There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD) - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an important cancer imaging tool, both for diagnosing and staging, as well as offering predictive information based on response. PET is a nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body. While PET is commonly used to detect the tumors, especially in breast, colon, lung and for lymphoma, as well in the last decade it is verified as considerably more accurate than Computed Tomography (CT) in the distinction between benign and malignant lesions. PET is not only more accurate than conventional imaging for the assessment of therapy response, but also it is useful to detect some viable tumor cells after treatment. However, motion is a source of artifacts in the medical imaging and results in reducing the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the image. In general during the procedure of PET scanning, a few types of motion can occur that should be corrected and compensated. Different body motions are classified as brain motion, cardiac motion and respiratory motion. In this study, some of the most important motion correction and compensation methods using PET imaging system are compared.
I. Dimitrova Ivanova, B. Atanasova, S. Dragneva, L. Vladimirova, Z. Krastev, A. Kostadinova, A. Ivanova and K. Tzatchev
Pre-analytical factors of variation need to be carefully considered and investigated in efforts to harmonize all aspects of the total testing process. This study aimed to evaluate contamination and stability in copper (Cu) analysis of serum and urine by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and to compare the stability of urine Cu in controls and in D-penicillamine (D-PA) administration. Cu was measured by AAnalyst 400, Perkin Elmer, USA. Blood was collected in BD Vacutainer®SSTTM II Advance tubes and BD Vacutainer® Trace Element tubes. Sterile polyethylene and polypropylene vessels for collection, transportation, storage and preliminary preparation of samples were used in urinalysis. Stability in serum and 24 h urine was evaluated in two temperature regimens: 15-25°C and 2-8°C, for particular time of storage. No significant differences (p = 0.20) in Cu concentration was found between the two types of tested tubes with patient`s sera. The stability of the samples (serum and urine) was better at refrigeration temperature. In urine the stability was better in D-PA administration.Standardization of Cu analysis could be achieved by assessing the aspects of pre-analytical factors of variations.
A. Shariat, Sh. Bahri Mohd Tamrin, A. Daneshjoo and H. Sadeghi
Biological rhythm of sleeping is a natural disparity in an organism corresponding to and in reply to cyclic environmental changes, such as daylight hours and hours of darkness or elevated and low down flow. There is some evidence, based upon epidemiological studies as well as studies upon smaller groups of subjects, that individuals who work during the night and sleep during the daytime show cognitive impairment at work, have poorer and fragmented daytime sleep, and have increased risks of developing a wide range of social, psychological, physiological and medical impairments and disorders. Circadian rhythms are one of the most important effective factors on the physiological and physical performances of humans and disturbing this normal rhythm leads to different groups of diseases. The majority of investigations in biological rhythm demeanor vary noticeably in regards to the exact type of disease, population and protocols of sampling over the other outcomes or issues. We conducted a systematic review of [Science Direct, Pubmed, Scopus] to identify influence of different kinds of diseases among shift workers in response to abnormal rhythm of sleeping. The results of this review indicate that abnormal patterns of sleeping can lead to immunological issues, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, insomnia, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression. It is vital for subsequent investigations to find a way to reduce negative effects (such as decreased amount of works’ time and altered diet) without side effects to help them.
V. Svechtarov, S. Nencheva-Svechtarova and Ts. Uzunov
The objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of the most common diagnoses observed in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders, based on the new diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD) adopted in 2014. The previous Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD) adopted in 1992, consisted of three main groups of eight diagnostic subgroups and is currently transformed into two main groups and twelve subgroups, respectively. All subgroups correspond to the nomenclature of the ICD-10. The new clinical diagnostic indices are also modified. The analysis showed a prevalence of Pain-Related TMD compared with that of intra-articular disorders in ratio 57.89% to 42.10%. In Pain-Related TMD arthralgia was represented in 55% of cases; local myalgia - in 12%, myofascial pain - in 18%, myofascial pain with referral - in 14%, headache attributed to TMD - in 1%. In Intra-articular TMD disc displacement with reduction was found in 23% of the cases, disc displacement with reduction with intermittent locking - in 3%, disc displacement without reduction with limited opening - in 25%, disc displacement without reduction and without limited opening - in 8%. Degenerative diseases were found in 14.28%, and hypermobility and subluxations - in 26.98%. These analyzes differ and can only partly be compared with previous analyzes based on RDC system. The changes in the diagnostic criteria require new clinical studies in order to refine the picture of temporomandibular pathology in accordance with the modern views on the matter.
