Oleksii Hunyak, Khrystyna Sobol, Taras Markiv and Volodymyr Bidos
Concrete block pavements have become an attractive engineering and economical alternative to both flexible and rigid pavements because of it’s high strength and durability. The influence of pozzolanic mineral additions – natural zeolite and expanded perlite powder on the properties of concrete interlocking blocks in different curing conditions has been studied. The use of zeolite as a substitute for cement in the production of concrete blocks increased the water demand but decreased the water absorption of the blocks. Obtained results show, that concrete blocks with 10% substitution of cement with zeolitic tuff is characterized by higher strength, lower mass loss and absence of efflorescence.
Nuray Ucar, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Mervin Olmez, Elif Can and Ayşen Onen
Graphene, a carbon allotrope, became a significant area of research with its superior electrical, mechanical, optical properties, etc. There are several methods to obtain graphene oxide from graphite, one of which is the Hummers method. In this study, several modifications and pre-treatments preceding the Hummers method have been employed. Three different graphene oxide fibers have been produced by three different procedures, i.e. fibers obtained by Hummers method with pre-oxidation step, modified Hummers method and modified Hummers method with pre-oxidation step. It has been observed that pre-oxidation has a significant effect on graphene oxide fiber properties produced by wet spinning process (coagulation). Modified Hummers method without pre-oxidation leads to the highest breaking strength and breaking elongation. Reduced fiber linear density, breaking strength and breaking elongation together with increased crimp were observed in graphene fiber due to the addition of pre-oxidation step.
Fillali Cherif, Ilyes Baba Ahmed, Abdelkader Abderrahmane and Saad Hamzaoui
Silicon as a raw material for solar cells can be produced by numerous methods. The carbothermic reduction of silica using electric arc furnace is the most widely used process in silicon industry. This paper presents a new approach to produce solar grade silicon using microwave furnace. Pellets of different sizes were prepared from a mixture of silica and carbon using water and polyvinyl alcohol as binder agents. Raman spectra indicated a peak at about 515 cm−1 attributed to silicon in the pellets prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, and peaks at about 523 cm−1 and 794 cm−1 attributed to silicon and silicon carbide, in the pellets prepared with water. The pellet size affects the absorption of microwave energy emitted from the magnetrons. Polyvinyl alcohol as a binder agent is promising for the production of silicon using microwave furnace.
K.K. Pathak, Mimi Akash Pateria, Kusumanjali Deshmukh and Piyush Jha
Present paper reports optical and electrical properties of samarium doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin film which was grown on a glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method (CBD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the deposited films were nanocrystalline with sphalerite cubic structure. The average crystallite size calculated from FWHM of XRD peaks was found to be 10.11 nm. The bandgap of the Sm doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin films was calculated to be 1.91 eV to 2.22 eV. The optical absorption edge of undoped (pure) and Sm doped CdSe films was obtained between 650 nm to 640 nm showing blue shift as compared to bulk CdSe. Sm doping further enhanced the photoconductivity of these films. The I-V characteristic confirmed the suitability of prepared films for photosensor applications.
The paper presents application of Particle Image Velocimetry for determination of an airfoil’s drag coefficient in wind tunnel tests. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using PIV as an alternative to pressure rake measurements, especially at high angles of attack. The integral momentum concept was applied for determination of fluid drag from experimental low speed wind tunnel data. The drag coefficient was calculated from velocity and pressure rake data for intermediate angles of attack from 5° to 10°. Additionally, the experimental results were compared to panel method results. After validating the procedures at low angles of attack, the drag coefficient was calculated at close to critical angles of attack. The presented study proved that PIV technique can be considered as an attractive alternative for drag coefficient determination of an airfoil.
Optical properties of Si single crystals with different orientations (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements in a spectral range of 200 nm to 2500 nm. The data of optical absorption revealed an indirect allowed transition with energy gap of 1.1 ± 0.025 eV. An anomalous dispersion in refractive index. The normal dispersion of the refractive index was discussed according to Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. The oscillator energy Eo, dispersion energy Ed, high frequency dielectric constant ∈∞, lattice dielectric constant ∈L and electronic polarizability αe were estimated. The real ∈1 and imaginary ∈2 parts of dielectric constant were also determined.
