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Open access

M. Göböová, I. Vaňo, V. Kissová, T. Fazekaš and M. Kuželová

Abstract

Introduction A gentamicin dose, which the physicians select, frequently does not take any pharmacokinetic parameters into consideration.

Aim To analyse the results of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of gentamicin for those patients who have not had the gentamicin dose adjusted at the beginning of therapy (first group) and for those patients who had the gentamicin dose adjusted at the beginning of therapy (second group).

Methods We acquired the basic data about patients from the requests for laboratory examination of levels of gentamicin. We measured all the gentamicin concentrations mentioned in this work using the FPIA method.

Results The monitored set included 379 hospitalized patients during a 4-year period. We divided the monitored set into 2 groups. First group was composed of patients without dose adjustment of gentamicin at the beginning of therapy, and the second group was composed of patients with dose adjustment of gentamicin by the clinical pharmacist at the beginning of therapy. In addition, the patients in each group were divided according to the body mass index (BMI). In the first group of patients, a low percentage of patients had both optimal levels (trough, peak levels). As for patients with BMI > 25 m2/kg, there were only 17 % such cases, and the patients with BMI ≤ 25 m2/kg were only 18.8 %. In the second group, the patients had all trough and peak levels in optimal therapeutic range at obese patients, overweight patients and also at patients with normal weight (p < 0.001).

Conclusion Adjustment of dosage regimens immediately at the beginning of therapy will provide for administering sufficient doses of antibiotics at the beginning of therapy, which is a pre-condition for a successful anti-infective therapy. Therapeutic monitoring of levels allows for administration of sufficient dose of gentamicin without fear of any undesirable effects.

Open access

Intra-European Migrants and the Question of Integration:

Citizenship In The Lives Of Finnish Migrants In Europe

Saara Koikkalainen

Abstract

Citizenship is defined in terms of national contexts, institutions, or practices. Apart from noting one’s membership in a certain polity, citizenship can be understood to have – at least – three meanings as follows: it can signify access, identification, and practice. This article examines these three dimensions based on the experiences of highly skilled Finns living in other European Union member states. Do they adopt the legal citizenship of the new country to gain access to legal and civic rights? Do they begin to identify with and assimilate to their new home country? Is citizenship played out in the everyday life as practice? The article concludes that thanks to European citizenship, all three interpretations are present at the same time.

Open access

Mehmet Ozkan Timurkan, Hakan Aydin and Ahmet Sait

Abstract

Introduction: Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are the cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. With other pathogens, they cause bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in ruminants. The aim of the study was the detection and molecular characterisation of BPIV3 and BRSV from nasal swabs and lung samples of cows in and around the Erzurum region of eastern Turkey.

Material and Methods: In total, 155 samples were collected. Of animals used in the study 92 were males and 63 females. The age of the animals was between 9 months and 5 years, mean 1.4 years. Most males were in the fattening period and being raised in open sheds; females were in the lactating period and kept in free stall barns. All samples were tested for the presence of viral genes using RT-PCR. Gene-specific primers in a molecular method (RT-PCR) identified BRSV (fusion gene) and BPIV3 (matrix gene) strains at the genus level.

Results: RNA from BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in two (1.29%) and three (1.93%) samples, respectively, one of each of which was sequenced and the sequences were aligned with reference virus strains. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the strains in genotype C/BPIV3 and subgroup III/BRSV.

Conclusion: The results indicate that BRSV and BPIV3 contribute to bovine respiratory disease cases in Turkey. This is the first report on their detection and molecular characterisation in ruminants in Turkey.

Open access

M. Ćwiklińska-Jurkowska

Summary

The usefulness of combining methods is examined using the example of microarray cancer data sets, where expression levels of huge numbers of genes are reported. Problems of discrimination into two groups are examined on three data sets relating to the expression of huge numbers of genes. For the three examined microarray data sets, the cross-validation errors evaluated on the remaining half of the whole data set, not used earlier for the selection of genes, were used as measures of classifier performance. Common single procedures for the selection of genes—Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) and Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM)—were compared with the fusion of eight selection procedures, or of a smaller subset of five of them, excluding SAM or PAM. Merging five or eight selection methods gave similar results. Based on the misclassification rates for the three examined microarray data sets, for any examined ensemble of classifiers, the combining of gene selection methods was not superior to single PAM or SAM selection for two of the examined data sets. Additionally, the procedure of heterogeneous combining of five base classifiers—k-nearest neighbors, SVM linear and SVM radial with parameter c=1, shrunken centroids regularized classifier (SCRDA) and nearest mean classifier—proved to significantly outperform resampling classifiers such as bagging decision trees. Heterogeneously combined classifiers also outperformed double bagging for some ranges of gene numbers and data sets, but merging is generally not superior to random forests. The preliminary step of combining gene rankings was generally not essential for the performance for either heterogeneously or homogeneously combined classifiers.

