In this paper, the whole process of pile construction and performance during loading is modelled via large deformation finite element methods such as Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) and Updated Lagrangian (UL). Numerical study consists of installation process, consolidation phase and following pile static load test (SLT). The Poznań site is chosen as the reference location for the numerical analysis, where series of pile SLTs have been performed in highly overconsolidated clay (OCR ≈ 12). The results of numerical analysis are compared with corresponding field tests and with so-called “wish-in-place” numerical model of pile, where no installation effects are taken into account. The advantages of using large deformation numerical analysis are presented and its application to the pile designing is shown.
Łukasz Dominik Kaczmarek, Yufeng Zhao, Heinz Konietzky, Tomasz Wejrzanowski and Michał Maksimczuk
The study employs numerical calculations in the characterization of reservoir sandstone samples based on high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. The major goals were to determine porosity through pore size distribution, permeability characterization through pressure field, and structure impact on rock strength by simulation of a uniaxial compression test. Two Miocene samples were taken from well S-3, located in the eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. Due to the relation between sample size and image resolution, two X-ray irradiation series with two different sample sizes were performed. In the first approach, the voxel side was 27 μm and in the second it was up to 2 μm. Two samples from different depths have been studied here. Sample 1 has petrophysical features of conventional reservoir deposits, in contrast to sample 2. The approximate grain size of sample 1 is in the range 0.1-1.0 mm, whereas for sample 2 it is 0.01-0.1 mm with clear sedimentation lamination and heterogenic structure. The porosity, as determined by μCT, of sample 1 is twice (10.3%) that of sample 2 (5.3%). The equivalent diameter of a majority of pores is less than 0.027 mm and their pore size distribution is unimodal right-hand asymmetrical in the case of both samples. In relation to numerical permeability tests, the flow paths are in the few privileged directions where the pressure is uniformly decreasing. Nevertheless, there are visible connections in sample 1, as is confirmed by the homogenous distribution of particles in the pore space of the sample and demonstrated in the particle flow simulations. The estimated permeability of the first sample is approximately four times higher than that of the second one. The uniaxial compression test demonstrated the huge impact of even minimal heterogeneity of samples in terms of micropores: 4-5 times loss of strength compared to the undisturbed sample. The procedure presented shows the promising combination of microstructural analysis and numerical simulations. More specific calculations of lab tests with analysis of variable boundary conditions should be performed in the future.
Waldemar Korzeniowski, Krzysztof Skrzypkowski and Krzysztof Zagórski
The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method for both preparatory and operational workings in underground metal ore mines, both in Poland and in different countries across the world, is the expansion shell or adhesive-bonded rock bolt. The article discusses results of static loading test of the expansion shell rock bolts equipped with originally developed deformable component. This component consists of two profiled rock bolt washers, two disk springs, and three guide bars. The disk spring and disk washer material differs in stiffness. The construction materials ensure that at first the springs under loading are partially compressed, and then the rock bolt washer is plastically deformed. The rock bolts tested were installed in blocks simulating a rock mass with rock compressive strength of 80 MPa. The rock bolt was loaded statically until its ultimate loading capacity was exceeded. The study presents the results obtained under laboratory conditions in the test rig allowing testing of the rock bolts at their natural size, as used in underground metal ore mines. The stress-strain/displacement characteristics of the expansion shell rock bolt with the deformable component were determined experimentally. The relationships between the geometric parameters and specific strains or displacements of the bolt rod were described, and the percentage contribution of those values in total displacements, resulting from the deformation of rock bolt support components (washer, thread) and the expansion shell head displacements, were estimated. The stiffness of the yielded and stiff bolts was empirically determined, including stiffness parameters of every individual part (deformable component, steel rod). There were two phases of displacement observed during the static tension of the rock bolt which differed in their intensity.
The validation of the general stress-dilatancy relationship is shown based on biaxial compression test data presented in the literature under drained and undrained conditions. Rowe’s and Bolton’s relationships can be treated as simplified forms of the general stress-dilatancy relationship. The stress ratio values are a function of not only the dilatancy but also the intermediate principal stress, the non-coaxiality angle defined by Gutierrez and Ishihara and the stress-strain path. For many granular soils, the critical frictional state angle of the shearing resistance Φo = Φ′cv and parameters α and β are functions of the drainage condition, the stress level and the stress and strain paths.
