our knowledge of the pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches to diseases with which they are associated: obesity, depression, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, and more.
Despina V. Pupaki, Dessislava Ankova, Veselin P. Vasilev and Pavel I. Rashev
The mammary gland is unique in its development because most of its branching occurs in adolescent rather than in prenatal development. During early pregnancy extensive ductal side branching occurs while during the second half, secretory lobuloalveolar units are formed within the mammary gland. As modulators of the extracellular matrix, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the major enzymes taking part in the development of the gland. The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 has mostly been associated with tumor progression, while their participation in the physiological development of the mammary gland is not well characterized. In the present study the cell-specific localization of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the developing dog mammary gland during pregnancy was investigated. In the early stages, both gelatinases were present, being located mostly in the epithelium of the ducts and less so in the surrounding stroma. After the formation of alveoli, MMP-2 was still present but MMP-9 was absent from the glandular epithelium and the stroma, being present only in the epithelium of the larger ducts. The results show that most likely, both gelatinases take part in ductal branching during early pregnancy, but only MMP-2 is associated with the differentiated stage of lactation.
Daniela Y. Arabadzhieva, Ara G. Kaprelyan, Zhaneta T. Georgieva, Zdravko D. Slavov and Aleksandra Zh. Tsukeva
The purpose of this study was to analyze the disturbances of glucose, lipid and protein metabolism in acute ischemic stroke patients. A total of 258 patients (mean age 70.9±7.22 years, range 49-92 years) were studied. The following parameters were examined: blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, creatinine, and urea. Data were statistically processed by variation and correlation analysis. Our results demonstrated abnormal values of these laboratory parameters in most patients. The mean concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were higher in females, while these of blood glucose were higher in males, especially in the age group between 76 and 80 years. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was highest between the variables ‘total cholesterol’ and ‘LDL-cholesterol’ (r=0.797) but moderate - between some of the rest variables such as ‘creatinine’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.575); ‘total cholesterol’ and ‘triglycerides’ (r=0.565); ‘total cholesterol’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.428); ‘triglycerides’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.370) and ‘LDL-cholesterol’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.301). In conclusion, the metabolic disorders are relatively common among acute ischemic stroke patients and play a specific role as risk factors for this disease. These parameters should regularly be controlled within the outpatient practice in order to warrant an effective prevention of acute ischemic stroke.
Tanja P. Kuneva, Zlatka B. Stoyneva, Daniela G. Medjidieva, Diana B. Apostolova, Shiboy N. Kuzmov, Gergina N. Oncheva, Reny T. Toncheva, Vladimira V. Boyadzhieva and Kristina V. Bozhinova
The health status of 1515 workers employed in heat production was investigated. The subjects studied were divided in four groups according to occupation and occupational risk factors: vibration, noise, dust, metal aerosols, overloading of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous system, and organic solvents. The control group included 152 administrative staff members. High prevalence of socially significant diseases – cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic was detected in all the groups surveyed. The frequency of diseases of the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system was 2.7 times higher than that in the control group. Statistically reliable higher prevalence of lung diseases in the studied risk groups was found, especially in the group of welders and chemists: 45.3% и 17.4% respectively, as compared to 4.3% in the controls. These finding corresponded to the occupational risk. The following occupation diseases were diagnosed: pneumoconiosis in 26.6% and toxic pneumofibrosis in 5.1% of electric welders. As regards the group of chemists, toxic pneumofibrosis was found in 6.5%. toxic effects of irritants - in 6.5 %, and chronic intoxication with organic radicals - in 0.7 % of them. Occupational auditory neuritis was diagnosed in 1% of the turbine operators and crane operators. The relative share of workers with peripheral nervous system pathology (radiculopathies, polyneuropathies, distal sympathetic neuropathy, mononeuropathy) was reliably higher than that in the control group, and the frequency increased among the workers with more than ten years of service and older than 40.
