The so-called ‘moral reorientation’ (Dutch: ‘morele heroriëntatie’) was a large-scale Dutch project, aimed at an improvement of ethical standards of society in the 18th century. It was also a reaction to the decay of the Dutch Republic reflected in the literature at the end of the 18th century. Using magazines, drama’s and novels, authors provided example of a right behaviour and criticized all those phenomena, which led to a moral malaise in society. One of these phenomena was a boundless love for France, its culture, fashion, literature and philosophy. In literature it was presented as a grave danger for Dutch identity. The term ‘francophilia’ was invented.
Also two Dutch female writers, Betje Wolff and Aagje Deken reacted on the dangerous symptoms of the ‘francophilia’ and warned against it in their novel Sara Burgerhart (1782). In my article I discuss some rhetorical devices, used by the authors to warn against the ‘francophilia.’ I analyse how they defined and further criticized this phenomenon.
The Cor Iesu amanti sacrum, a series of engravings made by Anton II Wierix around the year 1600, became one of the most important series of religious emblems from the 17th and 18th centuries. The engravings’ printed reception is well known: there are numerous graphical copies, as well as books written on the basis of the emblems, starting with the work by the French Jesuit Étienne Luzvic, entitled Le cœur devot throsne royal de Iesus pacifique Salomon, from 1626. The article discusses the handwritten reception of the series, which until now has remained virtually uninvestigated. The authors analyze five works of literature, preserved in Polish and Netherlandish 17th-century manuscripts and inspired by the engravings from the Cor Iesu amanti sacrum: Het herte Jesu by an anonymous Netherlandish protestant (a manuscript from Tilburg), Opofferingh van het herte aan den Bruijdegom Iesus Christus by the Netherlandish scientist and doctor Jan Swammerdam (a manuscript from Ghent), and three untitled Polish versions: a poetical collection by the Jesuit Mikołaj Mieleszko, dedicated to the Duchess Katarzyna Radziwiłł in 1657 (a manuscript from Saint-Petersburg) and two different works preserved in monastic libraries (manuscripts from Imbramowice and Stary Sącz).
Polish language contains hundreds of loan words from Dutch. They are rooted so firmly that they are capable of creating new words. This article presents the most common word-formation phenomena involving Dutch loan words. It also highlights their ability to form phrasemes and transfer meanings.
Although in the early-modern period The Hague was not officially a city, its identity was based on specifically urban features. During the 17th and 18th century, its ambiguous status was explored by the authors of verse urban encomia and prose descriptiones urbium. In this article, the presentation of The Hague will be first discussed on the example of Caspar Barlaeus’ Latin poem “Haga”, and Constantijn Huygens’ Dutch encomium “’s Gravenhage” from the Dorpen [Villages] cycle of epigrams. Then, the image of The Hague will be examined in the context of an allegorical representation by Jan Caspar Philips in Jacob de Riemer’s Beschryving van ‘s Graven-hage [Description of The Hague, 1730]. The concluding remarks address the question of how the transformation of the status of The Hague undertaken by these writers and artists may be understood in the context of the literary-historical geography of the Northern Renaissance which has been a special subject of research by Professor Andrzej Borowski.
In 2011 a discovery was made at the Department of Prints and Drawings of the National Museum in Warsaw - a drawing hitherto described as a Kneeling knight by an anonymous seventeenth-century artist, turned out to be Joan of Arc, a sketch well-known to art historians studying the oeuvre of Peter Paul Rubens, although thought to be lost during the Second World War. The drawing, until now known only through the black and white photograph, could be thoroughly analysed for the first time. In the context of information thus obtained, the historical context of creating the sketch transpired as an equally important matter, including the hypothetical role that may have been played in its creation by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc.
The history of Dutch tiles started in the sixteenth century Antwerp in the workshops of the Italian potters who had settled in the city upon the Scheldt. Due to the political and social factors (i.e. huge wave of refugees during the Dutch Revolt), tile production was moved to the Northern Netherlands, where it was fully developed and the offer of the Republic’s tile works began to enjoy greatest fame and a huge commercial success all over Europe. The given article deals mostly with Dutch tiles representing the biblical scenes (bijbeltegels) and discusses their numerous contexts, such as confessional and social background, iconographical origin of their designs (engravings, illustrated Bibles, stencils), the taste and status of the potential buyers. Moreover, the artistic and cultural phenomenon of Dutch biblical tiles has been interpreted in terms of a much wider tradition, namely the ‘biblicisation’ of everyday life in the Dutch Republic and its interiors. Finally, the issue of Dutch tiles, being the symbols of the national cultural tradition, has been brought up.
