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Genetic testing for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). There is insufficient data to determine the prevalence of FEVR. Variations in the FZD4 (OMIM gene: 604579; OMIM disease: 133780), TSPAN12 (OMIM gene: 613138; OMIM disease: 613310) and ZNF408 (OMIM gene: 616454; OMIM disease: 616468) genes have autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas variations in LRP5 (OMIM gene: 603506; OMIM disease: 601813) have autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance and variations in NDP (OMIM gene: 300658; OMIM disease: 305390) have X-linked inheritance. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, ophthalmological examination, fundoscopy, slit-lamp examination and fluorescein angiography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GACR). GACR is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and has a prevalence of 1/50000 in Finland. In the international literature there are approximately 200 biochemically confirmed cases. GACR is caused by mutations in the OAT gene. Clinical diagnosis involves ophthalmological examination, electrophysiological testing (electroretinography - ERG), coherence tomography and assay of ornithine levels in body fluids. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for infantile nystagmus

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for infantile nystagmus (IN). Forms of IN associated with variations in CACNA1F, FRMD7 and GPR143 genes have X-linked recessive inheritance, whereas variations in SLC38A8, TYR and TYRP1 genes have an autosomal recessive inheritance and variations in COL11A1, CRYBA1 and PAX6 genes have an autosomal dominant inheritance. The prevalence of all forms of IN is estimated to be 1 in 5000. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination, fundoscopy, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, slit lamp examination and visual evoked potentials. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for inherited eye misalignment

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Inherited eye misalignment (IEM). Forms of IEM associated with variations in the SALL4, CHN1, TUBB3 and KIF21A genes have autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas those associated with variations in the ROBO3, PHOX2A, HOXA1 and HOXB1 genes have autosomal recessive inheritance. The prevalence of MS is currently unknown. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, visual acuity testing and fundus examination. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Leber congenital amaurosis

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). LCA is mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, rarely in an autosomal dominant manner, with an overall prevalence of 2-3/100,000 live births, and is caused by mutations in the AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, CRX, GDF6, GUCY2D, IFT140, IMPDH1, IQCB1, KCNJ13, LCA5, LRAT, NMNAT1, RD3, RDH12, RPE65, RPGRIP1, SPATA7 and TULP1 genes. Clinical diagnosis involves ophthalmological examination and electrophysiological testing (electroretinography - ERG). The genetic test is useful for confirmation of diagnosis, differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Mendelian cataract

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for Mendelian cataract (MC). MC is caused by variations in the AGK, BFSP1, BFSP2, CHMP4B, CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBA1, CRYBA2, CRYBA4, CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, CRYGC, CRYGD, CRYGS, EPHA2, EYA1, FYCO1, FOXE3, FTL, GALK1, GCNT2, GJA3, GJA8, HSF4, LEMD2, LIM2, LSS, MAF, MIP, NHS, PITX3, PAX6, SIPA1L3, SLC16A12, TDRD7, UNC45B, VIM, VSX, and WFS1 genes. The overall prevalence of congenital forms is 71 per 100 000, whereas there is insufficient data to determine the prevalence of the juvenile and age-related forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination and slit-lamp examination. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Mendelian glaucoma

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Mendelian glaucomas, a large heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, classified according to age of onset as congenital glaucoma, juvenile glaucoma and age-related glaucoma. Variations in the TEK, MYOC, ASB10, NTF4, OPA1, WDR36 and OPTN genes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and variations in the CYP1B1 and LTBP2 genes have autosomal recessive inheritance. The prevalence of congenital glaucoma is estimated at 1-9 per 100 000, that of juvenile glaucoma at 1 per 50 000, while there is insufficient data to establish the prevalence of age-related glaucoma. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy and fundoscopy. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Mendelian myopia

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Mendelian myopia (MM), a large and heterogeneous group of inherited refraction disorders. Variations in the SLC39A5, SCO2 and COL2A1 genes have an autosomal dominant transmission, whereas those in the LRPAP1, P3H2, LRP2 and SLITRK6 genes have autosomal recessive transmission. The prevalence of MM is currently unknown. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, ophthalmological examination and other tests depending on complications. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for non syndromic retinitis pigmentosa

Abstract

We reviewed the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for non syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (NSRP). NSRP is determined by variations in the ABCA4, AGBL5, ARL2BP, ARL6, BBS2, BEST1, C2orf71, C8orf37, CA4, CDHR1, CERKL, CLRN1, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRB1, CRX, DHDDS, EYS, FAM161A, FSCN2, GUCA1B, HGSNAT, IDH3B, IFT140, IFT172, IMPDH1, IMPG2, KIZ, KLHL7, LRAT, MAK, MERTK, NEK2, NR2E3, NRL, OFD1, PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, POMGNT1, PRCD, PROM1, PRPF3, PRPF31, PRPF4, PRPF6, PRPF8, PRPH2, RBP3, RDH12, RGR, RHO, RLBP1, ROM1, RP1, RP2, RP9, RPE65, RPGR, SAG, SEMA4A, SLC7A14, SNRNP200, SPATA7, TOPORS, TTC8, TULP1, USH2A, ZNF408 and ZNF513 genes. Its overall prevalence is 1 per 4000. It is mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, fewer genes have autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive transmission. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus autofluorescence, electroretinography, color vision testing and optical coherence tomography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Norrie disease

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Norrie disease. The disease is caused by variations in the NDP gene. Its prevalence is currently unknown. Inheritance is X-linked recessive. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, optical coherence tomography, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access