The article presents calculations of unit fumes emission made based on the measurements of the fumes composition during a load test. The test was carried out with the use of a movable dynamometric stand adjusted for testing agricultural tractors by power take-off shaft. Calculations of unit emission were made based on the assumed flow of air sucked by an engine and the measured composition of fumes emitted during the load test. Results of tests and analyses supply information on the mass of particle matter and the selected gas elements emitted by an engine working under the load which was related to simultaneous determination of the exploitation characteristic of an engine. The presented methodology may be helpful at evaluation of impact of farm tractors on the environment within the hazardous fume components emitted by them.
The paper presents main provisions of methodology of manure utilization systems evaluation. All costs, starting with the costs related to manure cleaning in premises to the costs of increasing the biological yield obtained from its use, including the soil fertility value changes, were considered. The target function is offered a minimum of complex costs of entering the required amount of nutrients and organic matter per unit area for the planned yield. The effective technical solutions of calculations based on the proposed method include: construction of a boom conveyor with a hydraulic drive and described performance, scraper and screw types of conveyors, automatic scraper loading installation of manure from livestock buildings. The proposed solutions will reduce losses of nutrients by 50-70%, and will allow production of 20 million tons of grain annually.
The aim of the research was to determine how time of infrared radiation heating of grains influences the falling number of flour gained from wheat variety Waluta and spelled wheat variety Schwabenkorn. Moisture content was determined in the first stage of the study and it was 12% ± 1%. Then grain was moisturized to the moisture of: 14, 16 and 18%. Prepared material was subjected to infrared radiation heating at the temperature of 150°C for 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds. The heated material was sent to milling, and the falling number was determined. It has been found that the infrared radiation heating of wheat grains prior to milling significantly affects the falling number of flour, which increases with the duration of heating grain.
The paper presents the results of research, the objective of which was to determine the impact of particle size distribution and density of digestates and ash on density and tensile strength of granular fertilizer obtained from mixtures of these substrates. Particle size distribution, absolute density, envelope density and porosity of substrates were determined. Granular fertilizers were made of clean substrates and their mixtures. Envelope density of the obtained granulates was within 0.81 - 1.88 g⋅cm-3. The determined compaction degree was within 3.65 - 10.12. While, the compaction index IS of granulates made of mixtures was within 0.5 - 0.55 and was lower in comparison to IS of granulates from digestates (0.6) and ash (0.76).
In case of traditional harvesting methods the losses of perennial grass seeds may reach 45-50% of the biological yield in unfavourable weather conditions. The paper presents the results of comparative assessment efficiency of various methods of harvesting of perennial seed grass. It was found that the use of special devices and structures in combine harvesters allows increase of yield of technological mixture to the combine tank, degree of seed threshing to 93% and limit the losses of crop to 20-29%. Harvesting of seeds in non-waste technology with harvesting of the entire yield with later transport, drying, threshing and seeds cleaning in stationary devices results in reduction of losses by 5 to 10% but it leads to the increase of energy inputs by 24-25% in comparison to traditional with threshing method. Harvesting with a combing method of plant seeds on a trunk in „Невейки” technology results in the increase of the seeds harvesting to 86-98% of a biological yield.
The article presents the procedure of determination of a structural form of an agricultural machine which encompasses methodological aspects of design related to the division of the basic objective function into member functions, multi-variant solutions and synthesis of astructural form (a virtual prototype of an agricultural machine). The suggested course of proceeding was presented by the case of a design of a tunnel spraying machine. This example reflects well and includes the specificity of the design object in the form of an agricultural machine with specific technical and agro-technical requirements. Attention was paid to the aspects related to methodology of selection of fractional solutions based on previously defined criteria.
