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Thermal and Oxygen Conditions of Lake Charzykowskie in the Years 2014-2016

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of thermal and oxygen conditions of the Charzykowskie Lake in the years 2014-2016 in the period from May to August. The measurements were carried out once a month, at points representing three different basins in the lake, and the temperatures and oxygen content dissolved in the water were recorded every 1m from the surface to the bottom at the deepest point of each basin. The changes in temperatures and content of dissolved oxygen were analysed in each of the representative measurement points for particular parts of the lake. It has been shown that the deficit of oxygen dissolved in the bottom layers of the water starts occurring by the beginning of the summer stagnation period, whereas at its peak (August) the anaerobic zone includes hypolimnion and part of the metalimnion. The hypothesis that the thickness of the thermal layers varies within the lake basin was confirmed. It was also shown that the oxygen content curve at representative points, in all years of research, evolves to the form of a clinograde at the peak of summer stagnation, where the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreases with the depth.

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Causes of differences in the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices in Slovenia in comparison to other countries

Abstract

Introduction

The purpose of this study is to analyse and present the causes of the differences in crude utilization rate in cardiac implantation electronic devices, specifically pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, across 5 European countries, with a specific emphasis on Slovenia.

Methods

Based on the results of the analysis of the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices across countries studied in MedtecHTA project, the targeted interviews were conducted to explain the factors that impact the differences and explain data in Slovenia.

Results

The reasons for the differences in crude utilization rate across 5 European countries were multiple: the first group of differences refers to the coding system and linkages between coding and financing of health care. The second group of reasons can be qualitatively ascribed to the economic situation, financial situation in health care, and its impact on decision-making. The last reason is the non-existence of the golden rule for optimal crude utilisation rate.

Conclusions

It is evident that the differences in the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices among the countries are of organisational nature: they refer to the system of coding, the importance attached to correct coding practices, the link between coding and financing of health care as well as the availability of private clinics and private insurance. According to the interviews, the economic development of the country also impacts those differences, whereas the differences in clinical practice and guidelines are claimed not to play a role in the explanation of the differences.

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Health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease

Abstract

Background

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is measuring a patient’s experience of his health status and represents an outcome of medical interventions. Existing data proves that a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in all age groups. Patients with a high risk for cardiovascular disease typically led an unhealthy lifestyle combined with risk diseases. We aimed to analyse these characteristics and their reflection in HRQoL.

Methods

A cross-sectional study in 36 family practices, stratified by location and size. Each practice invited 30 high-risk patients from the register. Data were obtained from medical records and patient questionnaire. The EQ-5D questionnaire and the VAS scale were used for measuring the patient’s HRQoL as an independent variable.

Results

871 patients (80.6% response rate) were included in the analysis. 60.0% had 3-4 uncontrolled risk factors for CVD. The average VAS scale was 63.2 (SD 19.4). The correlation of EQ-5D was found in the number of visits in the practice (r=-0.31, p<0.001), the socioeconomic status (r=-0.25, p=0.001), age (r=-0.27, p=0.001) and healthy diet (r=0.20, p=0.006). In a multivariate model, only physical activity among lifestyle characteristics was an independent predictor of HRQoL (p=0.001, t=3.3), along with the frequency of visits (p<0.001, t=-5.3) and age (p=0.025, t=-2.2).

Conclusion

This study has been performed on a specific group of patients, not being “really sick”, but having less optimal lifestyle in many cases. Encouragement to improve or keep healthy lifestyle, especially physical activity, is important, not only to lower the risk for CVD, but also to improve HRQoL.

Open access
The importance of the occupational vocal load for the occurence and treatment of organic voice disorders

Abstract

Introduction

The voice represents a basic working tool for carrying out certain occupations. Hoarseness, as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, presents an important cause of work-related absences for voice professionals.

Methods

Our study was designed as a retrospective cohort one. Data on gender, workplace, vocal load and exposure to risk factors for voice disorders of the patients who had surgery in the 2014-2015 period at the tertiary centre due to benign vocal fold lesions were collected from their clinical records. We compared professional voice users (PVU) to subjects with no vocal load at work (NPVU). The SPSS programme, version 22.0, was used for statistical analysis.

