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Open access

Ning Ma, Xin Li, Hong-bin Wang, Li Gao and Jian-hua Xiao

Abstract

Introduction: Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain.

Material and Methods: A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR.

Results: XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas.

Conclusion: XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.

Open access

Ewelina Pyzik, Agnieszka Marek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz S. Jarosz and Izabella Jagiełło-Podębska

Abstract

Introduction: The study sought to characterise antimicrobial resistance among coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species recovered from broiler chickens and turkeys in Poland including the presence of 12 antimicrobial resistance genes and five classical genes of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

Material and Methods: A panel of 11 antimicrobial disks evaluated the phenotypic sensitivity of the tested strains to antibiotics. Five multiplex PCR assays were performed using primer pairs for specific detection of antibiotic resistance genes and staphylococcal enterotoxin A to E genes.

Results: Selected antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing revealed 100% of such in in vitro conditions to cefoxitin among strains of Staphylococcus sciuri and S. chromogenes. The blaZ (for ß-lactam) and mecA (for methicillin resistance) genes were in 58.3% and 27.5% of strains, respectively. Among genes resistant to tetracyclines, tetK was most frequent. Fewer (CNS) strains showed genes resistant to macrolides, lincosamides, and florfenicol/chloramphenicol. Multiplex PCR for classical enterotoxins (A-E) detected the see gene in two S. hominis strains, while the seb gene producing enterotoxin B was found in one strain of S. epidermidis. Conclusion: CNS strains of Staphylococcus isolated from poultry were either phenotypically or genotypically multidrug resistant. Testing for the presence of the five classical enterotoxin genes showed that CNS strains, as in the case of S. aureus strains, can be a source of food intoxications.

Open access

Jakub Gryz and Dagny Krauze-Gryz

Abstract

Long-term monitoring of raptor populations can serve as a proxy for the evaluation of whole ecosystem health. The aim of the study was to compare the current abundance of the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus L. with data from past decades. Additionally, we examined the diet of this species in the breeding season and recorded the number of fledglings. The study area encompassed 105 km2 of field and forest mosaic, located in the vicinity of the Rogów village (51°49'17,98''N, 19°53'54,5''E). Forests covered approximately 24% of the area and formed eight individual complexes ranging in size from 65 ha to 1000 ha. In the years 2011–2017, an average of 20.1 sparrowhawk pairs were recorded resulting in a population density of 19.1 pairs per 100 km2 of total area and 8.2/10 km2 of forested area. This is an increase of 26% compared to the years 2001–2003, when only 16 pairs nested in the same study area. Each successful pair of sparrowhawk produced between one and five fledglings with the average being 3.4. Larch Larix spp. and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. dominated as nesting trees accounting for 36.9 and 35.9% of nesting sites respectively. The average age of the nesting trees was 31 years and nests were built at an average height of 11.7 m. The sparrowhawk diet was dominated by birds, which amounted to 81.5% of prey items and over 95% of the consumed biomass. Among the birds identified to the species level, the domestic pigeon Columba livia f. domestica Gm. constituted the biggest share in biomass. Further important prey items were starling Sturnus vulgaris L., with 5.6% of prey items and 9.8% of the total biomass, and hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.), with 6.3% of prey items and 7.6% of the total biomass. Sparrowhawks also consumed significant numbers of thrush Turdus spp. that formed in total over 11% of the total consumed biomass. It would appear that the observed population growth was a result of prohibited persecution and the ban on DDT usage in agriculture.

Open access

Diego Gabriel Krivochen

Abstract

In this paper, we will motivate the application of specific rules of inference from the propositional calculus to natural language sentences. Specifically, we will analyse De Morgan’s laws, which pertain to the interaction of two central topics in syntactic research: negation and coordination. We will argue that the applicability of De Morgan’s laws to natural language structures can be derived from independently motivated operations of grammar and principles restricting the application of these operations. This has direct empirical consequences for the hypothesised relations between natural language and logic.

Open access

Mihaela Ioana Maris, Sorin Ursoniu, Danina Mirela Muntean, Sorin Olariu and Daniela Radu

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to compare the costs of three noninvasive diagnostic investigations as the initial tests in peripheral artery disease management in Romania.

A cost analysis of three imaging diagnostic tests was performed at the university hospital in Timișoara, Romania. The tests were as follows: arterial Duplex Ultrasound Scanning, Computed Tomography Angiography, and Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography. The evaluation of the diagnostic test performance was performed together with the calculation of the real costs of each investigation. Finally, an economic evaluation of different diagnostic tests was done.

A number of 46 patients (36 male and 10 female) were included in the study. The selected patients have been subjected to a total number of 61 diagnostic tests prior to the therapeutic decision. Both in terms of sensitivity and specificity, Duplex Ultrasound Scanning and Computed Tomography Angiography showed little difference in our study. The cost analysis results showed a net economic advantage if Duplex Ultrasound Scanning is applied as a diagnostic method under conditions of obtaining a similar effect.

