M. Vargová and G. Kováč
The majority of all diseases in dairy cows occur during the period from three weeks before parturition to three weeks after parturition, in the periparturient or transitional period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of selected parameters of: the hormonal profiles, the body condition score (BCS) and their interrelationships. The study was carried out on 15 dairy cows of the Slovak Pied Cattle, from three weeks before to nine weeks after parturition, which were divided into six groups. The concentrations of leptin during ante partum increased from 23.08 ± 10.58 ng.ml−1 to 26.80 ± 11.47 ng.ml−1, then gradually decreased (P > 0.05), and conversely, the concentrations of ghrelin before parturition were found to be decreasing and during the postpartal period, the concentrations increased, with the highest value of 35.94 ± 16.85 pg.ml−1. In the case of insulin, we found the opposite tendency of ghrelin. We observed significantly higher values of BCS in dry cows than in cows after parturition (P < 0.001). Comparing the BCS and the parameter of the hormonal profiles, we found both positive and negative correlations: leptin and ghrelin (r = −0.235, P < 0.05), and BCS and insulin (r = 0.232, P < 0.05), and BCS and leptin (r = 0.360, P < 0.001). The interrelationships between the hormones and the body condition score, provided evidence that the variations in concentrations of leptin, ghrelin and insulin were related to variations in the BCS.
L. Tarabova, Z. Makova, E. Piesova, R. Szaboova and Z. Faixova
The gastrointestinal tract, like the urinary, respiratory, reproductive tracts and the surface of the eye, has large surface areas which are in contact with the exterior environment. The mucosal tissues in the gastrointestinal tract are exposed to large number of exogenous, water or food born microbiota. Therefore, they serve as access routes for different types of bacteria, parasites, viruses, enzymes and toxins. In order to protect the mucosal tissues against pathogens and aggressive enzymes, which are necessary in digestive processes, they are covered by a resident microbial flora and also by a viscoelastic adherent mucous gel layer. The mucus layer acts as the first line of defense against threats and also as a positive environment for beneficial endogenous microbiota adapted for symbiotic living. The quantity and quality of mucus layers varies throughout the gastrointestinal tube and is often changed and disrupted during the occurrence disease. A disturbed mucus layer in the intestine can result in changes in the whole organism, such as: impaired immunity, loss of weight and weak food conversion, which is important, especially in food animals. That is why several researchers have focused on these changes, both in humans and other animals, to find out methods and countermeasures, which will facilitate the best protection for the mucus layer in the intestine. In this review, we describe the composition and function of the mucus layer and mucins in the intestine.
A. Marcin, M. Levkut, V. Revajová, B. Šoltysová and P. Naď
This study was aimed at the comparison of the effects of dietary applications of sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis L.) on some digestive enzyme activities in the chyme of the jejunum, digestive characteristics, and selected bacterial microflora in the caecum. Seventy, one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated into two equal groups for 42 days. The feed mixture of the experimental group was supplemented with the essential oil at the level of 2.306 g.kg−1. This supplementation was absent in the control feed mixture. The main volatile compounds were analysed: Eucalyptol 85, alpha-thujon 148, betathujon 72, camphor 149 and borneol 37 g.kg−1. The digestive enzyme activities in the chyme of the jejunum increased as follows: amylolytic on days 16 (P < 0.01) and 29 (P < 0.001) as well as cellulolytic on days 16 (P < 0.05), 29 (P < 0.001), and 42 (P < 0.01). The proteolytic activity decreased on day 16 (P < 0.01). The intake of the additive, increased the digestibility of crude fibre (P < 0.01) on days 16, 29 and 42. The apparent assimilable mass coefficient of crude protein, corrected for protein catabolism, was increased in the experimental group on days 29(P < 0.05) and 42 (P < 0.01). The counts of Escherichia coli in the caecum decreased (P < 0.05) on days 29 and 42. The supplementation of chickens with the sage essential oil increased the crude fibre digestibility, the amylolytic and cellulolytic activities in the chyme of the jejunum, and decreased the counts of E. coli in the caecum.