Results

From 2014 to 2015, 103 PVU and 132 NPVU were surgically treated for benign vocal fold lesions. In comparison to the second group, loud speech use was reported significantly more often by PVU (40.8% vs. 14.4%), as was a fast speaking rate (22.3% vs. 9.8%) and additional vocal load outside of the workplace (23.3% vs. 12.9%). The time that had passed between the occurrence of the hoarseness and the surgical treatment did not differ between the groups. The majority of patients were satisfied with the outcome of the operation.

Conclusions

Nearly a half of the operated patients had a considerable vocal load at work. An ENT assessment prior to starting a job as well as priority phoniatric treatment of voice disorders for PVU would significantly reduce the costs of work absences and contribute to a speedier recovery and return to the workplace.

Open access
Increasing postural deformity trends and body mass index analysis in school-age children

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was to analyse the deviations of the body posture and to assess the occurrence of spine deformities. Additionally, Body Mass Index in school children was related to the trend in postural deformities for different age groups (5-8 years old, n=112; 9-11 years old, n=205; 12-14 years old, n=212) as part of the project “Spine Lab”, granted from the European Commission IPA founds, investigating the importance of public health issues.

Methods

Body posture was measured using Contemplas 3D software analyser, based on video image trajectory and BIA weight scale (Tanita BC 420). Overall, 17 variables were assessed, and differences were confirmed using MANOVA analysis.

Results

The results showed that there is a significant difference between age groups for the measured variables (F=9.27; p<0.01; η2=0.26), suggesting a moderate difference across the age span.

Conclusion

The study results showed that there is a negative trend of increasing Body Mass Index within the first and youngest age group. The fact is that the trend of increasing deformity of the shoulder belt has been noted, often inclining towards the formation of milder forms of kyphotic posture. Other forms of deformity that are accentuated in the survey results are the negative trend of increasing pelvic rotation and pelvis rotation which inclines towards the formation of lordotic posture for all three age groups.

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Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women – from the point of view of primary care gynecologist

Abstract

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent public health problem with osteoporosis-related fractures that account for high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention strategies and early detection of osteoporosis should be carried out in primary gynaecological care units, so as to substantially reduce the risk of fractures and allow the best treatment option for a particular woman.

Methods

From 2002 to 2011, we recruited 2956 women. Of the total number of women, we additionally extrapolated 1274 women aged 60-75 years, assumingly, the group of women at higher risk of osteoporosis. Demographic and anthropometrical data as well as the information regarding risk factors for osteoporosis were collected using a questionnaire.

Results

The odds ratio for osteoporosis increased by 8% (p=0.001) with each additional year of life. The OP prevalence increased with age from 24.9% in 60-64 years to 37.4% in 70-75 years. In non-smokers the odds ratio for osteoporosis was 0.424, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). BMI <18.5 increased the odds ratio for osteoporosis by 2 times, which was not statistically significant. In women 60-75 years old (N=1274), the risk of fractures increased with increasing age, considering previous fractures in the last 5 years (p<0.001), hip fracture (p=0.001), wrist fracture (p=0.002) and observed height loss (p<0.001). Hormone therapy (HT) use decreased the prevalence of OP by 25% in comparison with non-users.

Conclusion

Primary care gynaecologist with a DXA centre has every opportunity for a holistic approach to the management of postmenopausal women, including the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Open access
A temporal profile of pro-abstinence-oriented constructs from the modified theory of planed behavior in a Slovenian clinical sample of treated alcoholics – an 18-year follow-up

Abstract

Introduction

Using the modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (mTPB), different indicators of therapeutic success were studied to understand pro-abstinence behavioural orientation during an 18-year after-care period following a 3-month intensive alcoholism treatment. The indicators were: perceived needs satisfaction (NS), normative differential (ND), perceived alcohol utility (UT), beliefs about treatment programme benefits (BE) and behavioural intentions (BI).