In conclusion, Duplex Ultrasound Scanning is accurate, safe, and cost-effective in designing the final therapeutic plan in peripheral artery disease (PAD), especially in the femoropopliteal segment.

Open access

Jacek Leśnikowski and Paweł Kubiak

Abstract

The paper presents studies over the changes in the characteristic impedance of selected type of textile signal lines (TSLs) during mechanical loads. The article describes the construction of tested lines, the measurement method, and statistical analysis of the collected results.

Open access

Minoru Yatu, Mitsuhiro Sato, Jin Kobayashi, Toshihiro Ichijyo, Hiroshi Satoh, Toshinori Oikawa and Shigeru Sato

Abstract

Introduction: Breeding profiles at the periparturient stage in red foxes which mated naturally or were subjected to artificial insemination were retrospectively surveyed using 130 vixens during their reproductive seasons of 2012–2017 in Japan.

Material and Methods: Natural mating vixens were encouraged a maximum of three times with the same male, while artificial insemination was conducted using frozen-thawed semen with the bovine semen extender as a diluent.

Results: With natural mating, conception rates after one, two, and three copulations were 55.8%, 68.0%, and 85.7%, respectively, showing a significant difference between the rates for one and three copulations. Conception rates with artificial insemination were 82.4%. Mean gestation periods were between 52.1 and 53.3 days in all groups. Mean litter sizes were 3.7–4.3 cubs with natural mating, and 4.4 cubs with artificial insemination. Although some sporadic and inconsistent changes in litter sizes were noted between primiparous and multiparous groups, these were of doubtful clinical importance.

Conclusion: This is the first report from Japan concerning basic breeding events of red fox vixens in captivity.

Open access

Joanna Pajdak-Czaus, Elżbieta Terech-Majewska, Dagmara Będłowicz, Martyn Mązyński, Wioletta Krstkiewicz and Sebastian Łabuć

Abstract

Introduction: The thyroid and parathyroid glands play a major role in maintaining physiological homeostasis in all vertebrates. Reptiles have plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones far lower than mammals. Low levels of these hormones in reptiles impede thyroid hormone detection with assays designed for the higher levels of mammals. The aim of this study was to explore teaming this with ultrasound imaging of the thyroid to appraise glandular function.

Material and Methods: Thyroid function of four pond sliders was evaluated based on the results of T4 analyses and ultrasound.

Results: The concentrations of T4 varied considerably between the examined animals from <9 nmol/L to >167.3 nmol/L. Ultrasound examination revealed uniform echogenicity and a smooth outline of the thyroid gland in all animals.

Conclusion: monitoring of thyroid function based on T4 and electrolyte concentrations is helpful in assessing the health and living conditions of reptiles, which is important in veterinary practice but problematic. Ultrasound examinations are useful in diagnosing changes in gland structure, such as tumours and goitres, and a combination of both methods supports comprehensive assessments of the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland.

Open access

Herbert Djiambou-Nganjeu

Abstract

Our aim was to explore the relationship between liver cirrhosis (LC), portal hypertension (PH), and diabetes mellitus (DM). LC displayed hemodynamic alterations reflected by signs and symptoms of hypertension and hyperdynamic circulation. Portal hypertension also caused splenomegaly because of the blood flow into the spleen from the portal vessels and portal flow. The alcoholic cirrhosis displayed abnormal values (AST, ALT, AST/ALT, albumin, ammonia, bilirubin, blood platelet, erythrocytes, glucose, Hb, international normalized ratio (INR), PT, prothrombin index (PI), thymol test, white blood cell (WBC) count), which demonstrated the presence of portal hypertension, ascites, DM, infection, and coagulopathy. The evaluation of liver enzymes and other laboratories data helped to determine the severity of the condition and prognosis. Diabetes appeared to be less affecting the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis than LC itself, showing that hepatocellular failure was largely responsible for patients’ mortality rather than diabetes and its complications. Patients displayed a BMI correlating obesity, although affected by concomitant diseases that commonly cause a severe weight loss. The elevated BMI in this case was accentuated by the presence of ascitic fluid, which is responsible for the increase in weight and the inaccurate BMI evaluation. Ascites affect patients’ recovery from liver diseases. Obese patients with cirrhosis can be related to have a large amount of ascites and that physicians should be expecting to notice changes in their BMI pre- and postoperatively, subsequently making a prior classification as obese inappropriate. Disease severity could be assessed through the evaluation of PH stage, which was characterized by a significant depletion of WBC and as well as platelet counts.

Open access

Darja Kanduc

Abstract

Autoantibodies (AAbs) against von Willebrand factor (vWF)-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 causally relate to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). How anti-ADAMTS13 AAbs are generated is unknown. Starting from reports according to which influenza infection can trigger TTP by the production of ADAMTS13 AAbs, this study explores influenza viruses and ADAMTS13 protein for common peptide sequences that might underlie anti-influenza immune responses able to cross-react with ADAMTS13. Results document that numerous peptides are shared between influenza A and B viruses and ADAMTS13, thus supporting the hypothesis of cross-reactivity as a mechanism driving the generation of anti-ADAMTS13 AAbs.