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Open access

O. P. Kurnosova, M. V. Arisov and I. M. Odoyevskaya

Summary

A study screening pet animals (dogs, cats, chinchillas, ferrets, guinea pigs, rabbits, primates, reptiles, and hedgehogs) within Moscow city limits for intestinal parasitic diseases has been conducted over a period of 6 years. According to the study, parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoa are found in pet animals more frequently than by intestinal helminths. Although dogs and cats exhibit the highest level of diversity of intestinal parasite species, in the group of exotic animals, helminth infection are found much less frequently and parasitic fauna is represented mostly by intestinal protozoa with a high percentage of mixed infection. The most widespread helminth infeсtion of dogs and cats is toxocarosis (respectively 2.5 and 5.7 %) and the most widespread protozoan infection is Giardia sp. (9.8 and 4.6 %). Giardia sp. was found in 47.4 % of chinchillas, Cryptosporidium sp. was more frequently found in ferrets (6.55 %), protozoa from the family Trichomonadida was found in guinea pigs (9 %), Eimeria sp. in rabbits (13.9 %), Acanthocephala in primates (15.7 %), and eggs from the generaOxyurida (59 %), along with protozoa from the family Trichomonadida, in reptiles. Capillaria sp. was most prevalent in hedgehogs (33.4 %). Acanthocephala eggs, as well as protozoa from the Giardia and Entamoeba genera, were more frequently found in primates. Parasites common to animals and humans, which may become a source of infection for the latter under certain conditions, have been identified in pet animals.

Open access

Stanislav S. Dushkin, Serhii Martynov and Stanislav S. Dushkin

Abstract

In this paper we studied the intensification of the water clarification process on contact clarifiers with quartz sand filtering bed, which was modified with a solution of aluminum sulphate coagulant. The modification of the quartz sand filtering bed was carried out by applying to the surface of grains of quartz sand solution of coagulant aluminum sulphate with different doses. Investigation of the electrokinetic potential of the filtering material (quartz sand) was carried out by the percolation potential method.

The influence of electrical properties (size and sign of the charge) of the filtering bed itself and suspended solids in the water on the filtration process was studied. The filter material – quartz sand used in contact clarifiers has a negative electric charge. When the electric charge of the particles decreases, that is, as the ζ-potential decreases, the repulsive forces decrease and it the adhesion of particles becomes possible. This is the process of coagulation of the colloid. The forces of mutual gravity between the colloidal particles begin to predominate over the electric repulsive forces at the ζ-potential of the system less than 0.03 V.

Modification of quarts filtering bed with a solution of coagulant aluminum sulphate recommended for the purification of surface water allows: to intensify the process of water clarification, to reduce the consumption of reagents by 25–30%, with the obtaining purified water of the required quality, to reduce the production areas necessary for reagent management of treatment facilities, and to reduce the cost of water treatment by 20–25%.

Open access

Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk

Abstract

Institutional support, reflected not only in legislative solutions, but also in external funding as a means of financial support, is of strategic importance for the success of new power investments, the guarantee of energy security of individual areas, and the socio-economic development of the region where new energy enterprises are located. The present study aims to follow the external funding of biogas investments carried out in Poland, both in the aspect of legal regulations, and the offered co-financing of biogas projects. Considering that biogas enterprises are located and operate in specific places and local systems, the present research problem is tackled from the perspective of the functioning of biogas plants in the local environment. The success of biogas projects and the entire energy transformation process depends, on the one hand, on the harmonisation of activities at the central, national level and, on the other hand, on taking into account the specific socio-economic features that characterise the location of the biogas plant. Therefore, providing comprehensive institutional support for investment for biogas enterprises requires equipping local institutions, including local authorities, with appropriate instruments to shape and monitor the agricultural biogas market at the local level.

Open access

Anna Kołodziejczak

Abstract

Article describes access to tourist information and the consistency of tourist offers with this kind of information for people with disabilities. The conception of accessible tourism was presented as well as the model of tourist information availability with the demonstration of technology applied to ensure objective information about all services so as people with disabilities could evaluate the scope of accessibility according to their personal needs. Based on the analysis of information systems found on Internet tourist portals what is presented is the scope of information availability from the point of view of people with disabilities. These information systems largely contribute to the development of accessible tourism. In Poland, the issue of implementing the assumption of accessible tourism, including the availability of a coherent information system is an important challenge that requires integrated systemic activities of many entities.

Open access

Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Sylwester Smoroń and Marek Kopacz

Abstract

Research was conducted in selected points of the Szreniawa River basin (area 712 km2) located in the Miechowska Upland and the Proszowice Plateau. In the years 2016–2017 water samples from the Szreniawa River were taken monthly and the concentration of suspended solids was determined by filtration. The concentration of biogenic components NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P was determined by a colorimetric method, using an automatic flow analyser. The average concentration of suspended solids ranged from 192 to 390 mg·dm−3 (with minimum values of 5–20 mg·dm−3 and maximum 837–3937 mg·dm−3) at individual points. There was an upward trend between the content of suspended solids and the concentration of biogenic components. An extremely high concentration of suspended solids happened during storm-like precipitation at the end of June 2017 and amounted to 3937.2 mg·dm−3. The concentration of biogenic components was also highest in this period and amounted to 2.50 mg·dm−3 of NO3-N, 0.49 mg·dm−3 of NH4-N and 1.18 mg·dm−3 of PO4-P. At low precipitation the concentration of suspended solids was also low (5.0 mg·dm−3). A similar pattern was observed for the concentration of biogenic components which was 0.39 mg·dm−3 of NO3-N, 0.17 mg·dm−3 of PO4-P and 0.08 mg·dm−3 of NH4-N.

