The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) depends on the specific genotype, inheritance of prothrombotic polymorphisms and the influence of environmental risk factors. Rs1799889(-) polymorphism in the promotor of PAI-1 gene has been described as a risk factor for hypercoagulable state. Objective: To evaluate the contribution of thrombophilic rs1799889 (-) in the promotor of PAI-1 gene on the incidence of DVT in women and men in groups below and above 45 years of age. Тhere was significantly higher rs1799889 (-) polymorphism carriage among female patients with DVT vs controls (Chi squared =5.506, OR=2.170, p=0.021) but not in male patients (Chi squared =0.090 OR=1.147, p=0.825). A significant contribution of rs1799889 (-) polymorphism to early onset of the disease was found in female patients aged 45+ and carriers of the polymorphism (Chi squared =7.476, p=0.006), but not in young women.
A case of an unusual variation of the blood supply of an upper limb is presented. During a routine anatomical dissection, it was found that the posterior circumflex humeral artery had an unusual course and branching. It arose as a branch of the brachial artery, not the axillary one, and it did not accompany the axillary nerve. It ran under the lower border of the teres major muscle instead of passing through the lateral axillary foramen, then followed its usual course around the surgical neck of the humerus, supplying the deltoid muscle. It was also found that instead of arising from the brachial artery, the deep brachial artery arose from the posterior circumflex humeral artery. Variations are reported and their clinical relevance is discussed.
It is known that increased morbidity with temporary incapacity for work (MTIW) is related to stress level and psychosocial factors at work. Practices for stress management, conflict avoidance and optimization of working conditions are known to reduce MTIW level. The aim of the present study was to analyze MTIW and propose measures to optimize and reduce strain at work. The study covered MTIW in labour inspectors, a total of 334 people, men and women aged from 24 to 69. The evaluation was based on 11 of the generally accepted indices. MTIW structure was analyzed. MTIW was rated as high according to case frequency and as very high according to day frequency. The average duration of a TI case was 12.63, and the relative share of people who were frequently taken ill for a long period was 12.81. In the ITI structure, diseases of the respiratory system (42.0%) ranked first, followed by diseases of the nervous system (18.8%), the digestive system (9.9%), CVS (8.3%) and MSS (7.2%). These 5 groups of diseases covered 86.2% of all diagnoses. The remaining 7 groups of diseases covered less than 14% of the diagnoses. The group of people most frequently taken ill for long periods included 28 inspectors who had used 42.5% of the total number of days. Two inspectors with 140 days of absence from work were cases of TI resulting from severe stress and adaptation disorder. Measures were proposed regarding the reduction of strain at work and the risk of stress.
Biliopancreatic derivation with duodenal switch (BPDDS) as an operative technique in the management of morbid obesity was created as an alternative to BPD (Scopinaro's operation), because of BPD-DS's fewer malabsorption side effects, better restrictive effect to the stomach remnant, fewer peptic ulcers and dumping syndromes, as well as lower morbidity and mortality rate. Between January 2003 and June 2012 in the University Hospital Center of Albacete, 141 patients with morbid obesity underwent BPD-DS. The patients were divided in groups according to four criteria: length of the common channel, age, gender and initial Body Mass Index. On the 6th postoperative year in our study the percent of excessive body weight loss was 67.6% and the percentage of excessive BMI loss was 73%. According to the evaluation announced by Hess D.S. & Hess D.W, our results could be assessed as successful after 6 months, good on the first year, excellent on the second, and good from 3rd to 9th postoperative years. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the biliopancreatic derivation with duodenal switch is a bariatric intervention, which leads to a significant weight loss, well preserved in time.
Psychosocial factors (PSF) are leading among the new risks and modern challenges in providing safe and healthy conditions at work. Due to the high mental strain, inspectors are at highest risk for stress at work. The aim of the present study was to make a comparative analysis of PSFs in control activities, rate them and investigate subjective perception of stress at work. Two exhaustive cross-sectional studies were conducted consecutively, involving 338 and 355 inspectors, respectively, working at two organizations with control activities. The inspectors were men and women aged from 24 to 70. The statistical processing of data utilized the SPSS software version 17, at a significance level of p<0.05. A number of common characteristics were found in the activities, the composition and structure of different groups of government staff: the number of women was greater (58% и 62.6%), with people over 40 years of age prevailing (67.3% и 70.9%), and the group with specialized work experience of 6 to 10 years comprised the greatest number of people. We found reliable differences in the answers concerning task requirements and activity organization. Rating PSF, one of the groups of inspectors placed “insufficient time to perform the check-up” in the first place, whereas the other one reported “conflicts while performing the check-up”. PSFs exert an influence on the cognitive functions of inspectors, change their behaviour and emotional reactions and result in more frequent complaints of health deterioration. We found difference in the subjective stress perception depending on gender, age and duration of work experience as an inspector.
