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Open access

Dejan Simic, Aleksandar Spasic, Mirko Jovanovic, Predrag Maric, Radovan Milosevic and Ivan Srejovic

Abstract

Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) represent a group of drugs that are registered for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions predominantly, but recently also for treatment of pulmonary hypertension and benign prostatic hypertrophy. However, more and more research deals with possible antitumor potential of PDE5Is in different types of cancers, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer represents the one of the most common carcinoma in the male population, whose incidence is continuously increasing. Early detection combined with radical prostatectomy increases the survival rate, but also it is necessary to keep in mind the quality of life of patients undergoing prostatectomy in light of bladder control and erectile function. Authors of various clinical studies presented the results that often lead to totally opposing conclusions. For example, Chavez and colleagues have shown that use of PDE5Is in men with erectile dysfunction decreases the risk of developing prostate cancer, while, on the other hand, Michl and colleagues pointed out the adversely effect of PDE5Is on biochemical recurrence after bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. In that sense, the aim of this review was to present as many as possible of existing results dealing with of action of PDE5Is in the field of prostatic carcinoma. Taking into account all presented data, it can be concluded that eff ect of PDE5Is on formation, development and outcome of treatment in patients with prostate carcinoma is very intriguing question, whose response requires additional both experimental and clinical research.

Open access

Lilia R. Badrutdinova and Olga A. Manerova

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop legal, organizational and economic activities for providing medical rehabilitation on an out-patient basis to patients that have suffered an acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA).. The study included patients who had suffered a CVA and were undergoing medical rehabilitation on an outpatient basis (400 individuals participated in a retrospective study and 400 individuals took part in a sociological survey) and medical rehabilitation specialists providing care on an outpatient basis to patients who had suffered a CVA (n = 50). All included patients received medical rehabilitation in accordance with the Guidelines of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (No: 70). It should be noted that patients who suffered a CVA occupy a central place in the system of medical rehabilitation performed on an out-patient basis. Medical rehabilitation is important for their medical and social characteristics, motivation, environment, adherence to treatment and a healthy lifestyle. In accordance with the above mentioned, the following activities should be planned and implemented: a) work with doctors, b) work with patients; c) work with patients’ relatives; d) organizational aspects, and e) economic aspects. When organizing medical rehabilitation on an outpatient basis, it should be considered as a system of interaction between all participants in the rehabilitation process, in the center of which the patient is located. The main organizational activity for conducting medical rehabilitation in an outpatient setting is the implementation of a comprehensive interaction of all participants in the rehabilitation process.

Open access

Mirosław Ślosarski

Abstract

In this article, we define multi-invertible, multivalued maps. These mappings are a natural generalization of r-maps (in particular, the singlevalued invertible maps). They have many interesting properties and applications. In this article, the multi-invertible maps are applied to the construction of morphisms and to the theory of coincidence.

Open access

Qian Ma, Ke Wang, Shu-Dong Wang, Hong-Wu Chen, Li-Min Jin, Hua Liu and Xiao Qin

Abstract

Three-dimensional angle-interlock woven composites (3DAWCs) are widely used for their excellent mechanical properties. The most significant feature is the existence of the undulated warp yarns along the thickness direction, which makes it interesting to study the mechanical properties in the warp direction. The quasi-static tensile behavior of a layer-to-layer 3DAWC along the undulated warp direction was studied by experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) methods. Based on the experimental results, the typical failure mode involving fibers, resin, and their interfaces was found. According to the FEA results, the stress concentration effect, key structural regions, and microstructural (yarn and resin) damage mechanism were obtained, which provided effective guidance for structural optimization design of the 3DAWC with stronger tensile resistance performance. In addition, the three-step progressive failure process of the 3DAWC under quasi-static tensile load was also described at the “yarn– resin” microstructural level.

Open access

Carla Hertleer, Jeroen Meul, Gilbert De Mey, Simona Vasile, Sheilla A. Odhiambo and Lieva Van Langenhove

Abstract

Electro-conductive (EC) yarns can be woven into a hybrid fabric to enable electrical current to flow through the fabric from one component A to another component B. These hybrid fabrics form the bases of woven e-textiles. However, at the crossing point of an EC yarn in warp and in weft direction, there is a contact resistance and thus generation of heat may occur in this area. Both phenomena are inseparable: if the contact resistance in the EC contact increases, the generated heat will increase as well. Predicting this electrical and thermal behavior of EC contacts in hybrid woven fabrics with stainless steel yarns is possible with a mathematical model based on the behavior of a metal oxide varistor (MOV). This paper will discuss in detail how this can be achieved.

Open access

From Vagabond To Tourist:

Second-Generation Turkish-German Deportees’ Narratives of Self-Healing and Well-being

Nilay Kılınç

Abstract

The paper explores the social integration, well-being and self-healing strategies and outcomes of a sample of second-generation Turkish-Germans who were deported to Turkey due to conviction for youth crimes. Based on the life-story narratives of 14 male participants living and working in the Mediterranean resort of Antalya, I analysed the way in which this tourist city offers spaces for self-discovery and socioeconomic integration, based on profitable work in the tourist economy. Although deportation was a traumatic event, it facilitated possibilities for life transformation – from ‘vagabond’ to ‘tourist’.