Pavlina L. Gidikova, Gergana N. Sandeva, Kamelia H. Haracherova and Rositsa V. Sandeva
A person's weight depends on major factors like genetics, diet, and physical activity. Physical activity in adults is defined mainly by workload – light, moderate or heavy. The aim was to explore associations between weight and chronic non-infectious diseases in workers with different physical activity. The subjects included in the study were 224 male and 249 female employees, divided by workload based on their job description. Body mass index (BMI) and disease incidence were calculated, and statistical analysis was performed. The highest percentage of overweight and obese subjects was found in men with light workload. The mean BMI for men (27.434.85) was significantly higher than that for women (25.875.06). Analysis of obesity-associated diseases showed that in workers with higher BMI there was a higher incidence of endocrine disorders, musculoskeletal and related neurological diseases. Diseases of the circulatory system were highly prevalent in both overweight/obese and underweight employees. In conclusion, physical activity at work contributes to changes in BMI in the working population. Obesity-associated circulatory, endocrine and musculoskeletal diseases were highly prevalent in the groups with higher BMI. The prevalence in employees without diseases was in inverse relation to BMI.
Sofiya L. Ivanova, Dimitrichka J. Dimitrova, Metodi H. Petrichev, Liliana I. Parvanova, Georgi Sl. Kalistratov and Lubomir T. Vezenkov
The pharmacokinetics of zinc was investigated in broiler chickens after single crop intubation of 50 mg/kg 5% zinc aspartate suspension in 2% carboxymethyl cellulose solution. Blood serum zinc concentrations were assayed on a biochemical analyzer. The pharmacokinetics of zinc was evaluated using two approaches – compartmental method and non-compartmental analysis using pharmacokinetic software (TopFit, v. 2.0). After the intraingluvial application, zinc was rapidly absorbed (t1/2abs. =0.1040.02 h) by the alimentary system of birds attaining Cmax of 63.603.94 mol/ml by hour 0.77 (compartmental method) and Cmax =69.274.35 mol/ml by hour 0.92 h (non-compartmental method). It is characterized with a long biological half-life (t1/2) of 13.821.63 h (compartmental analysis) and 15.961.73 h (non-compartmental analysis) and long mean residence times (MRT) 20.122.35 h and 23.002.50 h, respectively. The distribution in blood and extracellular fluid was good as seen from Vd(area) values 0.770.05 l/kg (compartmental analysis) and 0.650.05 l/kg (non-compartmental analysis).
Guergana Petrova, Penka I. Perenovska, Dimitrinka Miteva, Radost T. Kabakchieva, Ognyan G. Brankov and Rosen S. Drebov
Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disorder characterized by consolidation due to presence of exudates in the alveolar spaces. Most pneumonias can be effectively treated with appropriate oral antibiotics, with intravenous antibiotics being reserved for those with severe infections. We present two cases of girls admitted in our clinic with pneumonia where our conventional therapy was not sufficient. Case 1: A 15-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis, with left lobular pneumonia, for which an aggressive conservative treatment was initiated. After significant improvement, sudden detorioration and pneumothorax of the left lung occurred. She was transferred to the surgical department for intervention. Due to failure to respond to initial drainage she underwent thoracotomy and resection of the left lower lobe of the lung. The histology result confirmed gangrene. Case 2: A four-year old girl was treated for pneumonia in the right lung with aggressive intravenous antibiotic. After temporary improvement sudden deterioration was observed. The patient was transferred to the surgery department, where pulmonary gangrene was confirmed. After the lower lobe of the right lung was resected, she was discharged in good health. The careful follow up, accurate diagnosis and correct medication choice are crucial for reducing the complications of “common” pneumonia.
Tanja P. Kuneva, Diana B. Apostolova, Zlatka B. Stoyneva, Aneta B. Ivanova, Vladimira V. Boyadzhieva and Kristina A. Yosifcheva
A clinical observation of 15 workers exposed to lead, engaged in recycling of lead accumulators, was carried out. The exposition to lead aerosols varied from 2 months to 14 years. High levels of lead absorption and excretion after application of antidote therapy were found in all workers followed up. There were no manifestclinical signs and symptoms in 7 workers whom we suspected to be lead carriers. Anemia was diagnosed in 8 of the investigated persons. Severe form of intoxication, including paresis of both radial nerves, was established in one worker. Subacute lead poisoning, presenting with lead colic, anemia, toxic hepatitis and toxic polyneuropathy, was diagnosed in three persons with only several months of intensive lead exposure. Association between lead exposure, metal absorption and clinical symptoms in investigated persons were discussed.