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Open access

Ismail Mohamed Helal

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the antiviral activities of biocides made of formulated essential oils. These were derived from five plant species: fennel, oregano, peppermint, thyme and ginger. The potencies of these preparations were tested against local infection with the Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and against systemic infection with the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). After the determination of the most effective concentration, the formulated biocides were tested in protective and curative manners (before and after virus inoculation) against the growth of plants. The obtained results showed that the peppermint-derived biocide had the greatest effect on reducing the infectivity of the TNV virus (100% growth inhibition at 4000 ppm), whereas the biocide from thyme was the most effective against the infectivity of the CMV virus, as it induced a complete growth inhibition at 3000 ppm. The results of the protective and curative experiments revealed that the formulated biocides exerted high protection and curative effects against the two viruses. The observations revealed that the biocides were able to enhance plant defences against viral infection, as indicated by the increased levels of total chlorophyll, protein and phenols. Moreover, the levels of the oxidative stress markers including peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were improved compared to the control settings. In conclusion, the formulated biocides progressively present a favourable alternative to chemically synthesized pesticides in crop protection.

Open access

Jeyaraman Anandha Kumar and M. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

Enzymatic hydrolysis on synthetic fibers enhances the hydrophilicity and solves the concerns regarding the environmental issues of textile industry. Lipase hydrolyses ester linkages in polyethylene terephthalate and produces polar hydroxyl and carboxylic groups. The study aims to identify and investigate the effect of enzyme treatment on weight loss and surface modification of polyester fabrics. Also the functional groups present before and after treatment and the effect of enzyme treatment on the improvement of dye uptake are studied. The test indicates that enzymatic process creates less surface damage, weight loss and improved moisture regain, dye uptake, and shear properties.

Open access

Ivana Špelić, Dubravko Rogale and Alka Mihelić Bogdanić

Abstract

Former studies done by other authors investigated the first- and second-layered air gaps beneath the clothing garments. None of the previous studies reported multidisciplinary clothing design testing approach linking both the objective measuring methods and subjective responses, while testing the thermal properties linked to a microclimatic volume formed between the layers of garments forming the ensemble. Neither was determined the limiting value of the microclimatic volume for outerwear garments, after which the thermal insulation will start to decrease due to convection. By taking the advantage of the precise three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technology and reverse engineering 3D CAD tool, the volume of the microclimatic air layers formed under outerwear garments was determined to study the impact of the ensemble’s microclimatic volume on the overall insulation value, measured by means of the thermal manikin. The jacket with the smaller microclimatic volume provided 5.2–13.5% less insulation than wider jackets, while the ensembles with tighter jackets showed 0.74–1.9% less insulation in static and 0.9– 2.7% more insulation in dynamic conditions, thus proving that the limiting value of the microclimatic volume is greater than previously reported for three-layered ensembles. The effective thermal insulation value was reduced in average by 20.98–25.34% between standing and moving manikins. The thermal manikins are designed for steadystate measurements and do not work well under transient conditions, so three human subjects were employed as evaluators of the clothing thermal quality. In cooler climatic conditions, the measured physiological parameters and subjects’ grades pointed to discomfort while wearing ensembles with tighter jackets.

Open access

Anam Moosa, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Sajid Aleem Khan and Aman Ullah Malik

