The article presents the concept of the environmental management system. Moreover, organization frames of the undertaking related to eco-transport of waste were determined. Elements of the environmental management were characterized including the environmental aspect. They were subjected to interpretation in terms of reduction of the impact on the environment. In the context of constant improvement, the attention was paid to the influence of the analysed organization of its environmental activity. The objective of the paper is the analysis of assumptions which follow from the ISO 14001 standard including arrangement of the eco-transport of waste.
The paper presents the work performance analysis of timber harvesting with the use of Highlander harvester produced by KONRAD Forsttechnik GmbH. The analysis was performed based on the timing of the working day. We also assessed the organization of the machine operation in the research area and its functional capability. The study was conducted in Miçdzylesie Forest Department, Nowu Wieś Forestry in fresh mixed mountain forest, where the machine acquired spruce. Timing was perfonned based on the registration of the machine operation on a video camera and the measurements of collected assortment. Based on the results of measurements it was found that organization of the machine operation was not the best. A one-shift work system and short duration of a shift caused that the effective working time occupied only 67.9% of the shift time (about 4 hours). This resulted in reduction of the operating perfonnance on a working day which was only 12,7 m3·h−1, while an effective high-efficiency was 18.7 m3·h−1.
The paper presents environmental conditions for the selected location of a landfill site on the area of Stary Sącz designated for deposing neutral waste from the installation for secondary segregation of waste. Based on the productivity of the selected municipal waste parameters of accumulation indicators were detennined strictly correlated with the amount of waste predicted for disposal. Components of the facility were selected including the requirements of the resolution as of 30th April 2013 on landfill sites (Journal of Laws 2013 item 523) for application of solutions for protection of water, soil and atmospheric air environment in its surroundings against the negative impact of waste. The paper also refers to the final stage related to closing of a landfill with the assumed plan of its reclamation. The article was summed up with conclusions indicating the limited possibility of location of such a facility on the selected area on account of its location close to Poprad River and on the area of the Main Reservoir of Underground Water. The objective of the paper was to make an attempt to choose components of the installation for neutralization of waste in Stary Sącz taking into account the local environmental conditions.
The aim of this study was to perform and evaluate the accuracy of classification of grains of different cultivars of malting barley. The grains of eight cultivars: Blask, Bor do, Con chita, Kormoran, Mercada, Serwal, Signora, Victoriana, with three moisture content: 12, 14, 16% were examined. The selected parameters of the surface texture of grain mass obtained from images taken using the techniques of hyperspectral imaging were determined. The accuracy of grains discrimination carried out using different methods of selection and classification of data was compared. The pairwise comparison and comparison of three, four and eight cultivars of malting barley were carried out. The most accurate discrimination was determined in the case of the pairwise comparison. Victoriana cultivar was the most different from the others. The most similar texture of grain mass was found in the comparison of cultivars: Blask and Mercada. In the case of eight examined cultivars of malting barley, the most accurate discrimination (classification error – 55%) was obtained for images taken at the moisture content of 14% and at a wavelength of 750 nm, for the attributes selection performed with the use of probability of error and average correlation coefficient (POE+ACC) method and the discrimination carried out using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).
This paper presents the logistic system of fuel life cycle, covering diesel oil and the mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio), using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. This method is a technique in the field of management processes with a view to assessing the potential environmental hazards. Our intention was to compare the energy consumption needed to produce each of the test fuels and emissions of selected substances generated during ithe production process. The study involved 10,000 liters of diesel and the same amount of rapeseed oil and butanol mixture (2:3 ratio). On the basis of measurements the following results were obtained. To produce a functional unit of diesel oil (i.e. 10,000 liters) it is necessary to extract 58.8 m3 of crude oil. The entire life cycle covering the consumption of 10,000 liters of diesel consumes 475.668 GJ of energy and causes the emission to air of the following substances: 235.376 kg of COx, 944.921 kg of NOx, 83.287 kg of SOx. In the ease of a functional unit, to produce a mixture of rapeseed oil and butanol (2:3 ratio) 10,000 kg of rapeseed and 20,350 kg of straw should be used. The entire life cycle of 10,000 liters of a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio) absorbs 370.616 GJ of energy, while emitting the following air pollutants: 105.14832 kg of COx, 920.03124 kg of NOx, 0.162 kg of SOx. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion that it is oil refining which is the most energy-intensive and polluting process in the life cycle of diesel. The process consumes 41.4 GJ of energy, and causes a significant emission of sulfur oxides (50 kg). In the production of fuel that is a mixture of rapeseed oil and butyl alcohol (2:3 ratio), rape production is the most energy-intensive manufacturing process is (absorbs 53.856 GJ of energy). This is due to the long operation time of the farm tractor and combine harvester. The operation of these machines leads also to the emission of a significant amount of pollution in the form of COx (2.664 kg) and NOx (23.31 kg).