The present article is a close reading of the libretto of the first opera (drama musicale) staged in the Netherlands, in Brussels in 1650. The main point of interest is Ascanio Amalteo’s transformation or even breakaway from the classical tradition (esp. Homer and Ovid) to create a work with its own message, quite distant from classical texts but, paradoxically, approaching moral and psychological categories in Neo-Stoic mode. Perhaps it is not by chance that a parallel piece, Calderon’s second play on Circe (after the fiesta entitled El mayor encanto, amor, 1635), i.e. the auto sacramentale entitled Los encantos de la culpa (ca. 1650), is also a significant transformation of the motive done in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. Both plays are the last allegorical interpretations of Circe myth and for the next two-hundred years the last important literary works about Ulysses.
The second half of the 16th century is regarded as the decisive moment in the history of the Low Countries. The politics of religious intolerance and financial oppression practiced by the Habsburg governors resulted in protests and, finally, in the open revolt of the Provinces under the leadership of the princes of Orange and Nassau. The aim of this work is to follow and reconstruct the ideas of political thought accompanying the events leading to the rise of a new state. In the dicussed state forming process the main emphasis was put on the issues of freedom, states, and sovereignty, as well as on the concept of the possibility of dismissing the obedience inherited from the medieval privileges. These concepts and terms created a special sort of dictionary of the Dutch political thought.
Professor Andrzej Borowski from the Jagiellonian University, whose 70th anniversary we celebrate this year, is a very well known scholar and literature historian, specialised in Old Polish Literature (Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque) - and with a background from Classical studies. A lesser known fact is that he also is a scholar active in the field of the Netherlandish (Dutch and Flemish) literature and culture: as author of numerous books and articles about (South) Netherlandish figures from the 16th and 17th century, as supervisor of numerous dissertations or habilitations in the field of the Netherlandish literature and as an inspiring personality in the field of the Netherlandish studies at Polish universities. He can indeed be seen as the Spiritus Litterarum Neerlandicorum in Poland.
At the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s the South African poet Breyten Breytenbach had poetry and drawings published in the leading literary magazine Raster. The editor in charge at the time, H.C. ten Berge, gave the experimental writer and socially engaged Sestiger (the literary modernizing movement in South Africa in the sixties) pride of place in the line-ups of the Dutch modernist periodical. In the seventies, Ten Berge contributed to Vingermaan (1980), a collection of poems by Dutch writers (Lucebert, Kopland, Kouwenaar, Schierbeek) in support of the anti-apartheid activist. From 1975 Breytenbach was imprisoned in South Africa for political reasons. He served seven years of a nine year sentence. At that time, in the eighties, the Netherlands organized a cultural and economical boycott against the racist regime in Pretoria. Later on, Ten Berge presented his own poems dedicated to Breytenbach in his book of poetry Nieuwe gedichten (1981) and in the collection Materia prima: Gedichten 1963-1993 (1993). Before and during the imprisonment of Breytenbach Ten Berge played an important role in the introduction of the writer in the Low Countries. From a cultural-sociological point of view Breytenbach’s presence in the Dutch language area can be described, in the terminology of Francoise Lionnet and Shu-mei Shih and later on used by Louise Viljoen, as a transnational lateral movement in his writing career. This paper deals with the cultural transmission of an important political and experimental author in the literary system of Afrikaans and English in South Africa into the Dutch system. From a bibliographical viewpoint this paper affords special attention to the publication of Breytenbach’s volume of poetry in Skryt: Om ’n sinkende skip blou te verf ( 1976), Vingermaan (1980) and Nieuwe gedichten ( 1987). Ten Berge played an important role in the introduction of Breytenbach to the Low Countries in the way he presented the author’s political and aesthetic ideas to a Dutch-speaking audience.