Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Andrei Leonid Chirita and Mihai Sandulescu
BACKGROUND. The infraorbital recess of the maxillary sinus can reach in front of the nasolacrimal duct to become prelacrimal recess. During a routine Cone Beam CT (CBCT) study of a male patient of 72 years old, there were bilaterally found infraorbital maxillary air cells (IMACs) resulted after the almost complete closure of infraorbital recesses of the maxillary sinuses. Only that on the left side was reaching in front of the nasolacrimal canal. The closure of each infraorbital recess leaded to a narrow draining passage opened in the terminal end of the maxillary infundibulum, thus proximal to the maxillary sinus ostium. On the left side, a small cell of the lacrimal bone was interposed between the IMAC drainage pathway and the nasolacrimal canal. On the right side, the nasolacrimal canal was communicating with the ethmoidal infundibulum. Such an anatomic variation in the infraorbital angle of the maxillary sinus can impede the endoscopic procedures which use the anterior lacrimal pathway.
Cough is a common symptom encountered in medical practice and can occur throughout the life of a person. From a physiological point of view, it represents a mechanism responsible for the elimination of secretions from the airways. At the same time, cough may be the first symptom of an illness. There are many causes that may lead to the emergence of a chronic cough syndrome, the most frequent being pulmonary diseases. Besides the bronchopulmonary pathology, there are a number of extrapulmonary disorders that may manifest with coughing. The first step in evaluating the patient with chronic cough is performing a correct and complete anamnesis, followed by the physical examination of the patient. The treatment of the chronic cough syndrome must address mainly the underlying disease but, in case of failure of the established treatment, the antitussive therapy is used.
Nicoleta Dumitrescu, Raluca Enache and Codrut Sarafoleanu
BACKGROUND. Nasal obstruction may trigger obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and it is considered to be a cofactor in its pathophysiology. However, the relation between cause and effect still remains a matter of debate.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. 18 patients diagnosed with chronic hypertrophic rhinitis and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were included in the present study. All patients underwent nasal surgery as the single treatment for their sleep breathing disorders. Rhinomanometric (total nasal airflow, logReff, logVR) and polygraphic parameters (apnea-hypopnea index - AHI, snore flags index – SFI) were evaluated pre- and 2 months postoperatively.
RESULTS. There was a statistically significant difference between the values of the preoperative and postoperative total nasal airflow (p-value<0.0001). In case of AHI, there was a decrease in its value from 31.56 preoperatively to 30.03 postoperatively, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.937). The SFI, on the other hand, presented a significant decrease (p=0.05), from a mean value of 93.15 preoperatively to 56.02 after the surgery. The correlation of the total nasal airflow with AHI and SFI, revealed that nasal surgery had an important impact upon snoring characteristics (r=0.24) and less upon OSAS severity (r=0.21).
CONCLUSION. The nasal cavity obstruction contributes less to OSAS, but still represents a disorder that needs to be corrected in case of such patients. Turbinates reduction surgery may be applied in the treatment of OSAS and combined with palate and/or tongue surgery.
Andreea Grosu-Bularda, Claudiu Manea, Luana Lazarescu and Ioan Lascar
Nasal reconstruction is challenging, considering surgical techniques complexity and difficulties in remodelling a tridimensional structure. Reconstructive requirements are: correct deformity evaluation, selecting the most suitable treatment option, respecting the principle of aesthetic subunit, appropriate reconstruction of each affected nasal layer, long-term stabile functional and aesthetic results. Reconstructive procedures range from simple to very complex. Conventional techniques can fail in restoring a satisfactory appearance in severely disfigured patients, for whom a new possibility arises: Vascularized Composite Allografts (VCA) transplantation.
In this paper, we focus on nasal skeletal framework restoration. Structural defects may require a large amount of reconstructive material obtained usually from cartilage or bone autografts. Autologous cartilage is the gold standard in nasal architectural recovery, but in some cases, autologous graft sources are not available, imposing the necessity to use alternative solutions represented by the allografts or alloplastic materials. We analysed the specific features of skeletal allografts used in nasal reconstruction.
With current clinical experience, the use of cartilage and bone allografts (especially irradiated cartilage homografts) shows a promising reconstructive option for nasal structural defects. For extensive facial defects, including midface deformities, impossible to restore with traditional surgical techniques, a new reconstructive era was open through the development of the VCA field.