Open access

Fateful Well-Being:

Childhood and Youth Transitions Among Latvian Women in Finland

Aija Lulle and Agnese Bankovska

Abstract

In this article we investigate what happens to the children who are brought to a new country along with their parents, and how they, now young adults, narrate the ‘self’ as a migrant child and adolescent in different temporal and spatial contexts. We draw on five long narrative interviews with young women who were born in Latvia and came to Finland during their childhood. For our analysis of these narratives, we coin a notion of ‘fateful well-being’. The research participants’ challenges as child migrants, where geographical displacement was compounded by language changes and discontinuities in schooling, as well as ruptures with family members and friends, are revalued and appropriated through the self-development skills of reflexive narration. Within the concept of fateful well-being, youth transitions involve both constrained agency and choices towards well-being. We argue that reconciling difficulties is a vital part of fateful well-being.

Open access

Yareellys Ramos Zayas, Moisés Armides Franco Molina, Reyes Tamez Guerra and Cristina Rodríguez Padilla

Abstract

Introduction: Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a sexually transmitted tumour affecting dogs worldwide, imposing a financial burden on dog owners. A stable culture cell line in continuous passages for >18 months has only been achieved once. The present study investigated a stable CTVT cell line isolated from a bitch and its potential as a vaccine.

Material and Methods: A biopsy from a 2-year-old mongrel bitch with CTVT was obtained for histopathological confirmation and isolation of tumour cells. The isolated cells were cultured to passage 55 and characterised by flow cytometry, with karyotyping by GTG-banding and by PCR detection of myc S-2 and LINE AS1. The isolated CTVT cell line was also used as a preventive vaccine in a canine model.

Results: Histopathological analysis of the isolated tumour cells revealed typical CTVT characteristics. Constant proliferation and stable morphological characteristics were observed during culture. Phenotypic analysis determined the expression of HLA-DR+, CD5.1+, CD14+, CD45+, CD83+, CD163+, and Ly-6G-Ly-6C+. GTG-banding revealed a mean of 57 chromosomes in the karyotype with several complex chromosomal rearrangements. LINE-c-myc insertion in the isolated CTVT cell line at 550 bp was not detected. However, a 340-bp band was amplified. Isolated CTVT cell line inoculation at a concentration of 1×108 did not induce tumour growth in bitches, nor did a challenge with primary CTVT cells.

Conclusion: The present study successfully identified and isolated a stable CTVT cell line that may be useful in CTVT prevention.

Open access

Katarzyna Marcinkowska and Agnieszka Łacka

Summary

The effective dose of six herbicidal ionic liquids containing glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] was investigated. Varied biological activity of the tested compounds was observed depending on the type of cation and targeted plant species. In the case of common lambsquarters, the lowest effective dose was obtained for compounds containing didecyldimethylammonium and di(hydrogenated tallow) dimethylammonium cations. In the case of white mustard, the lowest ED50 and ED90 values were obtained for the reference compound, which contained glyphosate isopropylamine salt. These parameters were determined using dose efficiency curves based on log-logistic models with three or four parameters. The study indicates that ionic liquids with glyphosate may be used as a new form of this herbicide in the future.

Open access

Severino Pinto, Gundula Hoffmann, Christian Ammon, Wolfgang Heuwieser, Harel Levit, Ilan Halachmi and Thomas Amon

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling at two different frequencies per day on the respiration rate (RR) of lactating dairy cows, considering cow-related factors. Twenty multiparous Israeli Holstein dairy cows housed in a naturally ventilated cowshed were divided randomly into two treatment groups. The cows of both groups were exposed to 3 or 8 cooling sessions per day (3xcool vs. 8xcool, respectively). The RR was observed hourly, with a maximum of 12 measurements per day. Body posture (standing vs. lying) was simultaneously documented. Milk yield was recorded daily. Coat color was determined from a digital photograph. The RR of standing and lying cows was lower in the 8xcool group (60.2 and 51.6 breaths per min (bpm), respectively) than in the 3xcool group (73.1 and 65.6 bpm, respectively). For each increment of five kilograms of milk produced, RR increased by one bpm, and the RR of cows in early DIM was 12.3 bpm higher than that of cows in late DIM. In conclusion, eight cooling sessions per day instead of three lead to a RR abatement in heat-stressed cows under hot conditions, and cow-related factors directly impact the RR during heat stress assessment.

Open access

Raid Ramzi Al-Omari, Madhat Shakir Al-Soud and Osamah Ibrahim Al-Zuhairi

Abstract

Tunnel construction below or adjacent to piles will affect the performance and eventually the stability of piles due to ground deformation resulting in the movement of piles and changes in the axial force distribution along the piles. A three dimensional finite element analysis using PLAXIS 3D (2013) was performed to study the behaviour of a single pile and 3 x 3 piles group during the advancement of shield tunnelling in ground. The 10-node tetrahedral elements were used to model both the soil and the tunnel lining. The Hardening Soil (HS) model was used to simulate the soil structure interaction at the tunnel-soil interface. An isotropic elastic model was used for the pile, piles cap, tunnel lining and tunnel boring machine shield (TBM). Several parametric studies were attempted including the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical tunnel location relative to pile embedded in different types of soil (clay or sand). The results showed that the pile head settlement increases during the tunnelling advancement in larger values than that for ground surface settlement. A zone of influence was determined in the range of twice the tunnel diameter in the longitudinal direction (forward and backward of the pile), and transverse direction (left and right of the tunnel centreline). If the tunnel boring is kept off this zone then there is no fear of pile collapse.