Severe acute pancreatitis occurs in 15–25% of all patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), and has a dismal prognosis. Recognition of severe AP risk factors could provide identification and resuscitation of patients with impending severe course of disease. Our study aim was to analyse body composition, measured by computed tomography (CT) scans, in acute pancreatitis patients and its impact on disease severity. The study was a prospective cohort study carried out in the period from January 2015 – April 2016. In total 100 patients underwent CT imaging. Body constitution was analysed by CT examinations using the ImageJ v1.49q standard software. The third lumbar vertebra was selected as the landmark measurement. Muscular, visceral, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue area were measured. Values were normalised for stature to obtain lumbar skeletal muscle and adipose tissue indexes (cm2/m2). Acute pancreatitis severity was determined by Atlanta revised criteria (2012). Among the included patients, moderately severe AP occurred in 83% (83 patients) cases, and severe AP in 17% (17 patients). 38% of the patients had normal weight according to BMI, 33% were overweight 33%, and 28% were obese. Sarcopenia was detected in 51%. Sarcopenia was found in six patients (35%) with severe AP and in 45 patients (54%) with moderately severe AP. General linear model analysis showed that obesity (p value = 0.026) and increased intramuscular fat area (p value = 0.029) had effect on severe AP. In conclusion, body composition analysis showed that adiposity is a risk factor for severe AP, and higher intramuscular fat area seemed to be another risk factor for severe AP.
The objective of this study was to examine the suitability of heat treatment methods on concentrations of bioactive compounds in pumpkin–guelder rose sauce. Berry hybrids 2--30--K, 2--45--K and variety ‘Krasnaya Grozdj’ were selected for further research. The juice of these fruits was used to create pumpkin–guelder rose sauce samples (experimental samples) where the pumpkin puree and guelder rose fruit juice ratio was 74.5 : 13.1. To all samples heat treatment under atmospheric conditions (traditional cooking) and vacuum cooking at 0.6 bar pressure at 85 °C and 0.2 bar pressure at 75 °C temperature was performed. These samples were compared with uncooked experimental samples. Sauce chemical evaluation showed better retention of vitamin C concentrations (per dry weight) for guelder rose variety ‘Krasnaya Grozdj’ sauces cooked at 0.2 bar pressure, compared to fresh samples. Samples that were prepared with vacuum cooking methods on average showed higher total phenol concentration, antiradical activity and total anthocyanins concentration than in control samples cooked under atmospheric conditions. These observations were consistent with reports in the literature on better preservation of bioactive compounds in plant-based products that are cooked under vacuum heat treatment at lower temperatures.
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a globally used vegetable from the Apiacea family. It contains macro and micro elements, as well as various phytochemicals. The aim of the study was to determine concentration of carotenoids and organic acids, phenolic composition and antiradical scavenging activity, and colour changes during steam-blanching (for 1.5 and 3.0 min) and in dried carrots in convective and microwave-vacuum driers. Gravimetric, spectrophotometric, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used for analysis. Carotenoids in fresh carrots were detected in high amounts, which decreased during thermal treatment and drying. The main organic acids in fresh carrots detected in highest amounts were oxalic, tartaric, quinic, malonic, and citric acids. Ascorbic acid concentration decreased minimally with steam processing, but significantly during drying. Fresh carrots contain minimal amounts of total phenolics, which increased during the thermal and drying processes used, while flavonoid, flavonol, flavan-3-ol and phenolic acid concentration decreased. The compound found in highest amounts by HPLC methods were 3.4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3.5-dihydroxybenzoic acids, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin and sinapic acid.
Oxidation of fats and oils reduces the nutritional value of food and causes various health problems. The addition of antioxidants prevents the oxidation of fats in the food. The antioxidant activity of antioxidants represents the ability to inhibit the process of oxidation. The antioxidant activity of herbal extracts has usually been assessed in a linoleic acid emulsion system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate inhibition of conjugated diene formation in Latvian linseed oil. Ethanol extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., vanillin, α-tocopherol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol as additives were compared for their antioxidative activity. The samples of linseed oil with additives were incubated for 24 h at 60 °C and then analysed using UV spectrophotometry (λ = 234 nm). The antioxidant activity of additives was characterised by the percentage of formation of conjugated dienes. The ability of additives to inhibit oxidation in linseed oil decreases as follows: vanillin, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and α-tocopherol. Our results indicate that linseed oil can be used to test antioxidative activity of substances.
The aim of the study was to determine concentrations of 13 macro and trace elements in different barley genotypes depending on the year of growth (2011, 2012, and 2013) and agricultural practice (conventional/organic). Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Al concentrations were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically different concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Zn occurred among genotypes; for Ca, Mn, and Fe concentrations between barley grains, grown conventionally and organically; for Cr and Ni concentrations between hulled and hull-less grain and for Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, K, and Na concentrations among the study years. Concentrations of potentially hazardous elements were low (Cd < 0.005–0.027, Pb 0.013–0.066, Cr 0.111–0.327, Ni 0.161–1.264, Cu 2.8–4.7 and Al 1.62–6.09 mg·kg−1). Barley products can provide necessary macro and trace elements, especially of Mn, Mg, Fe, and Zn (7.8–16.1; 1024–1249; 29.2–52.9, and 20.5–33.7 mg·kg−1, respectively).
This paper presents a comparison of most capable families of distributions for modelling asymmetry. Kum-normal, stable-symmetric normal family and two of the full families were chosen, where the quality of the fit, the flexibility and the amount of asymmetry parameters were factors used for comparison. The objective of this study was to generate data with increasing levels of asymmetry and to choose the best fit. The distributions were also compared in modelling two data sets of pollution of the drinking water in the El-Sharkia governorate in Egypt. Much of this paper is concerned with the distribution theory, exploring the properties of some new recent families of distributions and, where appropriate, extolling their virtues. Relatively, much of this paper is devoted to practical application.
Gastrin-17 (G-17), pepsinogen-1 (Pg1) and pepsinogen-2 (Pg2) reflect the functional state of gastric mucosa and are used for non-invasive diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis. The aim of the study was to clarify if erosive reflux disease (ERD) or non-ERD (NERD) can be distinguished from other dyspeptic conditions in patients, in a non-invasive manner using specific biomarkers. Levels of G-17, Pg1, and Pg2 were measured in 141 ERD patients (median age 48 years, males — 68), 122 NERD patients (median age 45 years, males — 32) and 410 control patients (median age 50 years, males — 97). Levels of biomarkers in ERD and NERD groups were compared to controls. Median levels of G-17 (1.94 vs 2.92 pmol/L, p = 0.036) and Pg2 (6.70 vs 7.79 µg/l, p = 0.046) were lower in the ERD group compared to control patients; no difference with respect to the control was found for the NERD group. After exclusion of the patients having at least one potential condition that might modify the levels of the biomarkers (gastric mucosa atrophy, Helicobacter pylori colonisation), no difference in levels of biomarkers was observed with respect to the control for both the ERD and NERD groups. G-17, Pg1, and Pg2 based tests cannot be used to distinguish ERD or NERD from other dyspeptic conditions in patients.
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterised by transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, papules, and pustules that predominantly involve central regions of the face. Recent studies have shown a possible clinical association between rosacea and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Rosacea and atherosclerosis are both known to have alterations in the innate immune system, enhanced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The aim of this review is to delve deep into the pathogenesis of rosacea and atherosclerosis to uncover possible pathogenic overlaps between these chronic inflammatory diseases.