Ivan Lulchev Chenchev, Dimitar Todorov Atanasov and Dilyana Vicheva
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the options for treatment of Miller’s Class I and Class II gingival recessions using coronally advanced flap (CAF) and platelet-rich fibrin membrane (PRFm) with CAF and connective tissue graft (CTG).
MATERIAL AND METHODS. A surgical treatment was carried out on 30 subjects (23 women and 7 men), with a total of 118 symmetrical recessions of Class I and Class II by Miller on different places of the jaws, using two different methods. On one side of the jaw was held a plastic covering of the recessions with CAF in combination with PRFm (test group), and on the other side – CAF in combination with connective tissue graft (control group). The clinical evaluation includes: gingival recession depth (GRD), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), keratinized gingival width (KGW), gingival thickness (GTH), mean percent of root coverage (RC %). The results were observed six months postoperatively.
RESULTS. The average values for the GRD measured six months postoperatively for the control group were 0.37±0.36 mm and 0.70±0.41 mm for the test group. The results for CAL for the control group were 2.01±0.44 mm and 2.28±0.50 mm for the test group, while the mean percentage of root coverage (RC %) was 90.29±9.05% for the control group and 80.48±10.19% for the test group. The values for GTH were 1.04±0.16mm for the control group and 0.92±0.09 mm for the test group.
CONCLUSION. Both compared methods show good results in terms of all evaluated parameters. The group treated with CAF + CTG showed better results with a statistically significant difference for the RC% and the average values for GRD, GTH and CAL. The results of our study demonstrate a good potential for PRFm used in the treatment of Miller’s Class I and Class II gingival recessions.
Elena Patrascu, Claudiu Manea and Codrut Sarafoleanu
Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important pathological entity, a highly controversial topic in the medical world today, by the various research directions it offers. In order to be able to predict a patient’s prognosis and his response to treatment, first we must have a classification of fungal rhinosinusitis. The authors considered it is important to make a distinction between invasive and noninvasive forms of fungal rhinosinusitis. The most important step in the management of fungal rhinosinusitis is to have a correct diagnosis, based on strong criteria, which will lead to a better prognosis of this disease. Because of its invasiveness potential, especially in patients at risk, it is essential to have a correct and fast diagnosis in case of fungal rhinosinusitis, in order to begin the treatment as fast as possible, for a favourable prognosis. The only way to establish diagnosis in a reliable way is to make a detailed clinical examination and to take biopsy samples.
Dan Cristian Gheorghe and Adina Zamfir-Chiru-Anton
Tumors of the maxillary sinus pose difficult challenges in a young patient. Our paper presents a very rare case of an odontogenic myxoma extended to the maxillary sinus, in a 14-year-old girl. The clinical picture suggested a malignancy or a local infection. The surgical removal was complete and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussions are made from the perspective of already published cases. A review of the disease is performed.
CONCLUSION. Myxoma is a benign but aggressive tumor, needing complete surgical excision for a good long-term outcome.
Polcalcins are highly cross-reactive calcium-binding allergen components specifically expressed in pollen from trees, grasses and weeds. The grass allergen component rPhl p 7, a recombinant non-glycosylated calcium-binding protein of 2-EF-hand type, is the most cross-reactive polcalcin and may be used as a polcalcin biomarker of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Polcalcin sensitization, which appears to be linked to geographical factors, level and time of pollen exposure, has to be assessed in allergic rhinitis patients with multiple pollen sensitizations and may be useful for a better targeted prescription of allergen immunotherapy.
Carlos Miguel Chiesa Estomba, Frank Alberto Betances Reinoso and Carmelo Santidrian Hidalgo
BACKGROUND. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a reliable option in the treatment of sinus pathology, but the presence of the anatomical variant and difficult cases like massive polyposis or revision FESS can generate some problems to surgeons.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. After performing an unciformectomy, a partial anterior ethmoidectomy and maxillary ostium antrostomy, we slide a cottonoid back to the basal lamella of the middle turbinate with a Cottle dissector and introduce it in the superior meatus. After that, we return to the middle meatus and proceed to open the basal lamella finding the cottonoid placed there previously.
RESULTS. An easy technique, safe and reproducible, that allows us to advance in our dissection, avoiding damaging important structures.
CONCLUSION. In this paper we present a safe way to approach the posterior ethmoidal cells complex in the classic way through the basal lamella of the middle turbinate, under the guidance of a cottonoid, a safe and easy maneuver to do this procedure in the beginning of our formation or in complex cases.