Katarzyna Pawęska, Aleksandra Bawiec and Krzysztof Pulikowski
Treatment of wastewater produced in Service Areas (SA) located on expressways and highways is a worldwide problem because of increasing amount of roads and specific composition of those kinds of sewage. Insufficient removal of pollutants from wastewater discharged into surface water may cause serious environmental problems. In the present study efficiency of treatment of wastewater with high ammonium concentration in biological membrane system used on SA was investigated. Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater flowing into bioreactor in none of the tested objects did not fall below 99.0 mg of N-NH4·dm−3. Because of high ammonium content in sewage and high pH reaching value about 9, it is almost impossible to create favorable conditions for microorganisms that run purification processes resulting in low efficiency of phosphorus and nitrogen removal (reduction of biogenic compounds did not exceed 15%). Treatment of wastewater consisting mainly of urine with commonly used biological membrane technology has to be widely tested to perform suitable quality of discharged wastewater, to provide safety of surface water environment.
Dorota Brzezińska, Marek Dziubiński and Adam S. Markowski
Despite the fact that LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is used in a large number of cars, tests have not yet been carried out to ascertain how hazardous can be the release of LPG from the car when parked in enclosed garages. The problem applies to both public and industrial parking areas, especially in Poland, where more than 10% cars are fueled by LPG. The paper describes full scale experiments, which demonstrate conditions that may occur in a garage in the event of accidental LPG release from the car installation. Over the course of the tests, a series of six LPG spillage tests were performed to study emission time and flammable cloud formation depending on the accidental gap diameter. Additionally, to enable the visual observation of the gas dispersion and influence of the ventilation system the experiment was conducted using well visible CO2 gas cloud, produced from dry ice. The experiments have shown that without ventilation LPG can accumulate on the floor of the enclosed garage for a long time, which generates a high explosive hazard. However, good ventilation (especially jet fan systems) can quickly remove hazardous flammable LPG clouds. Moreover, very important for effective LPG detection is the location of detectors closer to the floor than is currently recommended - at a height of 30 cm.
The method based on rough set theory (RST) was used in the study to establish the rate of mass accumulation of waste in households in rural areas, which are characterised by different economic types, in case of which traditional statistical analyses are usually hardy reliable. The following indicators available in the General Statistical Office’s statistics were used in the analysis: population density, income level, main source of income, economic type of the municipality, area of agricultural land, age of the buildings and participation of gaseous fuels in meeting heat demands. The method shown should not be considered as a competition for statistical methods, but it could complement them, especially in cases when there are few objects to analyse, the more so as it proves useful in cases where input data are general, imprecise and uncertain. As has been shown in the study, with such data and a small number of objects, the relative error of estimation was 13% on average.
The CO2 absorption process using aqueous amine solutions has been the most promising technique used for the removal of CO2 from gas streams in energy sector. In recent years, many researchers tested solutions which are composed of several compounds: a slow reacting tertiary amine- and a fast amine acting as an activator. In this paper, the CO2 absorption rate in an aqueous solution of N,N-diethylethanoloamine (DEEA) and activated solutions DEEA is investigated experimentally. The activators considered are sterically hindered amines: 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (AMPD) and N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine (MAPA) from the group of polyamines. The experiments were conducted over the temperature range of 303-333 K and the total amine concentration of 2 M. From the CO2 absorption experiments into mixed aqueous solutions of DEEA and MAPA, it was found that the addition of small amounts of MAPA into aqueous DEEA solutions has a significant effect on the enhancement of the CO2 absorption rate. The application of hindered amines: AMP or AMP as activators resulted in a marginally improvement of the absorption rate of CO2.
Energy willow as a species with broad adaptation possibilities, large production capacity and a wide range of applications, takes a special place among the plants grown for energy production. In this work an analysis was conducted in respect of the usefulness of this type of wood from experimental plantations as a clean source of energy generated in the combustion process. The heat of combustion and net calorific value of dry matter of energy willow wood, including selected sorts and classes of thickness were determined. Energy willow has a natural ability to accumulate heavy metals which are oxidized during the combustion process or remain in the ash, and consequently repollute the environment. In order to determine the environmental impact the content of heavy metals was examined in energy willow wood and in the soil of the experimental plantation. Metal concentrations were determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method (AAS). Results of the tests confirmed a close relationship between the heat of combustion, calorific value and wood thickness as well as its location in the tree structure. Furthermore, very large differences were found in the content of heavy metals in the samples of both willow wood and soil. The levels of heavy metal content in the wood of energy willow determine the agricultural use of ashes produced during combustion.