Short review of grassland restoration techniques has been made with emphasis on the application of newly developed wide-strip overseeding aggregate. Machines currently available on the market are not suitable for all types of soil and grassland conditions. Vredo seeder is useless on muck soils, while Moore aggregate requires herbicide application. Therefore it is not to be applied in organic farming. Construction designated in ITP Kłudzienko (wide-strip overseeder) is a very economical and effective, possible to be used also on muck soils and without assistance of any chemicals. Operation of the machine consists of ‘milling’ of wide (about 10 cm) strips of sod and overseeding of mineral fertilizers and seeds of grasses, legumes and herbs. Cultivator for soil ‘milling’ strips is driven by the tractor PTO. By changing the spacing of strips, an oversown area can be resized from 20% to 40%. The effect of overseeding, evaluated next year exposed the increase of hay yield from 0.8 to 1.2 t · ha-1 of dry matter in the first cut. Such innovative construction is particularly important in dairy farms which are in the need of the best quality feed.
The objective of the paper was to carry out a bibliometric quantitative analysis of publications concerning the application of artificial neural networks in the research area - agriculture and a bibliometric quantitative analysis and subject analysis with regard to agricultural engineering. A number of scientific publications devoted to the ANN found in the data base of the Web of Science - in documents published to 2015 was a basis for the quantitative analysis. Research on the use of artificial neural networks in the research area - agriculture is extending systematically. Moreover, a rapidly growing number of citations prove a continuous increase in the scientists’ interest in possibilities of the ANN applications. The quantitative analysis of scientific publications in 5 selected scientific journals and thematically related to agricultural engineering (indexed in the Web of Science) allowed a statement that 236 scientific articles from 1996- 2015 were related to the ANN application. The biggest number of publications was reported in Computers and Electronics in Agriculture - 118 articles. In 2011-2015 there was a growing trend in dynamics of publishing of scientific papers devoted to the ANN application to agricultural engineering. Thus, we may assume that the research related to application of the artificial neural networks to agricultural engineering will be continued and their scope and number will be still growing. The thematic analysis of the most often quoted publications from 2011-2015 in the journal Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, proved that they concern both the issues related to the classification problem as well as to modelling processes and systems. We should suppose that the subjects related to modelling of drying processes and application of neural networks for image analysis will grow dynamically in the following years.
The paper, based on the materials of the Main Statistical Office, presents a present state of use of renewable energy sources in the Polish power industry. Moreover, based on the available data, the amount of energy used for roofed production was estimated (heat, electric energy). Additionally, the amount of emission to atmosphere of hazardous substances (sulphur oxides, lead oxides, carbon dioxide and carbon oxide, dust and benzo(a) piren) was determined. Based on the available literature, technical solutions, which are analysed in various scientific centres, which aim at decrease of fuel consumption, were presented. A detailed analysis focused on the possibility of substituting fossil fuel with another heat source, effectiveness of energy use, increase of insulation ability of the facility roof and modification of greenhouses structures. From among the available energy sources, problems and its possible use in horticultural production were presented. The following energy sources were analysed: geothermal energy, sun and wind energy, biomass, heat pump; co-generative system (triple co-generative). Also barriers and possibilities of use of own boiler house and heat from central heating grid as energy source were analysed.
The objective of the paper was to determine the work expenditures and costs of eradication of an energy willow plantation with currently applied mechanical methods and with the use of the test model of a machine for cutting willow rootstocks as a part of the scientific project no. PBS2/A8/26/2014. The scope of the paper covered research for four machine units constructed for a twelve-year willow plantation with the surface area of 3 ha. Work inputs for eradication of the plantation of the investigated aggregates were within 8.1 to 50.4 mhr ∙ ha-1. Work inputs with the new machine were 22.3 mhr ∙ ha-1. The level of work inputs was influenced by low working speeds of the tractor-machine unit and working speeds from 0.4 to 2.3 m. Costs of willow plantation eradication with current mechanical methods were from 4302 to 15536 PLN ∙ ha-1, and with the use of the new machine it was 5457 PLN ∙ ha-1.