The selected physical properties as well as mechanical proprieties of kumquat and cape gooseberry fruit kept in the temperature of 12°C for 3 days, 8°C for 6 days and 4°C for 9 days were studied. The mass and size of fruit in three perpendicular directions were determined and density and moisture of tested material were calculated. Compressive tests of whole fruit were conducted for two directions of load application in order to determine the unit work WP an apparent coefficient of elasticity, stress σ and strain ε. The growth of inputs of the deformation work with expansion of the storage time was confirmed with regard to kumquat fruit which is related to the decrease of their conventional density. The decrease of the stress and elasticity values coefficient of cape gooseberry fruit with higher temperatures of storing expressed with the change of the slope angle of curves of the relation of stress-deformation was proved.
Improvement of mechanical milking in the aspect of cow's udder health and maintaining correct milking parameters is possible through e.g. constant improvement of the structure of clusters. A cluster with a specific claw with crossing milk connection pipes Flo-Star Max with liners with a round profile of the barrel of DK1X. The objective of the paper was to analyse usefulness of this type of the sitructure of the machine for mechanical milking of cows. Measurements of simulated milking were carried out in a laboratory to the upper milking pipeline at variable mass intensity of liquid flow within 0-8 kg·min−1, for four penetrations of artificial teats of 100, 75, 62, 50 mm at the systemic negative pressure values within 50 to 44 kPa, simultaneous and alternating pulsation and during real milking of cows in a cowshed. Using a multivariate analysis of variance, the impact of independent variables of an experiment on the values of average vacuum of suction, vacuum fluctuations in cycle, average drop of vacuum in a cycle were proved. Analysis of the machine operation in a milking parallel parlour in real mechanical milking conditions and difficulties in placing a machine on the cow's udder as well as violent milk flow were reported and the milk flow of 3.5 kg·min−1 was exceeded with its characteristic balancing in the rhythm of a pulsator.
The object of the research is a technological process and technical means of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects. The subject of the research consists of regularities and methods of execution of the process of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects by a multirotor mower with trapezoidal knives. The aim of the research is to increase efficiency of cutting shrubs at melioration objects by applying a multi-rotor mower with trapezoidal knives. We have obtained analy tical dependences in order to determine the angle of diversion of a knife from the radial position during contact with the stem, and to calculate the reaction in the joint “knife-fixing bolt” depending on the parameters of a knife and rotor, and the distance from the centre of the knife fixing bolt to the point of contact of a knife and stem, which provides minimal impact load on the knife fixing bolt during cutting woody shrubs. We have also developed a mathematical model of the process of cutting shrubs by a multi-rotor mover with trapezoidal knives, and methods of determination of the main parameters and regimes of work of the mower cutting apparatus for cutting shrubs at melioration objects, which contain a monogram, based on the use of theoretical-experimental dependences.
This paper is a review article which presents examples of application of the image analysis in wood testing. The objective of the paper was to present selected research methods with the use of image analysis used in the research on anatomy and macro-structure of wood carried out in the Department of Forest and Wood Utilization of the Institute of Forest Utilization and Forest Technology of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. In the part concerning research on wood anatomy the following areas of application of the image analysis were indicated: identification of wood species and variability of the selected parameters of the anatomic structure with special attention to coniferous trees. In the part concerning the research on macro-structure of wood, methodology of collection and preparation of wood samples and measurement of the most important properties of the macrostructure was described with the use of the image analysis program. Moreover, the selected areas of practical application of the results of such analysis were indicated.
The objective of the paper was to verify the previously obtained results of research concerning the impact of the plate diameter on the measured value of the pre-compaction stress of silt (NG), in conditions of a wider range of soil types and their initial stage. The research was carried out on samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 30 mm produced from the soil material (M) or collected from the subsoil of the selected soils (AWN) with the granulation type of: silt loam, loam, light loam, sandy-clay soil. The following soils properties were determined: the granulation type, density of the solid phase, content of humus and calcium carbonate, reaction, plastic and liquid limit. The properties of samples were described with moisture, dry density of solid particles, porosity of aeration, degree of plasticity and degree of saturation. The samples were loaded with a testing machine with plates with varied diameters. The value of the pre-compaction stress of soil was measured with the method of searching the crossing point of tangents with the secondary stress curve and the original stresses curve (a classical method). It was found out that for samples M with the degree of saturation of 0.40-0.50, the pre-compaction stress does not significantly depend on the plate diameter. For samples M or AWN, with the degree of saturation of 0.64-0.82, the pre-compaction stress significantly depends on the diameter of the plate. A conclusion was formulated that in the research of NG with the method of uniaxial defonnations, the relation of the diameter of the plate (d) to the diameter of the cylinder (D) should be within 0.5 ≤ d/D ≤ 0.8.