Artur Pawłowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska and Lucjan Pawłowski
Carbon dioxide fluxes between ecosystems of the Earth are presented. It was shown that intensifying its absorption of terrestrial ecosystems by 3.2% would prove sufficient to neutralize carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production. It was shown that Polish forests absorb 84.6 million tons of CO2/year, that is 26% of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production, while agricultural crops absorb 103 million tons of CO2/year. Total carbon dioxide sequestration by forests and agricultural crops amounts to 187.5 million tons of CO2/year, which is tantamount to 59% of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Forestation of marginal soils would further increase carbon dioxide absorption in Poland by 20.6 million tons of CO2/year. Moreover, if plants were sown in order to produce green manure - instead of leaving soil fallow - sequestration could still be boosted by another 6.2 million tons of CO2/year.
Andrzej Kłos, Zbigniew Ziembik, Małgorzata Rajfur, Agnieszka Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Zbigniew Bochenek, Jarle W. Bjerke, Hans Tømmervik, Bogdan Zagajewski, Dariusz Ziółkowski, Dominik Jerz, Maria Zielińska, Paweł Krems and Piotr Godyń
Heavy metals and radioactive compounds are potentially hazardous substances for plants, animals and humans in the Arctic. A good knowledge of the spatial variation of these substances in soil and primary producers, and their sources, is therefore essential. In the samples of lichen Thamnolia vermicularis, Salix polaris and Cassiope tetragona, and the soil samples collected in 2014 in Svalbard near Longyearbyen, the concentrations of the following heavy metals were determined: Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, as well as the activity concentrations of the following: K-40, Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-212, Bi-212, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ac-228, Th-231 and U-235 in the soil samples. The differences in the concentrations of the analytes accumulated in the different plant species and soil were studied using statistical methods. Sea aerosol was indicated as the source of Pb, Hg, Cs-137, Pb-210 and Th-231 in the studied area. A relatively high concentration of nickel was determined in the biota samples collected near Longyearbyen, compared to other areas of Svalbard. It was supposed that nickel may be released into the atmosphere as a consequence of the local coal mining around Longyearbyen.
Ludmila Vanharova, Marketa Julinova and Roman Slavik
The research deals with biodegradation of films prepared from polyvinylpyrrolidone and polylactic acid (PVP/PLA). Biodegradation of PVP/PLA films was supported by the following additives: 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 1-octyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylamide and N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine according to the previous study. The films were prepared by a solvent casting technique. Biodegradation was observed using the respirometric method in different environments. The films subjected to biodegradation were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the films are substantially degraded, but not in the biological way; PVP was quickly removed in presence of water because of its easy solubility. In contrast, this fact could support biodegradation of PLA, which becomes more available for microorganisms when PVP leaves PLA matrix.
Aneta Spyra, Justyna Kubicka and Małgorzata Strzelec
Recognition of the deteriorating conditions of rivers worldwide has called for increased efforts to improve the ecological quality of impacted river systems. This is particularly important in areas that have suffered from a significant impact of human pressure on the ecological status of water. Field studies were conducted in the Ruda River in an area that had undergone anthropogenic disturbances. The objectives of our survey were to test the biological metrics based on benthic macroinvertebrates at four study sites. Spring and autumn surveys of benthic invertebrates indicated that based on the BMWP and BMWP(PL) indices, water quality was higher in comparison with the value of Multimetric index at all of the sites that were studied. Our results revealed that the water quality was higher at the study sites that are located above the dam reservoir based on both the chemical and biological parameters. This study also indicated that both spring and autumn constitute appropriate periods for carrying out monitoring studies. The values of multimeric index indicated the same water quality (except for site 1) in both sampling periods. Anthropogenic transformations of a riverbed influence the flora and fauna and affect the ecological status of rivers.
Grzegorz Wielgosiński, Robert Cichowicz, Agata Targaszewska and Jacek Wiśniewski
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the new, little more popular in Poland of elements of environmental management. In the world literature one can find many examples of the use of LCA but mainly for comparison purposes. The paper presents results of LCA analysis made on the basis of data from a running incineration of sewage sludge. Performing a thorough analysis of this process enables improved operational system, including through a better use of the resulting products of combustion, as well as determining the impact of the thermal treatment of sludge on the environment and compared the results with data from the literature. To date, in Poland has not been carried out environmental impact assessments and the process of thermal treatment of both sludge and waste, based on the assumptions of LCA.