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Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT)

Abstract

Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are found in 3-6 out of 1.000 of the newborns, or according to some statistics they are represented in 0.5% of all pregnancies. Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract present a family of diseases of various anatomic spectrum, including renal anomalies, and anomalies of the bladder and urethra. The study was retrospective-prospective which means that it included newly diagnosed patients suffering from CAKUT, as well as those patients with already diagnosed and well defined CAKUT on the basis of imaging studies which have been processed according to the protocol for this study.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract in Children Born Small for Gestational Age

Abstract

Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) represent several types of malformations with occurrence of 1 in about 500 live births.

Objective: Small for gestation age (SGA) may influence in prevalence of CAKUT and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. The aim of this study was to elaborate our experiences with detected CAKUT in a cohort of SGA born children in Macedonia.

Methods: Our cohort consisted of 100 SGA born children investigated for associated congenital anomalies of urinary tract. We analyzed anthropometric and clinical birth data in children with diagnosed CAKUT and estimated the stage and time of onset of CKD by biochemical and imaging technics.

Results: We revealed 7 (7.0%) SGA born children with congenital anomalies of the urinary tract. Their mean birth weight was very low 1855 gr (-3.93 SDS) and the birth length 45.57cm (-2.17 SDS), as well. A significant growth failure with reduced weight and BMI were noticed at the time of diagnosis. A diagnosis of CAKUT in 4/7 was established in the first few months of life, but in others 3 later in early childhood. Three children revealed with unilateral kidney agenesis, 2 had hypo-dysplastic kidneys and in 2 children was found vesicoureteral reflux. Normal glomerular filtration rate was estimated in 2 children with CAKUT. Stage 2 CKD with GFR 60-90 ml/minx1.73m2 had 3 children, 1 patient was graded in stage 3 and one child needed kidney transplantation, stage 5 CKD.

Conclusions: We presented 7 SGA born children with CAKUT. An early recognition, assessment and treatment of these anomalies might improve their quality of life.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Correlation Between Microvessel Density and Morphological Features in Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Abstract

Introduction. Abnormal angiogenesis is described in tumor growth and it facilitates its metastatic spread. Tumors with high angiogenic activity belong to the category of aggressive tumors with poor prognosis for patients.

The aim of this study was to determine the blood vessels density (BVD), i.e. neovascularization at the tumor invasive front in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in order to determine its possible role in the tumor progression, and to correlate it to the blood vessels density of healthy skin and with the prognostic parameters of the TNM classification: T status, depth of tumor invasion (DI) and tumor histological grade (G), which were also correlated between each other.

Material and Methods. The material consisted of surgical specimens obtained from 30 patients with skin SCC, who underwent surgery.

Tissue samples were routinely processed by standard paraffin technique stained by Hematoxilin-Eosin and immunohistochemically with antibodies against smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD34. The BVD in the invasive front of the neoplasms was correlated to the healthy skin, tumor status (pT), depth of invasion and grade of histological differentiation (pG).

Results. The histological analysis has shown a high statistical difference in the density of blood vessels in SCC compared to the healthy skin and statistical difference in BVD in neoplasms with different depth of invasion and different grade of differentiation. The density of neovascularzation increased with the deeper invasion and the worse differentiation.

Conclusion. The increased vascularization at the invasive front of SCC with deeper invasion and worse differentiation has pointed out to its possible role in neoplasm progression.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Extremely Locally Advanced Ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor in 37-Years-Old Female

Abstract

Ovarian carcinosarcomas, rare variant of ovarian carcinoma, composed of both carcinomatous and mesenchymal components, solid and/or cystic, fleshy and hemorrhagic, frequently spreading beyond the ovary, are treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy according to the treatment principles of ovarian carcinomas due to the small number of reported cases and lack of randomized studies. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with clinical signs of extremely locally advanced tumor of ovarian origin, infiltrating the lower left quadrant of the abdominal wall with necrosis of the covering skin. Prior biopsy of the left ovary and omentum confirmed poorly differentiated serous adenocarcinoma. Bulky tumor the size of a child’s head, originating from the left ovary and infiltrating into the lower left quadrant abdominal wall was debulked with wide excision of the abdominal wall and creation of wide defect of the lower left part of abdominal wall covered with Dexon mesh. After the recovery, the medial part of the defect with exposed mesh was closed with pedicled tensor fasciae latae fasciomyocutaneous flap, while the lateral part of the defect was covered with split thickness skin graft. Optimal surgical cytoreduction and adjuvant chemotherapy in case of extremely locally advanced ovarian malignant Müllerian tumor provide satisfactory recurrence-free survival period.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Factors That Influence the Virological Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Treated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin

Abstract

Introduction: The success of the antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C depends on the factors related to the virus and the host. The aim of the study is the analysis of the antiviral therapy which is a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin, considering various factors that will identify the predictors of the sustained virological response. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 226 patients, divided in two groups. Patients with sustained virological response and patients without sustained virological response were compared in terms of the following factors: genotype, viral load, gender, age, inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the liver, metabolic abnormalities, obesity and fatty liver. Results: The rate of the sustained virological response is 83.6%, more frequently in patients with genotype 3, with evidenced statistical significance (90.54%). The factors that significantly contribute to sustained virological response are related to the age (p = 0.0001), genotype (p = 0.002), mode of transmission (p = 0.005), inflammatory changes in the liver (p = 0.028), body mass index (p = 0.022) and insulin resistance (p = 0.039). The high rate of sustained virological response is related to the younger age of the patients which indirectly means short Hepatitis C Virus infection duration, absence of advanced liver disease and lack of significant co-morbid conditions. Single confirmed independent predictors of sustained virological response are the age (OR 0.928, p = 0.0001) and genotype (OR 3.134, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Factors that are related to the virological response are the age, genotype, mode of transmission, inflammatory changes in the liver, body mass index and insulin resistance, but still, independent predictors of sustained virologic response are the age and the genotype.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Neonatal Hypoglycemia: Risk Factors and Outcomes

Abstract

Background and aims: Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of children with hypoglycemia in a random population of newborns.