Abstract

The ability of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid to suppress post-harvest infection with green mould Penicillium digitatum and blue mould P. italicum on three citrus species Citrus reticulata ‘Kinnow’, C. limon ‘Meyer Lemon’, and C. limetta ‘Mosambi’ was evaluated in a dose-response study. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were applied to the fruits as a post-harvest dip treatment followed by wound inoculation with the pathogens. Both resistance inducers caused a significantly lower disease severity compared with the infected but non-treated control, whereas disease incidence was not significantly lower than in the control. The efficacy of both SA and JA in reducing disease severity was concentration-dependent; the use of higher concentrations resulted in a greater degree of suppression. All the Citrus species tested in this study showed different responses in terms of disease development. C. limon ‘Meyer Lemon’ showed the highest disease development, and C. limetta ‘Mosambi’ the lowest. To get an insight into the mechanisms underlying the increase in resistance, the activity of defence-related enzymes – peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) – was recorded in SA- and JA-treated fruit peelings. The activity of both enzymes was directly proportional to the concentration of the SA and JA applications. The highest activity of PPO and POD was observed in C. reticulata ‘Kinnow’ and the lowest in C. limon ‘Meyer Lemon’ fruits. This study is the first to document an increase in the activity of PPO and POD in SA- and JA-treated Citrus species in the presence of blue mould and green mould pathogens.

Open access

Tomoki Hattori, Yang Chen, Shinichi Enoki, Daisuke Igarashi and Shunji Suzuki

Abstract

Berry skin colour is a crucial determinant of red/black grape berry quality. We investigated the effects of combination treatments with amino acids and a low concentration of ABA on anthocyanin accumulation in grapes. Among the amino acids tested, isoleucine and phenylalanine resulted in high anthocyanin contents in grape cell cultures. The combination treatments with isoleucine or phenylalanine, and a low concentration of ABA enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in grape cells and detached grape berries. The combination treatment with isoleucine, but not with phenylalanine, and ABA upregulated MybA1 expression. Field-grown grapevines received combination treatments with isoleucine or phenylalanine, and ABA in two growing seasons. In the 2015 growing season, the combination treatments with isoleucine or phenylalanine, and a low concentration of ABA accelerated anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skins of field-grown grapevines on days 10 and 31 post treatment. The effects on anthocyanin accumulation became negligible at harvest. The effect of the combination treatment with phenylalanine and a low concentration of ABA on anthocyanin accumulation was masked in the 2017 growing season due to the unexpected stimulation of anthocyanin accumulation by the low concentration of ABA, although the combination treatment accelerated anthocyanin accumulation on days 3 and 10 post treatment. Taken together, the results suggested that exogenous isoleucine and phenylalanine interacted with ABA-mediated anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skins of field-grown grapevines when the activity of ABA used to treat the grapevines was inadequate.

Open access

Larona Keabetswe, Guang Cheng Shao, Jintao Cui, Jia Lu and Tebogo Stimela

Abstract

Quality of fresh produce is the most critical issue in the economics of a vegetable enterprise. In order to investigate the effect of biochar amendment and deficit irrigation on tomato fruit quality, experimental research was conducted under a rain shelter in southern China during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. The experiment consisted of five treatments. Crops were irrigated to 100% of field water capacity at all growth stages as treatments T1 and T2. The other treatments received 30% less irrigation water than T2 when its soil water content reached 70% of field capacity, and were designated as treatments T3, T4 and T5, applied at the vegetative (stage I), flowering and fruit development (stage II), and fruit ripening (stage III) stages, respectively. Treatment T1 included no biochar, while the other treatments included 10% biochar by weight. The results showed that the total soluble solids (TSS) content, sugar-to-acid ratio (SAR), vitamin C (VC) content, and colour index (CI) increased in the deficit irrigation treatments depending on the phenological stage, the fruit ripening stage in particular. Meanwhile, single fruit weight was significantly (p > 0.05) reduced by water deficit at stages II and III, subsequently affecting the total fruit yield. Biochar improved soil moisture conservation and had a positive effect on fruit quality as evidenced by better single quality attributes (p > 0.05) of T2 over T1. The GRA and TOPSIS appraisal methods were used to conduct the comprehensive quality analysis. Eventually, treatment T5 ranked the best in both seasons, and this was also confirmed by the combinational evaluation method.