A. Balicka, A. Trbolová and T. Vrbovská
Electroretinography (ERG) is a functional test of the outer retina. During an examination, the retina is selectively stimulated. The stimulation of the retina produces a response of the individual retinal cells and reveals information about its function. The ERG examination requires very specific conditions in order to avoid undesirable factors which may adversely affect the recordings. The electroretinography examination may be performed for a short period (“rapid protocol”), commonly used to access retinal activity. The “long protocol” is used for the differential diagnosis of retinal disorders. It is mainly used in diagnosing and evaluating retinal dysfunction when there are no ophthalmic lesions present. The main indications for electroretinography are the pre-operative examination of cataract patient and the early diagnosis of inherited retinal diseases. In veterinary ophthalmology, ERG is performed under general anesthesia. The ERG results have wave forms with characteristic components depending upon several factors. Its interpretation requires knowledge of retinal pathology and electrophysiology
D. Sopková, Z. Andrejčáková and R. Vlčková
Vehicle transportation represents acute stress to animals with release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland resulting in impaired metabolic state. Such changes in metabolism may be reduced by the application of suitable feed supplement. The aim of this study was to test the effects of lupin supplementation applied after 1-hour transportation. Ewes in the control group (n = 7) were fed on trefoil-grass silage and hay, while the diet of the experimental group (n = 7) was supplemented with lupin groats (Lupinus angustifolius, var. SONET; 500 g per head per day) for 8 days. In both groups, blood was collected on the day of transportation and on Days 6 and 11 thereafter. Total blood parameters were assayed using spectrophotometry and fractions of protein, cholesterol, and lactate dehydrogenase using agarose electrophoresis. Lupin increased the albumin: globulin (ALB : GLB) ratio and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration and reduced serum cholesterol and lactate, however it had no effect on body weight, body condition score (BCS), plasma glucose, serum protein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or alkaline phosphatise (ALP). Lupin may therefore be used as suitable feed supplement for sheep at times of high nutrient requirement.
I. Strapáč and M. Baranová
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the contents of iodine and selenium in selected food commodities. Fresh food commodities were mineralized and analysed for their iodine and selenium content by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry using the calibration curve as the method for determining the contents of the elements. The average fruit and vegetables concentrations of iodine were very low. The cow’s milk, other dairy products, eggs, poultry, fresh water fish, beef, liver, and mushrooms are frequently regarded as the most important natural source of dietary iodine from common foods. The higher concentrations of selenium were recorded in the kidney, liver, pork, beef, poultry, fresh water fish, hen’s eggs, cow’s milk, other dairy products, wheat flour, fats, coffee, peppers, mushrooms and potatoes.
Z. Čriepoková, L’. Lenhardt and P. Gál
Previously, it has been shown that sex hormones, in particular estrogens, play an important role in the regulation of biological processes involved in tissue repair and regeneration. Accordingly, several studies have supported the beneficial properties of hormone replacement therapies (HRT) in postmenopausal models. The present review paper explores the potential for targeted sex steroid HRT as a new therapeutic option for the surgical management of wounds in postmenopausal women and animals.
D. Maženský and S. Flešárová
The aim of this study was to describe the blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the European hare using the dissection technique. This study was carried out on 10 adult European hares. The arterial system of the cervical spinal cord was injected using Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. The presence of the ventral radicular branches of the rami spinales entering the ventral spinal artery in the cervical region was observed in 62.1 % as left-sided and in 37.9 % of the cases as right-sided. There were two dorsal spinal arteries located on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord in 70 % of the cases, and no dorsal spinal artery in 30 % of the cases. The presence of the ventral radicular branches of the rami spinales that reached the spinal cord, was observed in 66.2 % of the cases on the left side and in 33.8 % of the cases on the right side. Based on our results, we can conclude that there is high variability of the blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the European hare.
I. Capík and O. Nagy
The objective of this study was to compare in clinical patients the analgesic effect of the centrally acting analgesics tramadol and buprenorphine in continuous intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol. Twenty dogs undergoing prophylactic dental treatment, aged 2−7 years, weighing 6−27 kg, were included in ASA I. and II. groups. Two groups of dogs received intravenous (IV) administration of tramadol hydrochloride (2 mg.kg−1) or buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.2 mg.kg−1) 30 minutes prior to sedation, provided by midazolam hydrochloride (0.3 mg.kg−1) and xylazine hydrochloride (0.5 mg.kg-1) IV. General anaesthesia was induced by propofol (2 mg.kg−1) and maintained by a 120 minutes propofol infusion (0.2 mg.kg−1min−1). Oscilometric arterial blood pressure (ABP) measured in mm Hg, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), SAT, body temperature (BT) and pain reaction elicited by haemostat forceps pressure at the digit were recorded in ten minute intervals. The tramadol group of dogs showed significantly better parameters of blood pressure (P < 0.001), lower tendency to bradycardia (P < 0.05), and better respiratory rate (P < 0.001) without negative influence to oxygen saturation. Statistically better analgesia was achieved in the tramadol group (P < 0.001). Tramadol, in comparison with buprenorphine provided significantly better results with respect to the degree of analgesia, as well as the tendency of complications arising during anaesthesia.