This paper validates the frictional state theory using published experimental data from simple, direct and ring shear tests. Simple shear is treated as a special case of plane strain conditions. In order to define complete stress and strain, additional assumptions are made: in the direct shear and ring shear tests, simple shear is assumed to occur in the shear band. For Φo = Φ′cv = Φ′r, the stress-dilatancy relationship obtained from the frictional state theory is similar to the relationships proposed by Taylor and Bolton. Further experiments, especially those that use a hollow cylindrical shear apparatus, are necessary to fully validate the frictional state theory in simple shear conditions.
Magdalena Habrat, Paulina Krakowska, Edyta Puskarczyk, Mariusz Jędrychowski and Paweł Madejski
The article presents the concept of a computer system for interpreting unconventional oil and gas deposits with the use of X-ray computed tomography results. The functional principles of the solution proposed are presented in the article. The main goal is to design a product which is a complex and useful tool in a form of a specialist computer software for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of images obtained from X-ray computed tomography. It is devoted to the issues of prospecting and identification of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits. The article focuses on the idea of X-ray computed tomography use as a basis for the analysis of tight rocks, considering especially functional principles of the system, which will be developed by the authors. The functional principles include the issues of graphical visualization of rock structure, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of model for visualizing rock samples, interpretation and a description of the parameters within realizing the module of quantitative interpretation.
The formation of a pile in the existing foundation and soil creates a new foundation construction which has a structure of foundation-pile-soil. This construction must be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile to the soil.
The pile structure has to transfer an imposed load. From the point of view of continuum mechanics determination of the capacity of such a system is preceded by the analysis of contact problem of three contact surfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different pairs of materials. The pair which creates a pile anchorage is a material from which the foundation is built (structure of stone and grout, brick and grout, concrete or reinforced concrete and grout. The pile structure is formed by grout and steel rebar. The pile formed in soil is created by a pair of grout and soil. What is important is that on contact surfaces the materials adhering to one another are subjected to different deformation types that are controlled by mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces.
In the paper, additional conditions that should be fulfilled for the foundation-pile-soil system to make load transfer from foundation to soil possible and safe are presented. The results of research done by the author on foundation-pile contact surface are discussed. The tests were targeted at verifying the bearing capacity of anchorage and deformation of piles made of grout and other materials from which foundations are built. The specimens were tested in tension and compression. The experiments were conducted on the amount specimens which is regarded as small sample to enable the statistical analysis of the results.
Corrugated steel plates are highly rigid and as the constructions can be immersed in soil, they can be used as soil-steel structures. With an increase of cover depth, the effectiveness of operating loads decreases. A substantial reduction of the impacts of vehicles takes place as a road or rail surface with its substructure is crucial. The scope of load’s impact greatly exceeds the span L of a shell. This article presents the analysis of deformations of the upper part of a shell caused by a live load. One of the assumptions used in calculations performed in Plaxis software was the circle-shaped shell and the circumferential segment of the building structure in the 2D model. The influence lines of the components of vertical and horizontal displacements of points located at the highest place on the shell were used as a basis of analysis. These results are helpful in assessing the results of measurements carried out for the railway structure during the passage of two locomotives along the track. This type of load is characterized by a steady pressure onto wheels with a regular wheel base. The results of measurements confirmed the regularity of displacement changes during the passage of this load.
Sidali Denine, Noureddine Della, Muhammed Rawaz Dlawar, Feia Sadok, Jean Canou and Jean-Claude Dupla
This paper presents results of a series of undrained monotonic compression tests on loose sand reinforced with geotextile mainly to study the effect of confining stress on the mechanical behaviour of geotextile reinforced sand. The triaxial tests were performed on reconstituted specimens of dry natural sand prepared at loose relative density (Dr = 30%) with and without geotextile layers and consolidated to three levels of confining pressures 50, 100 and 200 kPa, where different numbers and different arrangements of reinforcement layers were placed at different heights of the specimens (0, 1 and 2 layers). The behaviour of test specimens was presented and discussed. Test results showed that geotextile inclusion improves the mechanical behaviour of sand, a significant increase in the shear strength and cohesion value is obtained by adding up layers of reinforcement. Also, the results indicate that the strength ratio is more pronounced for samples which were subjected to low value of confining pressure. The obtained results reveal that high value of confining pressure can restrict the sand shear dilatancy and the more effect of reinforcement efficiently.
An unconventional subdivision of volumetric strains, the newly formulated frictional and critical frictional states and some of energetic and stress condition assumptions result in new stress-plastic dilatancy relationships. These new stress-plastic dilatancy relationships are functions of the deformation mode and drainage conditions. The critical frictional state presented in this paper is a special case of the classical critical state.