Open access

S. Kildea, D.E. Bucar, F. Hutton, S. de la Rosa, T.E. Welch and S. Phelan

Abstract

The emergence and spread of Quinone outside Inhibitor (QoI) fungicide resistance in the Irish Zymoseptoria tritici population in the early 2000s had immediate impacts on the efficacy of the entire group of fungicides for the control of septoria tritici blotch. As a result, a dramatic reduction in the quantities applied to winter wheat occurred in the following seasons. Even in the absence of these fungicides, the frequency of the resistance allele, G143A in the pathogens mtDNA has remained exceptionally high (>97%), and as such, it can be anticipated that continued poor efficacy of current QoI fungicides will be observed. Amongst the isolates with G143A, differences in sensitivity to the QoI pyraclostrobin were observed in vitro. The addition of the alternative oxidase (AOX) inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid increased sensitivity in these isolates, suggesting some continued impairment of respiration by the QoI fungicides, albeit weak. Interestingly, amongst those tested, the strains from a site with a high frequency of inserts in the MFS1 transporter gene known to enhance QoI efflux did not exhibit this increase in sensitivity. A total of 19 mtDNA haplotypes were detected amongst the 2017 strain collection. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the suggestion of a common ancestry of all the haplotypes, even though three of the haplotypes contained at least one sensitive strain.

Open access

Peter Koerver Schmidt

Abstract

The article analyzes whether the investment in a private equity fund may create a permanent establishment (PE) for foreign investors. The analysis is divided into two main parts, as the question of creating a PE for the foreign investors is considered with respect to both the main PE rule and the agency PE rule. The amendments to the PE definition prescribed in the OECD/G20 BEPS report on Action 7, and incorporated into the 2017 version of the OECD Model with Commentary, are taken into consideration. It is concluded that the final outcome depends on the specific setup of the private equity fund at hand and that some degree of uncertainty may often remain. Moreover, the recent amendments to the PE definition do not appear to have reduced this uncertainty—rather the contrary.

Open access

Gunnar Sivertsen

Abstract

Internationalization is important for research quality and for specialization on new themes in the social sciences and humanities (SSH). Interaction with society, however, is just as important in these areas of research for realizing the ultimate aims of knowledge creation. This article demonstrates how the heterogenous publishing patterns of the SSH may reflect and fulfill both purposes. The limited coverage of the SSH in Scopus and Web of Science is discussed along with ideas about how to achieve a more complete representation of all the languages and publication types that are actually used in the SSH. A dynamic and empirical concept of balanced multilingualism is introduced to support combined strategies for internationalization and societal interaction. The argument is that all the communication purposes in all different areas of research, and all the languages and publication types needed to fulfill these purposes, should be considered in a holistic manner without exclusions or priorities whenever research in the SSH is evaluated.

Open access

SarzamArobi, Jamiun Naher and Tanjir Rashid Soron

Abstract

Objectives

Riverbank erosion is a regular phenomenon that displaces millions of people every year worldwide. More than 100,000 people are displaced due to river erosion every year in Bangladesh. People have to resettle in a different place leaving behind their property and familiar environment. This transformation with economic crisis acts as a major stressor for the persons and their families. However, people may adapt different strategies to adapt this difficult situation and keep themselves healthy. They might have higher coping skills due to what they had to endure. This study aimed to find out the difference in the mental health status and coping strategies among the river bank erosion affected and non-affected people in Bangladesh

Methods

We interviewed 100 adult respondents, of whom 50 had been affected and 50 had never been affected by river erosion in Bangladesh. All the participants completed self-report sociodemographic questionnaires; their mental state was evaluated with the Bangla version of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the coping was measured using the COPE scale.

Result

The mental health well-being score of the affected group was significantly lower than the non-affected group. However, accounting for gender, income and age, the affected group had lower mean score in coping (55.86) then the non-affected group (64.04). However, the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions

Riverbank erosion is a major natural disaster in Bangladesh that makes people vulnerable to mental disorder. However, it receives less attention; we hope this study will stimulate future researcher to explore mental state and coping mechanism in multiple perspectives and develop evidence-based service for them.