Open access

Serge Tchougounnikov

Abstract

German–Austrian psychology is a direct source of the European formalism movement both in the German context (Germany, Austria) as well as in Russia. This interest of the formalists in the corporeal component of linguistic and literary production has resulted in a particular research stream, which could be defined as a ‘linguo-somatic orientation’. In particular, this is the case of Alois Riegl’s [1] perceptive ‘tactile–optical’ method; Adolf von Hildebrand’s [2] architectonic conception; Konrad Fiedler’s [3] ‘sensorial aesthetics’; W. Wölfflin’s [4] ‘basic concepts’ of the art history, W. Worringer’s [5] psychological arts typology as well as Oskar Walzel’s soundcorporeal poetics elaborated during 1920 [6]. Within Russian formalism, psychological notions (such as ‘representation’, ‘sensation’, ‘apperception’, ‘series’, ‘clear and dark zones of consciousness’, ‘verbal gestures’ and ‘sound gestures’) are fundamental in nearly all the formalist conceptions (Viktor Šklovskij, Evgenij Polivanov, Lev Jakubinskij, Osip Brik, Boris Eixenbaum and Jurij Tynianov). This psychological background constitutes a rather heterogeneous constellation composed of psychological aesthetics and psychological linguistics of the second half of the 19th century. Independently of its intrinsic theoretical values, the formalist way of thinking about language and literature is based on the implicit dominance of psychology, which takes its sense only with respect to the German cognitive tradition, appropriated by the Geisteswissenschaften of this time. In this respect, European formalism participates in the large movement of psychologisation of the humanities. To this extent, the case of Russian formalism is really representative: it invites the rethinking of the genealogy of European structuralism in general. This accumulation of conceptual tools borrowed from the German psychological tradition also reveals a cognitive charge of the formalist theories. The latter constitute a conceptual link between the properly psychological past of the European Geisteswissenschaften and the ‘cognitive’ future of the actual research programmes. Beyond the borrowing of conceptual tools from the psychological trend, the formal method has found in psychology its inspiration for producing new models of analysis. This intrinsically cognitivist dimension of the formalist programme explains its late success during the 1950s–1960s, the period often and abusively called the period of the cognitivist revolution. In reality, it deals with the re-emergence of the research programme of the cognitivist sciences, rather exhaustively formulated by the German psychological tradition..

Open access

Ning Ma, Xin Li, Hong-bin Wang, Li Gao and Jian-hua Xiao

Abstract

Introduction: Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain.

Material and Methods: A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR.

Results: XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas.

Conclusion: XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.

Open access

Ewelina Pyzik, Agnieszka Marek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz S. Jarosz and Izabella Jagiełło-Podębska

Abstract

Introduction: The study sought to characterise antimicrobial resistance among coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species recovered from broiler chickens and turkeys in Poland including the presence of 12 antimicrobial resistance genes and five classical genes of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

Material and Methods: A panel of 11 antimicrobial disks evaluated the phenotypic sensitivity of the tested strains to antibiotics. Five multiplex PCR assays were performed using primer pairs for specific detection of antibiotic resistance genes and staphylococcal enterotoxin A to E genes.

Results: Selected antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing revealed 100% of such in in vitro conditions to cefoxitin among strains of Staphylococcus sciuri and S. chromogenes. The blaZ (for ß-lactam) and mecA (for methicillin resistance) genes were in 58.3% and 27.5% of strains, respectively. Among genes resistant to tetracyclines, tetK was most frequent. Fewer (CNS) strains showed genes resistant to macrolides, lincosamides, and florfenicol/chloramphenicol. Multiplex PCR for classical enterotoxins (A-E) detected the see gene in two S. hominis strains, while the seb gene producing enterotoxin B was found in one strain of S. epidermidis. Conclusion: CNS strains of Staphylococcus isolated from poultry were either phenotypically or genotypically multidrug resistant. Testing for the presence of the five classical enterotoxin genes showed that CNS strains, as in the case of S. aureus strains, can be a source of food intoxications.

Open access

Jakub Gryz and Dagny Krauze-Gryz

Abstract

Long-term monitoring of raptor populations can serve as a proxy for the evaluation of whole ecosystem health. The aim of the study was to compare the current abundance of the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus L. with data from past decades. Additionally, we examined the diet of this species in the breeding season and recorded the number of fledglings. The study area encompassed 105 km2 of field and forest mosaic, located in the vicinity of the Rogów village (51°49'17,98''N, 19°53'54,5''E). Forests covered approximately 24% of the area and formed eight individual complexes ranging in size from 65 ha to 1000 ha. In the years 2011–2017, an average of 20.1 sparrowhawk pairs were recorded resulting in a population density of 19.1 pairs per 100 km2 of total area and 8.2/10 km2 of forested area. This is an increase of 26% compared to the years 2001–2003, when only 16 pairs nested in the same study area. Each successful pair of sparrowhawk produced between one and five fledglings with the average being 3.4. Larch Larix spp. and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. dominated as nesting trees accounting for 36.9 and 35.9% of nesting sites respectively. The average age of the nesting trees was 31 years and nests were built at an average height of 11.7 m. The sparrowhawk diet was dominated by birds, which amounted to 81.5% of prey items and over 95% of the consumed biomass. Among the birds identified to the species level, the domestic pigeon Columba livia f. domestica Gm. constituted the biggest share in biomass. Further important prey items were starling Sturnus vulgaris L., with 5.6% of prey items and 9.8% of the total biomass, and hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.), with 6.3% of prey items and 7.6% of the total biomass. Sparrowhawks also consumed significant numbers of thrush Turdus spp. that formed in total over 11% of the total consumed biomass. It would appear that the observed population growth was a result of prohibited persecution and the ban on DDT usage in agriculture.