Interest in the subject of this article arose in connection with searching for the causes of this innovativeness of the Polish economy compared to other EU countries. It was also accompanied by the desire to find possible solutions to this situation, discovering various methods of increasing the level of innovativeness in Poland.
We are assuming that the level of innovativeness is affected by social awareness in the field of innovativeness. The basic, root cause of this state of innovativeness of the country is the level of awareness of innovation. An innovative economy cannot be built in an uninnovative environment.
An attempt has been made in this paper to answer the following three questions:
• How can the concepts of innovativeness and innovativeness awareness be defined, and why should they be discussed?
• What role can higher education institutions play in shaping innovativeness awareness in society
• What marketing actions of a higher education establishment can contribute to this role being fulfilled?
In the article the problems of work perceiving by employees of scientific organizations in the context of marketing orientation rules were presented. It has the theoretical-empirical character. The following research goals were to be gained: identifying the way of work perceiving by respondents; defining the potential dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially its stress dimension) and chosen aspects of professional life. 4 research hypotheses were to be verified. In the empirical part the results of the field researches were presented. To analyse gathered field data the method of correspondence analysis was used. It allowed to gain the research goals and to verify the hypotheses. All of these hypotheses were confirmed. It means that there are statistically significant dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially as stress factor) and analysed row variables. They are relatively the strongest in the case of respondents’ openness for improvement of their intellectual potential. The gained results show that scientific organizations playing the role of employers must conduct activities leading up to positive work perceiving by employees. In this case employees want to improve their knowledge and skills. They are ready to co-create the positive image of given employer too.
This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.
The article presents a thesis that the primary premise of creating marketing strategies for higher education institution is a three-dimensional notion of marketing. The first dimension lies in the theoretical notions of the essence of marketing, including the transactional marketing (1.0), relationship marketing (2.0) and spiritual marketing (3.0). The second dimension is formed by methods of marketing research and accurate notions of marketing, while the third are channels of marketing information. Harmonizing these three dimensions is a precondition for effective marketing. Another conditions for effective strategies include: aligning goals of the chosen strategy with the mission of higher education institution, correct choice of targeted segments of the market and of marketing tools. The article also gives a sample classification of marketing strategies based on these criteria, with emphasis on the fact, that every higher education institution employs its own strategy.
A growing number of entities operating in the Polish sector of higher education and science and research aspire to have an active presence in foreign markets and even in the global market. This presence must be accompanied by thoughtful marketing strategies using effective marketing tools. The aim of the article is to indicate the possibility of using the knowledge of international marketing to increase the efficiency of the entities of the Polish sector of education and research. Particular attention was paid to the intercultural nature of the international marketing, especially in relation to the system to communicate with foreign customers in the Internet space. The article uses the following sources of information: official statistics, research reports, professional periodicals, case studies.
The aim of the article is to analyze the use of websites in communication activities and image building of national scientific institutions. One of the reasons for undertaking this subject is the greater attention paid to scientific communication and its link to the need for society involvement in research, that was expressed in the “Rome Declaration on Responsible Research and Innovation in Europe” in 2014. Apart from that, there is an enhanced science mediatization that requires from PR specialists an extra effort to ensure that their messages are not distorted. The subject seems to be vital as there is a growing emphasis on commercialization of scientific research that creates the need to undertake deliberate efforts to popularize scientific discoveries. Moreover, a demographic decline, which more and more touches higher education institutions and forces them to strive for creating well-known brands, contributes to the subject’s importance.
In order to realize the objective, in July 2015, 605 websites of national research institutions were reviewed to determine whether their operators shared contact details to the employee responsible for communication, posted messages informing about current events as well as visual content, used such tools as newsletters, RSS feeds and social media, utilized solutions that facilitate contacts with experts and reprinted materials about themselves published by other medias. The analyzes were performed taking into account the type of each scientific institution (i.e.: a public university, a private university, a research institute or the PAS institute), its size and the empowerment to award scientific degrees.
The results show that relatively few scientific institutions fully exploit the potential of websites in public relations activities. According to anticipation, scientific institutions with a department or at least a single position responsible for communication are more active in this field. Moreover, public higher education institutions conduct the most professional communication. There is no clear regularity between the size of institutions and their activity in the field of communication, except for private universities. However, the greater engagement in communication activities is observed within the institutions authorized to award scientific degrees.
