The present study aims to investigate the NALP3 system and its influence on occludin in Sertoli cells, utilising primary murine cells and adult Sertoli cell line as models. Its main goals are the Sertoli cell biology with possible implications on male reproductive functions. Primary and adult Sertoli cells were transfected with NAPL3 siRNA and treated with NOD1 (ie-DAP) and NOD2 (MDP) receptor ligands. There was positive occludin expression levels on transcript (RT-qPCR) and protein (FCS and Immunofluorescence) levels for both cell types. The innate immunity and tight-junction pathways integration serve a protective role for both testis immune barrier and spermatogenesis compartmentalisation maintained by the very same barrier. This integration also points the way for mechanistic research of the disturbances inflicted during an inflammatory response in testis niche.
L. Zisova, A. Chokoeva, E. Sotiriou, V. Valtchev and D. Gospodinov
Onychomycosis is a chronic disease caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds, which leads to destruction of the nail plate of the fingernails and toenails. The incidence of onychomycosis in children is considerably smaller compared with that in adults. Onychomycosis in children under 6 years of age is particularly unusual. The trauma and the hyperhidrosis after puberty are the major predisposing factor for fungal nail infection in childhood. Some systemic diseases and congenital syndromes have a crucial role for the development of onychomycosis in children. Wearing infected socks and shoes of other family members, family history for fungal infection of the nails, reduced hygiene and onychophagia are other important predisposing factors. Dermatophytic species Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton flocosum are the most frequent causative agents of onychomycosis in adults and much less common yeast of the genus Candida. A retrospective study for a period of 11 years was performed (2003-2013) investigating 292 children aged 0 to 18 years with proven onychomycosis (123 - from Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 94 - from Pleven, Bulgaria, and 75 - from Thessaloniki, Greece). Candida albicans was the main etiologic agent in onychomycosis in children under 18 years of age, according to the performed retrospective study. The diagnose was made by direct microscopic examination and fungal culture on Sabouraud agar media.
An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of cutaneous cancer. Due to the continuously increasing rate of newly detected cases each year and because of its particular low survival rate, the scientific interest in this type of neoplasia is constantly growing. Sun exposure is identified as the major etiologic factor for malignant transformation of the melanocytes. According to the WHO, malignant melanoma is divided into four main groups, as the superficial spreading form is defined as the most “gentle” among them. The name of this subspecies does not have to “drowse” the attention of dermatologists considering the possible metastasic risk, even at a later stage. Due to lack of subjective complaints, patients do not seek active consultation on this occasion, as this type of lesions often remain missed within the clinical examination. Early diagnosis, however, as well as early surgical removal is the key to increasing the survival rate of the patients. We present a case of a 88 year-old female patient consulted with dermatologist on occasion of severe onychomycosis, as a pigment lesion on the anterior surface of the right leg. Clinically and dermatoscopically suspected superficial spreading melanoma was detected within the examination.
Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides) have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp), resistine (Rs) and adiponectin (Adn) blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL) - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation for having sex, good mood were also reported. Obese patients with insulin resistance have decreased serum adiponectin and increased serum resistin and leptin. The levels of these three hormones changed positively after chronic intake of aronia juice. We recommend a daily intake of aronia juice for the prevention of health.
S. Nencheva-Svechtarova, V. Svechtarov, A. Gisbrecht and Tz. Uzunov
The objective of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness of the gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs; 785 nm) and superluminiscent diodes (633 nm) phototherapy (MedX 1100 device) for the treatment of patients with temporomandibular disorders and myofascial pain syndrome. The results demonstrated a positive effect in pain relief. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the level of pain was observed for the temporomandibular joint and for the masseter muscles using paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The experimental study on pork muscle samples showed that a) the main part of laser radiation is absorbed by the tissue in thin layer of 3-4 mm, b) in the spectral region 650-950 nm the intensity of light penetration is about 0.2-0.25 percent of the initial light intensity.
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.
Ts. Uzunov, T. Uzunov, R. Grozdanova and D. Kosturkov
The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED), Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®). It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.
The periodontal ligament injection appears to be the most consistently reliable in achieving clinically adequate pulpal anaesthesia. Materials and Methods: 130 inferior molar teeth; technique: The tooth was first cleaned with chlorhexidine 0.2% solution. The penetration of the ligament is performed with special intraligamentary needle (30 G - 9, 17,21 mm) “sliding” along the side of the tooth, 300º angle between the needle and the tooth, having taken the care of determining support points which will prevent the needle from twisting. The penetration must be deep enough to obtain the seal required for the injection, injection for each root in particular points; volume of solution per root is 0.2-0.4 ml. Results: In 125 cases the technique was absolutely efficient. In only 5 cases with pulpitis chronica ulcerosa there was need for additional intrapulpal anesthesia. Conclusions: The method could be used as a primary anesthetic method for endodontic treatment.
Data from different studies correlating the serum 25(OH)D levels with the metabolic and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients are still varying. The objective if this study was to describe the correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and some metabolic parameters in Bulgarian type 2 diabetes patients on oral antidiabetic drugs. One hundred type 2 diabetes patients participated - 56 men and 44 women. The mean age and diabetes duration of the women was 59.0 and 9.8 years, of the men - 58.0 and 7.7 years respectively. Complete patient history was taken and physical examination was performed (body weight and height, waist circumference). Body composition was measured on a leg-to-leg body impedance analyzer (TBF-215, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Serum levels of vitamin D were measured by electro-hemi-luminescent detection as 25-(ОН) D Total (ECLIA, Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland). Glycated hemoglobin A1c was measured on a NycoCard reader (Alere™). Total, HDL-cholesterol (direct) and triglycerides were analyzed on a Cobas Integra 400+ analyzer. Correlation analysis was performed on a SPSS 13.0 for Windows platform and included 10 curves. The data were first analyzed for the group as a whole and then separately for men and women as well as in the different vitamin D tertiles. The mean serum 25-OH-vitamin D levels were 23.8 ± 12.1 nmol/l in women and 33.3 ± 20.0 nmol/l in men. We were unable to find any statistically significant correlation between serum 25(OH) vitaminand the serum lipids (cholesterol profile and triglycerides). On the contrary, there was a weak correlation with the glycated hemoglobin A1c (cubic model, R2 = 0.178, p = 0.05) and the BMI (inverse model, R2 = 0.101, p = 0.038). The sub-analyses (men versus women or according to tertiles of vitamin D) did not produce any additional information. The influence of vitamin D on the parameters of the metabolic control in type 2 diabetes is very weak on an individual level. It might be only demonstrated in large epidemiological surveys.