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Open access

Katherine Kirk and Ellen Bal

Abstract

This paper explores the relationship between migration and integration policies in the Netherlands, diaspora policies in India, and the transnational practices of Indian highly skilled migrants to the Netherlands. We employ anthropological transnational migration theories (e.g., Ong 1999; Levitt and Jaworsky 2007) to frame the dynamic interaction between a sending and a receiving country on the lives of migrants. This paper makes a unique contribution to migration literature by exploring the policies of both sending and receiving country in relation to ethnographic data on migrants. The international battle for brains has motivated states like the Netherlands and India to design flexible migration and citizenship policies for socially and economically desirable migrants. Flexible citizenship policies in the Netherlands are primarily concerned with individual and corporate rights and privileges, whereas Indian diaspora policies have been established around the premise of national identity.

Open access

Olli Lehtonen, Toivo Muilu and Hilkka Vihinen

Abstract

In the simplest definition, multi-local living means that a person or family have more than one residence or place to stay. In Finland, multi-locality has become a common phenomenon in recent decades, but the effects of it are not yet considered in decision-making or planning. This is because the “invisible population” created by multi-locality is not reflected in traditional population statistics. The assumption in this article is that multi-locality would provide opportunities to improve accessibility of health and social services in rural areas. The assumption is tested in the North Kymenlaakso region, Finland. The results point to that one-stop services and mobile services are cost-efficient and flexible provision models for rural areas. The results call for making the increasing multi-locality in society more visible and to utilize it better than at present as a resource for the development of rural areas.

Open access

Helena Hudečková, Jakub Husák and Rudolfina Voleská

Abstract

The paper is focused on Family Policy of rural municipalities. National strategic documents, documents intended for implementation of Family Policy at regional and local levels and local plans/conceptions for Family Policy within municipalities of up to 5,000 inhabitants are analysed. Special attention is paid to the competition: “Family-friendly Community”. Results of the analysis show that this competition does not fulfil its mission, despite the favourable environment for Family Policy within rural municipalities. The results of the study in accordance with generally prevailing opinion show, that it is not efficient to elaborate conceptions of Family Policy within such small municipalities.

Open access

S.N. Alam, N. Jindal and N. Naithani

Abstract

The present work reports the effect of Cu addition on the melting point, hardness and electrical resistivity of Sn-57 wt.% Bi eutectic solder alloy. Both binary eutectic Sn-57 wt.% Bi and ternary Sn-(57-x)Bi-xCu (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%) alloys containing various amounts of Cu were developed by melting casting route. The microstructure of the various solder alloys was analyzed using an optical microscope and a SEM. The variation in melting point, hardness and electrical resistivity of the Sn-Bi eutectic solder alloys with the addition of Cu was determined. The melting point of the eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy was found to decrease up to the addition of 0.7 wt.% Cu. However, further addition of Cu led to an increase in the melting point of the alloy. Addition of Cu led to an increase in the hardness of the eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy whereas the electrical resistivity of this alloy was found to increase up to the addition of 0.7 wt.% of Cu beyond which a decrease in the electrical resistivity was observed. A change in the microstructure of the solder alloy was observed when it was reheated above the melting temperature.

Open access

Eileen O’Rourke

Abstract

Land abandonment is a complex multi-dimensional process with interlinked economic, environmental and social aspects. This paper presents a case study of an isolated hill sheep farming community in SW Ireland, where a combination of low incomes, ageing population, lack of successors and strong environmental constraints are perceived to be among the main factors leading to their demise. However, the uplands they have grazed for generations are of high nature conservation value, and depend on active management to maintain both their ecology and landscapes. The research, which is based on a combination of interviews and farming systems research, highlights the misfit between what the mountain can produce, light hill lamb, and what the globalised market demands. The paper argues that if ‘farming for conservation’ is the new function of such farming systems, then we should consider decoupling public goods payments from agricultural subsidies, along with integrating agriculture in disadvantaged areas within a broader rural development framework. The research aims to fill the gap between macro policy and the micro reality of an upland community on a self-declared ‘tipping point’.

Open access

Yonas Mitik Degu and Derbew Alebel

Abstract

Gyrocopter or gyroplane is a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered main rotor in free autorotation to develop lift. Gyrocopter rotor blades have smaller cord length and longer span compared to helicopters blades. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 8-H-12 gyrocopter rotor blade profile, unsymmetrical airfoil sections were used for this research. An attempt has been made in this work to investigate the effect of ribs and spar elements in response to applied load. Three possible modeling alternatives were studied to predict the actual induced stress and deformation of the blade: Model I is by considering the blade shell part only, Model II is blade shell with 25 numbers of ribs and without the spar element and Model III is blade shell with 25 numbers of ribs and with spar element. The rotor blade was sized based on single seat open frame and high-wind-start gyrocopter. Structural static analysis has been carried out to evaluate the strength of composite rotor blade using ANSYS Workbench 15. The results show that among these three proposed models; Model III had registered minimum Von Mises stress and deformation. Also the result reveals that by considering ribs and spar element during analysis of gyrocopter blade is crucial because, it will help to know the actual induced stress and deformation. The predicted value of induced stress and deformation is closer to the actual values will help the designer not to overdesign the parts. Consequently, the main drawbacks related to overdesign increase in weight and cost will be minimized; thereby the product operational efficiency will be improved.