In addition, conducted research, on the one hand, resulted in identification of the most common mistakes committed in website communication, but on the other hand, revealed the examples of websites that performed their communication and image-building functions excellently. Such information may serve as a benchmark for practitioners who would like to assess their websites and correct eventual defects.
The issue of innovativeness and innovation in the higher education sector is becoming increasingly important. Universities adopt the outside-inside type of attitude in order to strengthen their position in the education market and to conform to new circumstances.
The desirability and possibility of implementation of pro-innovation attitudes by Polish universities was discussed in the paper. Starting from the literature review in terms of innovation, determinants forcing innovativeness on research units were discussed and also organizational and managerial issues were presented. The paper was summed up by examples of marketing innovations that have been implemented in selected Polish universities.
Reputation Management deals with establishing, maintaining and strengthening a positive reputation for an object in order to build trust, commitment and lasting relationships. Positive reputation is considered a major intangible asset of companies as it contributes to their value creation. Reputation and reputation management, therefore, are well-established perspectives in marketing theory. This paper examines reputation in matters of scientific organisations. Drawing on conventional (commercial marketing) models of reputation management and derived characteristics of scientific organisations, a modified framework is deduced, named the Scientific Organisations Reputation Model (SORM). As this model widely fits the specific requirements of this type of organisation it will be useful for the complex task of marketing scientific organisations. Using the SORM framework, scientific organisations will be able to understand the formation of their own reputation in a more comprehensive way and will be able to improve their reputation-relevant management processes. The framework is exemplified and examined more closely using the case of DHBW, the unique German cooperate state university as the interplay of stakeholder patterns and the integration of multi-level marketing activities are carved out and main effects on reputation are demonstrated.
This article focuses on the theoretical and empirical analysis of factors affecting the cooperation between science and business. The author will present the results of empirical research conducted in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Norway, the United States of America and Canada. The analysis will indicate how and which factors: structural, systemic, competence or awareness and cultural can be utilised in the commercialisation of knowledge and technologies. The analysis of research outcomes which underpins this study is also set on the following assumptions:
• Every country has different barriers to cooperation between scientists and entrepreneurs;
• Polish scientists and entrepreneurs should rely on proven and significant factors conducive to cooperation between science and business in Poland;
• Academic centres in Poland can benefit from the experience gained by other countries to intensify its model of cooperation with entrepreneurs.
The article will showcase the research results that relate to the identification of selected problems occurring in establishing and maintaining cooperation between Polish scientific research organisations and entrepreneurs in the context of selected countries whose respondents were subject to empirical research.
A review of online literature refers to an important number of relevant examples about Social Entrepreneurship. Basic papers shed new light on some ideas, taking into account the role of individual creativity and, among others, social networks, all put in the context of becoming an entrepreneur. The examples are associated with surviving the most important, critical first years, naturally both in urban and rural areas. Nowadays, creativity has a huge impact on start-ups in urban areas; it is a place where the environment is even more supportive and competitive. The rule does not apply in rural areas.
It is generally known that creativity does not increase the chances of being successful. But we all know that the purpose of social networks in rural areas is to create stronger ties and to increase the number of supporting institutions. Scientists write about the so called “birth of social entrepreneurship”; the term evokes the needs, as well as opportunities and perceived necessities.
Current theories that fit in entrepreneurship research lean towards addressing the entrepreneurial venture’s capacity to explore, recognise, and exploit all possible opportunities. There are even voices that claim that social entrepreneurial ventures provide results and actions in response to the needs of the society. However, the research conducted over time has shown the relevance of the notion of “perceived necessities” and “mobilizing human capital; also, in an industrial environment, social capital has a huge impact on the possibility of obtaining high level of results when it comes to entrepreneurial actions”.
Entrepreneurship, within its basic meaning, is well known as a critical enabling driver for entire business enterprises and, in addition, for the economic growth of numerous nations. As a result, promoting entrepreneurship has become an important concern among scientists, academic scholars and business practitioners.
Each scientific area has a promise, at least an objective. According to some researches, capitalism can be re-defined by social innovation and social entrepreneurship. A successful enterprise becomes a new model for the society. It comes with a social reform, looking for the greatest happiness among the greatest number of people involved.