Methods

The sample of 167 patients who consecutively started an intensive alcoholism treatment programme has been followed-up for 18 years, using standardised ailed instruments at the end of the treatment, and in the years 4-5, 9 and 18 of follow-up. The last data collection was completed by 32 subjects in 2010. The analysis followed the standard explore-analyse-explore approach. After the initial descriptive exploration of data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) in SPSS statistical package was set to explore between-groups and within-groups differences over time.

Results

At the between-group level, BI remained stable at the same level as at the end of the treatment programme, whereas BE and UT robustly changed over time and levelled off after 10 years of follow-up. NS and ND show a trend of pro-abstinent orientation and level off after 10 years of follow-up, although the trend is not significant. The same results were confirmed by the within-subject level.

Conclusions

Studied constructs stabilised after ten years of follow-up, apart from BI. The latter suggests that BI level needed for completion of an intensive treatment programme suffices for the maintenance of abstinence when accompanied by the change in perception of alcohol usefulness.

Open access
Effects of Hyperbaric Exposure on the Cardiovascular System. Role of the Autonomous Nervous System

Abstract

Introduction Among experienced divers, dive adaptation is seen as a modified pattern of physiological changes. This is reflected, inter alia, in the change in cardiovascular responses, therefore there is need to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in cardiovascular response modulation after hyperbaric exposure. Material and methods Ten experienced divers took part in the study. The effects of hyperbaric exposure at 30 and 60 meters and interaction (depth x time) were measured. Changes in HR, RRI, CI and HRV values have been taken into analysis. Results Hyperbaric exposure at 30 meters significantly affected HFnu-RRI elevation and decrease of LFnu-RRI (F = 42.92, p <0.00001), without significant affecting the HR, RRI and CI. Exposure to hyperbaric 60 m increased HR and CI (F = 7.64, p = 0.01 and F = 4.89, p = 0.04 respectively) and RRI (F = 7.69, p = 0.01), without significant impact on other variables. The influence of interaction (depth x time) was significant in all measured variables. Conclusions The results indicate that hyperbaric exposure at 60 meters affected HR, RRI, CI parameters, that were not significantly affected by hyperbaric exposure at 30 meters. On the other hand, the exposure at 30 meters showed a significant effect on the LFnu and HFnu HRV, which were not significantly affected by the exposure at 60 meters. Significant effect of time and depth interaction in each of the analyzed variables was observed.

Open access
Experimental Research Into the Effect of Hyperbaric Exposures

Abstract

Numerous research works indicate that staying in a hyperbaric environment is a stressor. We have undertaken studies using an animal model to determine the effect of hyperbaria on adrenocortical secretion and the level of adrenal ascorbic acid (a.a.a.). The research was conducted on 70 male hooded rats, which were divided into groups and subjected to hyperbaric air and oxygen at an overpressure of 1 and 3 atn, with some of the animals being additionally burdened with physical effort (swimming). It was found that short-term exposures (30 minutes) of rats to hyperbaric conditions caused a decrease in the content of a.a.a. With a prolonged (3-hour) exposure to 3 atm air the a.a.a. content returns to a normal level. A reduction in the a.a.a. content indicates the presence of stress in hyperbaric conditions in the rat, however, it does not allow to determine its intensity with the method used in the study.

Open access
Formal and Professional Requirements for the Staff of Hyperbaric Centres. Part 1

Abstract

This two-part article reviews the current legal situation of specialist staff performing hyperbaric procedures for purposes not related to diving. Numerous discrepancies between the applicable legal acts and the lack of legal regulations concerning procedures not financed from the state budget have been noted. The first significant problem consisted in the lack of a correlation between various Regulations of the Minister of Health concerning hyperbaric oxygenation, as well as inconsistencies with the programmes of medical specialisation effective in Poland. The second problem is the lack of determination requirements of medical personnel other than doctors and nurses in the documents of the Ministry of Health. It was also found that medical hyperbaric centres which do not apply for funding from the budget (National Health Fund), do not even meet the minimum requirements defined as to the qualifications of the staff working there. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge of the requirements set out in legal acts other than those concerning medicine.

Open access