Open access

Ondrej Beňuš

Abstract

New Member States have been part of the Single market since joining the European Union in 2004. This step brought various challenges in each of these countries because of appreciable difference in competitiveness compared to old EU Member States. This article puts to the test the competitiveness of the Czech meat industry. This is one of the most important parts of the agri-food production, which is still a very important part of regional economics in less developed regions. Thus, it represents cultural heritage of the countryside. The main aim is to investigate specific branches of the Czech meat industry according to their competitiveness on the Single market. In the article, we make conclusion on different states of the competitiveness of three main branches of the Czech meat industry, which represents 85.6% of the overall meat export. Conducted research provided information on positive change in the export during the observed period of time, but the comparison of absolute export and import numbers did not refer to a positive development of the Czech meat industry. Furthermore, we observed tendency to locate meat production near local markets and in developed regions.

Open access

Janusz Kudła, Katarzyna Kopczewska, Agata Kocia, Robert Kruszewski and Konrad Walczyk

Abstract

To finance public expenditure a government needs to raise revenue, which mainly comes from taxes and borrowings. During a financial crisis, however, financing of budget deficit is particularly difficult because of a rise in debt servicing costs that crowd out other expenses and raise the concern for government solvency. In extreme cases, governments are constrained to tax, as borrowing opportunities are strictly limited or unavailable. Still, governments can choose from tax menu options (income and consumption taxes), given the flexibility of the tax mix. This article presents a long-term dynamic model of fiscal solvency that shows the equilibrium the revenue maximising government can obtain with reasonable tax rates when capital income can be shifted and there are constraints on the consumption tax. Specifically, the solution predicts a positive level of bonds in the long-term equilibrium and the tax rates dependent positively on the abundance of the tax bases.

Open access

Joachim Scheiner

Zusammenfassung

Die Mobilität von Kindern hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren zu einem kaum noch überschaubaren Forschungsfeld entwickelt, in dem Deutschland jedoch bemerkenswert still bleibt. Die Motivationen für die Forschungen liegen vor allem in der Zunahme des Mitfahrens im Pkw auf Kosten der nichtmotorisierten und/oder selbstständigen Mobilität der Kinder. Dies hat negative Folgen für die Gesundheit und Entwicklung der Kinder und ist unter anderem mit Problemen der Verkehrssicherheit und des Umweltschutzes verbunden. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über das Forschungsfeld. Er diskutiert Schwerpunkte der Forschung, Methoden und Einflussfaktoren der Mobilität von Kindern. Darüber hinaus diskutiert er die – eher spärliche – praxisorientierte Literatur und zeigt Wege auf, wie die nichtmotorisierte und selbstständige Mobilität von Kindern gefördert werden kann.

Open access

Anna Growe and Tim Freytag

Abstract

The principles of sustainability are currently applied in Germany and many other countries as important guidelines for urban development. However, different forms of understanding regarding sustainable development and different approaches concerning its implementation can be found in various spatial contexts. This paper focuses on Freiburg, Heidelberg and Tübingen, three cities in southwestern Germany. These cities produce different images due to ambitious urban development plans which are based on the three pillars of ecological, economic and social sustainability in different ways. Numerous similarities between these three cities notwithstanding, they highlight different aspects of sustainable urban development and emphasise them via particularly widespread awareness of ‘showcase projects’. For Freiburg, this includes Vauban and Rieselfeld, for Heidelberg Bahnstadt, and for Tübingen Französisches Viertel and Loretto. The central questions in this paper are therefore: How do images and the implementation of sustainability differ with regard to the three pillars of sustainability? How can differences and similarities with regard to the three pillars of sustainability be explained and what consequences can be drawn for future studies in sustainable urban development? Following a classification of research perspectives on sustainable urban development, distinguishing between more practically oriented aspects, on the one hand, and theory-based critical considerations, on the other, this article examines showcase projects from the three selected cities on the basis of planning documents, websites, local newspapers and academic literature. Moreover, further projects are taken into consideration. The paper concludes with general observations and discussions concerning the image and implementation of sustainable urban development.