Patients, methods and results: We investigated 84 patients (M:F=35:48) born at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje (hospitalized in the NICU) who were found to have hypoglycemia. In total 89.25% of the babies were premature. The mean birth weight was 1795.95 +/596.08 grams, the mean birth length was 41.92+/- 4.62 cm, while the mean gestational age was 33.05±3.19 weeks. 32 children (38.08%) were very low birth weight (<1500g), 38 (45.22%) were low birth weight (1500-2500g), while there were 8 children (9.52%) appropriate for age BW and no high BW for age patients (>4000 g).

HG duration was 2.42+/-2.41 hours. In the group as a whole, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was found in 3 children (3.57%), infections in 22 (26.18%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in 9 patients (10.62%), intracranial haemorrhage in 2 patients (2.38%). There were no inborn errors of metabolism. There were two deaths (2.38%).

Conclusion: Neonatal HG is a significant factor in the overall neonatal mortality. HG can also cause severe invalidity. We found that infections, LBW and low gestational age were most commonly associated with neonatal HG. However the Spearman test showed weak direct correlation, without statistical significance. Neonatal HG requires complex and team interaction of prenatal and postnatal approaches to reduce the incidence of seizures, their consequences and the overall mortality. Special consideration is to be taken in measures that avoid neonatal infections, HIE, LBW and low gestational age. Further studies on a larger population are needed to fully understand and prevent the phenomenon of HG in newborns.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Open access
in PRILOZI
Prognostic Factors on the Positivity for Metastases of the Axillary Lymph Nodes from Primary Breast Cancer

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the impact of T stage, the presence of estrogen, progesterone, HER2neu receptors and the values of the Ki67 on the positivity for metastases of the axillary lymph nodes, from primary breast cancer.

Material and methods: 290 surgically treated patients for breast cancer were included in the study. All cases have been analyzed by standard histological analysis including microscopic analysis on standard H&E staining. For determining the molecular receptors - HER2neu, ER, PR, p53 and Ki67, immunostaining by PT LINK immunoperoxidase has been done.

Results: Patients age was ranged between 18-90 years, average of 57.6+11.9. The mean size of the primary tumor in the surgically treated patient was 30.27 + 18.3 mm. On dissection from the axillary pits 8 to 39 lymph nodes were taken out, an average of 13.81+5.56. Metastases have been found in 1 to 23 lymph nodes, an average 3.14+4.71. In 59% of the patients there have been found metastases in the axillary lymph nodes. The univariate regression analysis showed that the location, size of tumor, differentiation of the tumor, stage, the value of the Ki67 and presence of lymphovascular invasion influence on the positivity of the axillary lymph nodes. The presence of the estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2neu receptors showed that they do not have influence on the positivity for metastatic deposits in axillary lymph nodes. The multivariate model and the logistic regression analysis as independent significant factors or predictors of positivity of the axillary lymph nodes are influenced by the tumor size and the positive lymphovascular invasion.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the involving of the axillary lymph nodes is mainly influenced by the size of the tumor and the presence of lymphovascular invasion in the tumor. Ki67 determined proliferative index in the univariate analysis points the important influence of positivity in the axillary lymph nodes, but not in the multivariate regressive analysis.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Synergistic Effect of Hyperoxia and Biotrauma On Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

Abstract

Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) may develop ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Beside the high tidal volume (Vt) and plateau pressure (Pplat), hyperoxia is supposed to precipitate lung injury. Oxygen toxicity is presumed to occur at levels of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) exceeding 0.40. The exposure time to hyperoxia is certainly very important and patients who spend extended time on mechanical ventilation (MV) are probably more exposed to severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI). Together, hyperoxia and biotrauma (release of cytokines) have a synergistic effect and can induce VILI. In the clinical practice, the reduction of FiO2 to safe levels through the appropriate use of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and the alignment of mean airway pressure is an appropriate goal. The strategy for lung protective ventilation must include setting up FiO2 to a safe level that is accomplished by using PaO2/FiO2 ratio with a lower limit of FiO2 to achieve acceptable levels of PaO2, which will be safe for the patient without local (lungs) or systemic inflammatory response. The protocol from the ARDS-net study is used for ventilator setup and adjustment. Cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFα and MIP-2) that are involved in the inflammatory response are determined in order to help the therapeutic approach in counteracting HALI. Computed tomography findings reflect the pathological phases of the diffuse alveolar damage. At least preferably the lowest level of FiO2 should be used in order to provide full lung protection against the damage induced by MV.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Transposition of Subclavian Artery – Is It the Appropriate Choice?

Abstract

Introduction: To present patients with symptomatic subclavian artery disease and treatment possibility.

Case report: A 53-year-old female was admitted with vertigo and left arm claudication. Duplex-scan and MSCT arteriography verified subclavian artery occlusion. After the endovascular treatment failure, the patient was switched to surgical treatment - subclavian artery transposition. After the successful surgical treatment, the patient was discharged on the second postoperative day. If the patient is a candidate for surgery, the literature review shows good initial and long-term results after the subclavian artery transposition, and emphasizes this technique as superior.

Conclusion: Subclavian carotid transposition is a safe and effective method of treatment in patients after endovascular treatment failure or other indication. Also, the surgical treatment is technically demanding because of the difficult access to the vessel origin, and it requires experienced surgeons.

Open access
in PRILOZI