Surgical treatment of gynecomastia could present unique challenges for the plastic surgeon. Achieving a good balance between effectiveness of the selected approach and the satisfactory aesthetic outcome often is a difficult endeavor. Optimal surgical treatment involves a combination of liposuction and direct excision. In the present study the charts of 11 patients treated with suction-assisted liposuction and direct surgical excision were retrospectively reviewed; a special emphasis is placed on the surgical technique. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 11.6 months. No infection, hematoma, nipple-areola complex necrosis and nipple retraction was encountered in this series. The combined surgical treatment of gynecomastia has shown to be a reliable technique in both small and moderate breast enlargement including those with skin excess.
A study of the public opinion in Bulgaria in regard to the possibility of the adult children, created by gamete donation, to learn who their biological parents are was made. This investigation was an on-line survey. The participants in the study are individuals between 18 and 65 years of age - Internet users. The survey was included into different web sites and this enlarged the number of respondents (up to 994) and 85% of them were persons in fertile age - from 18 to 43 years. The answers of the respondents in relation of the demographic features - gender, age, education, family status and place of living were studied. The data were calculated with the special statistical product SPSS 16. A critical level of significance 0.05 was used. Results: Almost half (47%) of the respondents agree that the children born from gamete donors have the right to know at adulthood their biological parents, 35% disagree and 18% have no opinion. The demographic features influencing the answers of the question are the gender, the education and the family status of the respondents (p < 0.05). Most of the men (60%) consider that the children have the right to know their biological parents while only 44% of the women approve. The highest support of the idea about contact between the donors and their genetic off springs show the people with secondary education (56%) and the most skeptical are the respondents with high non-medical education (40%). The family status influences the opinion of the respondents - the approval of the married and unmarried is 38% and 60%, respectively.
Causes for plexus brachialis damage are versatile, and in some cases remain unknown, but mostly result from degenerative and inflammatory processes. Treatment of brachial plexus dysfunction is often conservative and is subject to a team of specialists - neurologists, traumatologists, rehabilitation physicians, kinesitherapists and occupational therapists. The objective of the research is to report the recovery of patients with lesion of plexus brachialis after a complex physiotherapy and rehabilitation treatment program that includes electrostimulation, remedial massage, kinesitherapy, electrotherapy and occupational therapy. A total of 159 patients, treated at the Clinic of Physical Therapy, University Hospital of Pleven, were included in the study. Improvement of measured indexes: pain assessment, centimetry, assessment of upper limb muscle weakness, dynamometry and functional test of activities of daily living, was registered in all patients under observation. In order to achieve good results in the rehabilitation of patients with injured plexus brachialis, timely diagnosis, good medication therapy and early start of complex physiotherapy and rehabilitation are of crucial importance, so that performance of daily living activities improves. The good results come slowly and with difficulties, but the quality of life of patients and the quality of labor performed by them, improves significantly.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that have a role of post-transcriptional regulators. In this study we investigated how the tumour suppressor miR-15a modulates main transcription factors like cMYB and AR in androgen sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The miR-15a inhibitor, mimic, and their negative controls were transfected into LNCaP cells. Real-time PCR analysis was performed in order to estimate the transcript levels of cMYB and AR. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure the protein levels of cMYB and AR. A Cell migration assay was done for cells transfected with miR-15a inhibitor and mimic. We found that cMYB is down-regulated and AR is up-regulated by miR-15a on the transcriptional and protein levels. By reconstituting miR-15a, we found that its down regulation in prostate cancer contributes to cMYB-induced cancer progression and reduced androgen receptivity. The ability of miR-15a to suppress cancer cell viability and migration is a very important phenomenon for understanding cancer heterogeneity in regard to adapted therapeutic approach development.