Open access

D. M. Amorim and R. W. Ávila

Summary

Climatic and ecological factors can influence the parasite load of a host. Variation in rainfall, body size, and sex of the hosts may be related to the abundance of parasites. This study investigated the helminth fauna associated with a population of Norops brasiliensis, together with the effect of host biology (sex, body size, and mass) and variation in rainfall regime on the abundance of helminths. Species of three groups of endoparasites were found (Nematoda, Cestoda, and Trematoda), with nematodes as the most representative taxa with eight species, prevalence of 63.2 %, mean intensity of 4.0 ± 0.58 (1 – 25), and mean abundance of 2.66 ± 0.44 (0 – 25). Nine helminth species are new host records for N. brasiliensis. The nematode Rhabdias sp. had the highest prevalence (53.3 %). There was no significant relationship between abundance of the trematode Mesocoelium monas and host sex or season, although the abundance of this parasite increased significantly with host body size and mass, while abundance of nematodes was related to season and host mass. This study increases the knowledge about the diversity of helminth fauna associated with N. brasiliensis, revealing infection levels of hosts from northeastern Brazil.

Open access

Katarzyna Wilpiszewska

Abstract

The hydrophilic films based on starch and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) were obtained using cast method. The effect of CMS content on the physicochemical properties of prepared films were evaluated. With increasing content of starch derivative the moisture absorption, solubility in water as well as swelling ratio increased. The highest values of mechanical parameters (tensile strength and Young’s modulus) were determined for the starch/CMS film containing the lowest CMS amount, i.e. 10 wt.% (1.1 MPa, 15 MPa, respectively). For the same system the lowest moisture absorption, solubility in water as well as swelling ratio were reported. Thus, it could be concluded that for this system the highest crosslinking density has been achieved, what was confirmed by DMTA results. Such a film could potentially find application in food or agricultural industry.

Open access

Katarzyna Wasilewska and Katarzyna Winnicka

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a tendency toward creating innovative, easy to use and patient-friendly drug delivery systems suitable for every consumer profile, which would ensure safety, stability and acceptability of a drug. One of the relatively novel and promising approaches is the manufacture of orodispersible films (ODFs), which is an upcoming area of interest in drug delivery. They are defined as polymer thin films that disintegrate in the oral cavity within seconds, without drinking water or chewing, and eliminate the risk of choking. Gaining special usefulness in therapies of children and the elderly, ODFs seem to fill the gap in the range of preparations available for these groups of patients. As no detailed monography of ODFs including testing methods and uniform requirements has been presented in any of the pharmacopoeias to date, the aim of this article is to give an overview of the applied testing methods, their modifications and innovative approaches related to ODF quality assessment.

Open access

F. Moravec, A. Chaudhary and H. S. Singh

Summary

A new nematode species, Heliconema monopteri n. sp. (Physalopteridae), is described from the stomach and intestine of the freshwater fish Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton) (Synbranchidae) in Bijnor district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is mainly characterized by the lengths of spicules (468 – 510 µm and 186 – 225 µm), the postequatorial vulva without elevated lips, the presence of pseudolabial lateroterminal depressions and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. This is the first representative of the genus reported from a synbranchiform fish. Another new congeneric species, Heliconema pisodonophidis n. sp. is established based on a re-examination of nematodes previously reported as H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1922) from Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Ophichthidae) in Thailand; ovoviviparity in this species is a unique feature among all physalopterids. Heliconema hamiltonii Bilqees et Khanum, 1970 is designated as a species dubia and the nematodes previously reported as H. longissimum from Mastacembelus armatus (Lacépède) in India are considered to belong to H. kherai Gupta et Duggal, 1989. A key to species of Heliconema Travassos, 1919 is provided.

Open access

Hyun Ah Kim and Seung Jin Kim

Abstract

This study examined the heat storage and release characteristics of ZrC-imbedded woven fabrics by light emission and thermal manikin experiments. The surface temperature of the ZrC-imbedded fabric was higher than that of the regular PET fabric. Furthermore, the Clo values of both the total and torso of the ZrC-imbedded fabric by the thermal manikin experiment were higher than those of the regular PET fabric, which suggests that the heat release is caused by far infrared rays emitted from the ZrC particles imbedded in the yarns as they receive light. This was confirmed by the higher emissivity and emissive power of the ZrC-imbedded fabric. However, the tactile hand of the ZrC-imbedded fabric needs to be improved by adjusting the structural parameters of the fabric and finishing process factors.