The aim of this study was to examine force production during maximal isometric handgrip in unilateral (UL) and bilateral (BL) tasks in right- and left-handed subjects. Ten right-handed (RH) and 8 left-handed (LH) young men were studied. The subjects were instructed, after a command, to perform a shot-like handgrip, raising maximal force as fast as possible. Three series were performed as follows: 1) UL - right handgrip; 2) UL - left handgrip; 3) BL handgrip. We measured peak force, time to peak of force and rate of force. The BL/UL ratios for the right (R) and left (L) hand and L/R ratios for the UL and BL tasks were calculated. The L/R ratios for peak force and force rate in RH group ranged across all tasks and conditions from 0.71 to 0.75. They were significantly lower than 1 (p<0.01). These ratios did not differ significantly from 1 for LH subjects (0.98–1.02), indicating the handedness in RH group only. The BL/UL ratios for peak force were 0.89 and 0.89 in RH, suggesting symmetrical bilateral strength deficit. The magnitude of the bilateral deficit in LH group was larger for the dominant (L) hand compared to non dominant (R) hand – 0.93 and 0.97 (p<0.05) respectively, suggesting an asymmetry of bilateral deficit in LH. These ratios for time of force and rate of force indicated bilateral deficit (BD) in the dominant hand of RH group only.
In Europe, as well as in Bulgaria, consumption of soft drinks and confectionery has increased during the last three decades and is partly responsible for the epidemic-like increase in obesity. These foods, originally sweetened by sucrose, are now sweetened by other caloric sweeteners such as fructose. In this study we investigated the effect of an eight-week intake of 20% fructose solution on body weight in rats. Two adult rat groups (aged 120±6 days) of Wistar line were studied: a Control group (C; n=10; 5 male and 5 female rats) received water and standard rodent chow, and a Fructose group (F; n=12; 6 male and 6 female rats) who received 20% fructose-in-drinking-water solution and regular rodent chow. All animals were weighed and measured (nose to anus length), and the Lee index (equivalent of BMI in rats) was calculated. Body fat was also analyzed. As indicators of increased caloric intake of the Fructose group we investigated glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) in blood. In conclusion, consumption of fructose solution in rats resulted in increased body weight, length and measured body fat, increased blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the Fructose group, as compared to the controls.
The enzymatic method for the determination of serum creatinine is accepted as one of the most accurate methods in a clinical laboratory. This method was used on a biochemistry auto analyzer (Cobas Integra 400) to determine serum creatinine at the laboratory of University Hospital – Pleven. The characteristics and reliability of this enzymatic method for creatinine were compared with the Jaffe kinetic method. Effects of some interfering substances like bilirubin and glucose on the Jaffe kinetic method and the enzymatic method were compared. Glucose and bilirubin inhibit the reaction between creatinine and alkaline picrate. Glucose slowly reduces picric acid to picrate, while the bilirubin present in a sample is oxidized to biliverdin under alkaline conditions. This leads to a decrease in absorbance at 520 nm. We measured creatinine in serum samples with the enzymatic method and the Jaffe kinetic method in samples divided into four groups: group I –samples without bilirubin and glucose ; group II –samples with high level of glucose; group III - samples with high level of bilirubin, group IV – all samples. For Group I, the correlation coefficient obtained by comparing the enzymatic creatinine method and Jaffe's kinetic method was R = 0.983. There was a very good agreement between the two methods in terms of correlation coefficient even in the samples with high levels of glucose or bilirubin.
The aim of the study was to evaluate seizure liability in rats against the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) during a 14-day treatment with retigabine (RTG). The seizure liability was also studied on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after the abrupt determination of its administration. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups of 10 and treated orally for 14 days (1st – 6th group with distilled water, and 7th – 12th group with retigabine (RTG) at a dose of 60 mg/kg bw The tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of RTG was studied using subcutaneous injection of PTZ (120 mg/kg bw) on the 1th and 14th day. To determine the possible neuronal hyperexcitability on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after termination of drug administration, a lower dose of PTZ (65 mg/kg bw) was used. According to our results there was no change in the anticonvulsant activity of RTG during the whole period of treatment. The study on withdrawal syndrome showed slightly decrease of the effect on the first day after the last treatment, but with no significant difference to the controls. The anticonvulsant effect of RTG on the 2nd and 3rd day was close to that in the control group. Our results showed no development of tolerance on subchronic treatment with RTG. There was no significant change in the neuronal hyperexcitability on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after the termination of treatment. Based on these results we can suggest that RTG has no potential to develop withdrawal syndrome.
The aim of the study is to investigate the serum levels of adipokines-resistin and visfatin in patients with metabolic syndrome. A prospective study was performed, including 153 (103 female, 50 male) subjects with metabolic syndrome. Carbohydrate metabolism was estimated by oral glucose tolerance test with 75g of glucose. Of the subjects investigated, 40 were with normal glycaemic tolerance, 40 - with impaired fasting glycaemia, 28 - with impaired glucose tolerance and 45 - with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2. The results were compared to those in a control group of 20 subjects without findings indicating metabolic syndrome. The serum levels of resistin and visfatin were measured with an enzyme immunoassay method (ELISA, BioVendor Laboratory Medicine, Inc., Czech Republic). There were significant differences in body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, plasma level of blood glucose and serum level of triglycerides between the examined subjects with metabolic syndrome, as compared with the control group. The amount of serum resistin in subjects with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 was significantly higher, as compared to the controls. Subjects with metabolic syndrome and pathological glucose tolerance-impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 were found with a significantly higher serum level of visfatin, as compared to normal glucose tolerance and to the controls. Subjects with metabolic syndrome and pathological glucose tolerance-impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 exhibited significantly changes in serum levels of adipokines-resistin and visfatin.