The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that in a dynamically changing business environment, an organization should focus on embracing imitation strategies such as a safer form of building up its market position. The author addresses issues of innovation and imitation, provides definitions and defines realistic conditions and advantages of imitation strategies. Innovation does not guarantee a company's market success. The research conducted has shown that imitation is not only a commonly used strategy of creating competitiveness, but it is also the foundation of many firms’ success stories. Innovative imitation, technological diffusion, creative imitation should be treated equally as innovation – as a another development strategy, different form of strategy implementation, assuming less risk and wider market access with less risk and cost.
Maksym Lobodanov, Pavlo Vegera and Zinoviy Blikharskyy
In current economic trends, changes in construction using are required. It usually leads to changes in value and type of the working load on building structures, with the requirement to rate the technical state and replace or strengthen the elements. An important aspect of determining the residual bearing capacity of damaged bending reinforced concrete elements is the research concerning the influence of difference defects and damages on the change of strength and deformability. In the article main types of damages and defects, methods of studies of damaged reinforced concrete elements and the expediency of usage of this elements are described. However, most methods are suitable only for certain defects and damages due to the large complexity of calculations and the consideration of multifactoriality. Significant complexity of a single method for calculating damaged elements depends on the possible changing stress strain state of an element in combination with certain defects and damages, the presence of a non-complete separation where during loading or alteration of the damaged element the fractions become included in the work, reinforced concrete is the composite material which carrying complexity in calculating the joint work of its components.
A.K. Sharma, S.S. Potdar, M.A. Yewale, Deepak B. Shirgaonkar, K.S. Pakhare, B.M. Sargar, M.V. Rokade and U.M. Patil
Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method from aqueous cadmium nitrate solution. The bath temperatures were maintained at room temperature (25 °C) and at higher temperature (80 °C). The structural studies revealed that the films showed mixed phases of CdO and Cd(OH)2 with hexagonal/monoclinic crystal structure. Annealing treatment removed the hydroxide phase and the films converted into pure CdO with cubic, face centered crystal structure. SEM micrographs of as-deposited films revealed nanowire-like morphology for room temperature deposited films while nanorod-like morphology for high temperature deposited films. However, cube-like morphology was observed after air annealing. Elemental composition was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Band gap energies of the as-deposited films varied over the range of 3 eV to 3.5 eV, whereas the annealed films showed band gap energy variation in the range of 2.2 eV to 2.4 eV. The annealed films were successfully investigated for NH3 sensing at different operating temperatures and at different gas concentrations. The room temperature synthesized film showed a response of 17.3 %, whereas high temperature synthesized film showed a response of 13.5 % at 623 K upon exposure to 24 ppm of NH3.
The key to the functioning of enterprises in today's market is the concept of flexibility, which is mainly associated with adapting to very dynamically changing customer requirements. The basis for this approach is, among others, the realisation of serial production, products created for the customer's order in the quantity and time defined in orders. The LEAN Managemnt and LEAN production approach is a solution dedicated to meeting market assumptions. The LEAN concept, which both in the organization of production and management is focused on dynamic response to changes in the environment. The term LEAN represents numerous improvements to the organization, tools and techniques used to reduce and eliminate individual processes (or parts thereof) that are unnecessary activities. The key to analysing entire processes and defining unnecessary activities is thorough observation and selection of dedicated solutions. In the set of LEAN tools, you can find a lot of possibilities, from organization of a workstation itself, to a thorough quantitative analysis of times and process sequences, from simple facilities to complex technological solutions. The article presents the results of the assembly process analysis, indicates the point of product differentiation (marking for the client) and presents the map of organizational and preparatory activities for this process. The presented results are part of the activities within organization of the LEAN approach, currently having priority for the Research entity organisation improvement team.